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Technical Paper

3D CFD Analysis of the Influence of Some Geometrical Engine Parameters on Small PFI Engine Performances - The Effects on Tumble Motion and Mean Turbulent Intensity Distribution

2012-10-23
2012-32-0096
In scooter/motorbike engines coherent and stable tumble motion generation is still considered an effective mean in order to both reduce engine emissions and promote higher levels of combustion efficiency. The scientific research also assessed that squish motion is an effective mean for speeding up the combustion in a combustion process already fast. In a previous technical paper the authors demonstrated that for an engine having a high C/D ratio the squish motion is not only not necessary but also detrimental for the stability of the tumble motion itself, because there is a strong interaction between these two motions with the consequent formation of secondary vortices, which in turn penalizes the tumble breakdown and the turbulent kinetic energy production.
Technical Paper

A 3D User and Maintenance Manual for UAVs and Commercial Aircrafts Based on Augmented Reality

2015-09-15
2015-01-2473
Traditional User/Maintenance Manuals provide useful information when dealing with simple machines. However, when dealing with complex systems of systems and highly miniaturized technologies, like UAVs, or with machines with millions of parts, a commercial aircraft is a case in point, new technologies taking advantage of Augmented Reality can rapidly and effectively support the maintenance operations. This paper presents a User/Maintenance Manual based on Augmented Reality to help the operator in the detection of parts and in the sequence to be followed to assemble/disassemble systems and subsystems. The proposed system includes a handheld device and/or an head mounted display or special goggles, to be used by on-site operators, with software management providing data fusion and overlaying traditional 2D user/maintenance manual information with an augmented reality software and appropriate interface.
Technical Paper

A Mesh Based Approach for Unconventional Unmanned Airship Added Masses Computation

2013-09-17
2013-01-2191
Added masses computation is a crucial aspect to be considered when the density of a body moving in a fluid is comparable to the density of the fluid displaced: added mass can be defined as the inertia added to a system because an accelerating or decelerating body displaces some volume of neighboring fluid as it moves through it. The motion of vehicles like airships and ships can be addressed only by keeping into account the effect of added masses, while in case of aircrafts and helicopters this contribution is usually neglected. Lighter Than Air flight simulation, unmanned airships flight control system, airships flight dynamics are typical applications in which added masses are fundamental to achieve an effective and realistic modeling. A panel based method using the mesh of an airship external shape is developed to account for the added massed.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Methodology for the Multi-Objective Optimization of an Automotive DI Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0019
Nowadays, an automotive DI Diesel engine is demanded to provide an adequate power output together with limit-complying NOx and soot emissions so that the development of a specific combustion concept is the result of a trade-off between conflicting objectives. In other words, the development of a low-emission DI diesel combustion concept could be mathematically represented as a multi-objective optimization problem. In recent years, genetic algorithm and CFD simulations were successfully applied to this kind of problem. However, combining GA optimization with actual CFD-3D combustion simulations can be too onerous since a large number of simulations is usually required, resulting in a high computational cost and, thus, limiting the suitability of this method for industrial processes.
Journal Article

A Numerical Model for Flash Boiling of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Fuel Injector Nozzles

2011-09-11
2011-24-0003
Fuels are formulated by a variety of different components characterized by chemical and physical properties spanning a wide range of values. Changing the ratio between the mixture component molar fractions, it is possible to fulfill different requirements. One of the main properties that can be strongly affected by mixture composition is the volatility that represents the fuel tendency to vaporize. For example, changing the mixture ratio between alcohols and hydrocarbons, it is possible to vary the mixture saturation pressure, therefore the fuel vaporization ratio during the injection process. This paper presents a 1D numerical model to simulate the superheated injection process of a gasoline-ethanol mixture through real nozzle geometries. In order to test the influence of the mixture properties on flash atomization and flash evaporation, the simulation is repeated for different mixtures characterized by different gasoline-ethanol ratio.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study Towards Possible Improvements of Common Rail Injectors

2002-03-04
2002-01-0500
The aim of this work is to propose modifications to the managing of the 1st generation Common Rail injectors in order to reduce actuation time towards multiple injection strategies. The current Common Rail injector driven by 1st ECU generation is capable of operating under stable conditions with a minimum dwell between two consecutive injections of 1.8 ms. This limits the possibility in using proper and efficient injection strategies for emission control purposes. A previous numerical study, performed by the electro-fluid-mechanical model built up by Matlab-Simulink environment, highlighted different area where injector may be improved with particular emphasis on electronic driving circuit and components design. Experiments carried out at injector Bosch test-bench showed that a proper control of the solenoid valve allowed reducing drastically the standard deviation during the pilot pulses.
Journal Article

Acoustic Emission Processing for Turbocharged GDI Engine Control Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1622
In the field of passenger car engines, recent research advances have proven the effectiveness of downsized, turbocharged and direct injection concepts, applied to gasoline combustion systems, to reduce the overall fuel consumption while respecting particularly stringent exhaust emissions limits. Knock and turbocharger control are two of the most critical factors that influence the achievement of maximum efficiency and satisfactory drivability, for this new generation of engines. The sound emitted from an engine encloses many information related to its operating condition. In particular, the turbocharger whistle and the knock clink are unmistakable sounds. This paper presents the development of real-time control functions, based on direct measurement of the engine acoustic emission, captured by an innovative and low cost acoustic sensor, implemented on a platform suitable for on-board application.
Technical Paper

Airship and Hot Air Balloon Real Time Envelope Shape Prediction through a Cloth Simulation Technique

2015-09-15
2015-01-2578
The flight simulation of airships and hot air balloons usually considers the envelope geometry as a fixed shape, whose volume is eventually reduced by ballonets. However, the dynamic pressure or helium leaks in airships, and the release of air to allow descent in hot air balloons can significantly change the shape of the envelope leading to potential dangerous situations. In fact, in case of semi-rigid and non-rigid airships a reduction in envelope internal pressure can reduce the envelope bending stiffness leading to the loss of the typical axial-symmetric shape. For hot air balloons thing goes even worse since the lost of internal pressure can lead to the collapsing of the balloon shape to a sort of vertically stretched geometry (similar to a torch) which is not able to sustain the attached basket and its payload.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Software Environment for UAV Missions Support

2013-09-17
2013-01-2189
This paper describes the design and development of a virtual environment conceived to support flight operations of an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) used for wind mapping in the proximity of existing or planned wind farms. The virtual environment can be used in pre-flight briefings aiming to define a trajectory from a list of waypoints, to change and eventually re-plan the mission in case of intersection with no fly zones, to simulate the mission, and to preview images/videos taken from the UAV on-board cameras. During flight, the tool can be used to compute the wind speed along the trajectory by analyzing the data streaming from the UAV. The integration of Augmented Reality (AR) techniques in the flight environment provides assistance in remotely piloted landings, and allows visualizing flight and environmental information that are critical to the mission.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effects of Injection Pressure Variation in Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion

2020-04-14
2020-01-0553
Compression-ignited engines are still considered the most efficient and reliable technology for automotive applications. However, current and future emission regulations, which severely limit the production of NOx, particulate matter and 〖CO〗_2, hinder the use of diesel-like fuels. As a matter of fact, the spontaneous ignition of directly-injected Diesel leads to a combustion process that is heterogeneous by nature, therefore characterized by the simultaneous production of particulate matter and NOx. In this scenario, several innovative combustion techniques have been investigated over the past years, the goal being to benefit from the high thermal efficiency of compression-ignited engines, which results primarily from lean and unthrottled operation, while simultaneously mitigating the amount of pollutant emissions.
Technical Paper

Application of Acoustic and Vibration-Based Knock Detection Techniques to a High Speed Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0786
Knock control systems based on engine block vibrations analysis are widely adopted in passenger car engines, but such approach shows its main limits at high engine speeds, since knock intensity measurement becomes less reliable due to the increased background mechanical noise. For small two wheelers engines, knock has not been historically considered a crucial issue, mainly due to small-sized combustion chambers and mixture enrichment. Due to more stringent emission regulations and in search of reduced CO2 emissions, an effective on-board knock controller acquires today greater importance also for motorcycle applications, since it could protect the engine when different fuel types are used, and it could significantly reduce fuel consumption (by avoiding lambda enrichment and/or allowing higher compression ratios to be adopted). These types of engines typically work at high rotational speeds and the reduced signal to noise ratio makes knock onset difficult to identify.
Journal Article

Assessment of Advanced SGS Models for LES Analysis of ICE Wall-Bounded Flows - Part I: Basic Test Case

2016-03-14
2016-01-9041
Large Eddy Simulation (LES) represents nowadays one of the most promising techniques for the evaluation of the dynamics and evolution of turbulent structures characterizing internal combustion engines (ICE). In the present paper, subdivided into two parts, the capabilities of the open-source CFD code OpenFOAM® v2.3.0 are assessed in order to evaluate its suitability for engine cold flow LES analyses. Firstly, the code dissipative attitude is evaluated through an inviscid vortex convection test to ensure that the levels of numerical dissipation are compatible with LES needs. Quality and completeness estimators for LES simulations are then proposed. In particular the Pope M parameter is used as a LES completeness indicator while the LSR parameter provides useful insights far calibrating the grid density. Other parameters such as the two-grid LESIQk index are also discussed.
Journal Article

Assessment of the Influence of GDI Injection System Parameters on Soot Emission and Combustion Stability through a Numerical and Experimental Approach

2015-09-06
2015-24-2422
The next steps of the current European and US legislation, EURO 6c and LEV III, and the incoming new test cycles will impose more severe restrictions on pollutant emissions for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines. In particular, soot emission limits will represent a challenge for the development of this kind of engine concept, if injection and after-treatment systems costs are to be minimized at the same time. The paper illustrates the results obtained by means of a numerical and experimental approach, in terms of soot emissions and combustion stability assessment and control, especially during catalyst-heating conditions, where the main soot quantity in the test cycle is produced. A number of injector configurations has been designed by means of a CAD geometrical analysis, considering the main effects of the spray target on wall impingement.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Influence of Intake Duct Geometrical Parameters on the Tumble Motion Generation in a Small Gasoline Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0095
During the last years the deep re-examination of the engine design for lowering engine emissions involved two-wheel vehicles too. The IC engine overall efficiency plays a fundamental role in determining final raw emissions. From this point of view, the optimization of the in-cylinder flow organization is mandatory. In detail, in SI engines the generation of a coherent tumble vortex having dimensions comparable to the engine stroke could be of primary importance to extend the engines' ignition limits toward the field of the dilute/lean mixtures. For motorbike and motor scooter applications, the optimization of the tumble generation is considered an effective way to improve the combustion system efficiency and to lower emissions, considering also that the two-wheels layout represents an obstacle in adopting the advanced post-treatment concepts designed for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Automatic Combustion Control for Calibration Purposes in a GDI Turbocharged Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1346
Combustion phasing is crucial to achieve high performance and efficiency: for gasoline engines control variables such as Spark Advance (SA), Air-to-Fuel Ratio (AFR), Variable Valve Timing (VVT), Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), Tumble Flaps (TF) can influence the way heat is released. The optimal control setting can be chosen taking into account performance indicators, such as Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP), Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC), pollutant emissions, or other indexes inherent to reliability issues, such as exhaust gas temperature, or knock intensity. Given the high number of actuations, the calibration of control parameters is becoming challenging.
Technical Paper

Benchmark Comparison of Commercially Available Systems for Particle Number Measurement

2013-09-08
2013-24-0182
Measurement of particle number was introduced in the Euro 5/6 light duty vehicle emissions regulation. Due to the complex nature of combustion exhaust particles, and to transportation, transformation and deposition mechanisms, such type of measurement is particularly complex, and regression analysis is commonly used for the comparison of different measurement systems. This paper compares various commercial instruments, developing a correlation analysis focused on PN (Particle Number) measurement, and isolating the factors that mainly influence each measuring method. In particular, the experimental activity has been conducted to allow critical comparisons between measurement techniques that are imposed by current regulations and instruments that can be used also on the test cell. The paper presents the main results obtained by analyzing instruments based on different physical principles, and the effects of different sampling locations and different operating parameters.
Journal Article

Benchmarking Hybrid Concepts: On-Line vs. Off-Line Fuel Economy Optimization for Different Hybrid Architectures

2013-09-08
2013-24-0084
The recent advance in the development of various hybrid vehicle technologies comes along with the need of establishing optimal energy management strategies, in order to minimize both fuel economy and pollutant emissions, while taking into account an increasing number of state and control variables, depending on the adopted hybrid architecture. One of the objectives of this research was to establish benchmarking performance, in terms of fuel economy, for real time on-board management strategies, such as ECMS (Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy), whose structure has been implemented in a SIMULINK model for different hybrid vehicle concepts.
Technical Paper

CFRP Crash Absorbers in Small UAV: Design and Optimization

2015-09-15
2015-01-2461
The high number of hull losses is a main concern in the UAV field, mostly due to the high cost of on-board equipment. A crashworthiness design can be helpful to control the extent and position of crash impact damage, minimizing equipment losses. However, the wide use of composite materials has recently put the accent on the lack of data about the behavior of these structures under operative loads, such as the crash conditions. This paper presents the outcome of a set of tests carried out to achieve a controlled crush of UAV structures, and to maximize the Specific Energy Absorption. In this work, a small-scale experimental test able to characterize the energy absorption of a Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer under compression was developed introducing self-supporting sinusoidal shape specimens, which avoid the need for complex anti-buckling devices.
Technical Paper

Combined Optimization of Energy and Battery Thermal Management Control for a Plug-in HEV

2019-10-07
2019-24-0249
This paper presents an optimization algorithm, based on discrete dynamic programming, that aims to find the optimal control inputs both for energy and thermal management control strategies of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle, in order to minimize the energy consumption over a given driving mission. The chosen vehicle has a complex P1-P4 architecture, with two electrical machines on the front axle and an additional one directly coupled with the engine, on the rear axle. In the first section, the algorithm structure is presented, including the cost-function definition, the disturbances, the state variables and the control variables chosen for the optimal control problem formulation. The second section reports the simplified quasi-static analytical model of the powertrain, which has been used for backward optimization. For this purpose, only the vehicle longitudinal dynamics have been considered.
Journal Article

Coupling Between 1D-3D Simulation Results to Predict Cavitation in Motorcycle Forks

2009-11-02
2009-01-2680
Fork system is a primary component for motorcycles because it assures the contact between tires and road, therefore the safety and the driving feeling. Usually fork optimization and tuning are experimentally made involving the generation of a high large number of prototypes and an expensive experimental campaign. To reduce the design and the tuning phases of a generic damper system, the numerical simulation should be considered. In this paper, a one-dimensional (1D) model of fore-carriage forks for road applications is presented. The model was built-up in AMESim code. In particular, the authors’ attention was focused on the detection and analysis of cavitation phenomenon inside the fork. As well known, the cavitation is a complex three-dimensional (3D) phenomenon that implies the phase transition.
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