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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Water and EGR Effects on Combustion Characteristics of GDI Engines Using a Chemical Kinetics Approach

2019-09-09
2019-24-0019
The modern spark ignition engines, due to the introduced strategies for limiting the consumption without reducing the power, are sensitive to both the detonation and the increase of the inlet turbine temperature. In order to reduce the risk of detonation, the use of dilution with the products of combustion (EGR) is an established practice that has recently was improved with the use of water vapour obtained via direct or indirect injection. The application and optimization of these strategies cannot ignore the knowledge of physical quantities characterizing the combustion such as the laminar flame speed and the ignition delay, both are an intrinsic property of the fuel and are function of the mixture composition (mixture fraction and dilution) and of its thermodynamic conditions. The experimental measurements of the laminar flame speed and the ignition delay available in literature, rarely report the effects of dilution by EGR or water vapor.
Technical Paper

Experimental Validation of a Model-Based Water Injection Combustion Control System for On-Board Application

2019-09-09
2019-24-0015
Water Injection (WI) has become a key technology for increasing combustion efficiency in modern GDI turbocharged engines. In fact, the addition of water mitigates significantly the occurrence of knock, reduces exhaust gas temperatures, and opens the possibility to reach optimum heat release phasing even at high load. This work presents the latest development of a model-based WI controller, and its experimental validation on a GDI TC engine. The controller is based on a novel approach that involves an analytic combustion model to define the SA required to reach a combustion phase target, considering injected water mass effects. The model has been expanded to directly consider air-to-fuel ratio variation effects on combustion phasing, and the same controller structure could integrate other variables that influence 50 percent of Mass Fraction Burned angular position (MFB50), such as EGR.
Journal Article

Model-Based Control of Test Bench Conditioning Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0129
Engine test benches are crucial instruments to perform tests on internal combustion engines. Since many factors affect tests results, an engine test bench is usually equipped with several conditioning systems (oil, water and air temperature, air humidity, etc.), in order to maintain the controlled variables to the target values, throughout the test duration. The conditioning systems are often independently controlled by means of dedicated programmable logic controllers (PLC), but a centralized model-based management approach could offer several advantages in terms of promptness and accuracy. This work presents the application of such control methodology to oil, water, and HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air conditioning) conditioning systems, where each actuator is managed coupling model-based open loop controls to closed loop actions.
Technical Paper

Water Injection Applicability to Gasoline Engines: Thermodynamic Analysis

2019-04-02
2019-01-0266
The vehicle WLTP and RDE homologation test cycles are pushing the engine technology toward the implementation of different solutions aimed to the exhaust gases emission reduction. The tightening of the policy on the Auxiliary Emission Strategy (A.E.S.), including those for the engine component protection, faces the Spark Ignited (S.I.) engines with the need to replace the fuel enrichment as a means to cool down both unburnt mixture and exhaust gases to accomplish with the inlet temperature turbine (TiT) limit. Among the whole technology solutions conceived to make SI engine operating at lambda 1.0 on the whole operation map, the water injection is one of the valuable candidates. Despite the fact that the water injection has been exploited in the past, the renewed interest in it requires a deep investigation in order to outcome its potential as well as its limits.
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