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Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Mixing in a Homogeneous Charge DI Gasoline Engine

For optimum efficiency, the direct injection (DI) gasoline engine requires two operating modes to cover the full load/speed map. For lower loads and speeds, stratified charge operation can be used, while homogeneous charge is required for high loads and speeds. This paper has focused its attention on the latter of these modes, where the performance is highly dependent on the quality of the fuel spray, evaporation and the air-fuel mixture preparation. Results of quantitative and qualitative Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements are presented, together with shadow-graph spray imaging, made within an optically accessed DI gasoline engine. These are compared with previously acquired air flow measurements, at various injection timings, and with engine performance and emissions data obtained in a fired single cylinder non-optical engine, having an identical cylinder head and piston crown geometry.
Technical Paper

Airflow and Fuel Spray Interaction in a Gasoline DI Engine

Two optical techniques together with a CFD simulation have been used to study the interaction of intake airflow with the injected fuel spray in a motored direct injection gasoline engine. The combustion chamber was of a pent-roof construction with the side-mounted injector located low down between the inlet valves injecting at a 54° angle to the cylinder axis. The two-dimensional piston bowl shape allowed optical access for the Mie scatter technique to be used to investigate the liquid fuel behaviour in the central axial plane of the cylinder lying midway between the two inlet valves and passing through the centre line of the injector nozzle. A second set of images was obtained using backlighting, this time looking through the glass cylinder liner directly towards the injector. The in-cylinder simulation was run using the VECTIS software. Measurements and simulations were conducted for a range of early SOI timings between 20° and 80° ATDC.
Technical Paper

Development of a Two-Stroke/Four-Stroke Switching Gasoline Engine - The 2/4SIGHT Concept

The pursuit of flexibility is a recurring theme in engine design and development. Engines that are able to switch between the two-stroke operating cycle and four-stroke operation promise a great leap in flexibility. Such 2S-4S engines could then continuously select the optimum operating mode - including HCCI/CAI combustion - for fuel efficiency, emissions or specific output. With recent developments in valvetrain technology, advanced boosting devices, direct fuel injection and engine control, the 2S-4S engine is an increasingly real prospect. The authors have undertaken a comprehensive feasibility study for 2S-4S gasoline engines. This study has encompassed concept and detailed design, design analysis, one-dimensional gas dynamics simulation, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, and vehicle simulation. The resulting 2/4SIGHT concept engine is a 1.04 l in-line three-cylinder engine producing 230 Nm and 85 kW.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of HCCI for Future Gasoline Powertrains

This paper describes a two-year programme of research conducted by the authors investigating HCCI in direct injection gasoline engines. Poppet-valved two-stroke cycle operation has been investigated experimentally, using conventional gasoline compression ratios and fuel, and ambient temperature intake air. Extensive combustion and emissions data was gathered from the experimental engine. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to model HCCI combustion, and the CFD tool validated using experimental data. Based on experience with the two-stroke engine and modelling techniques, a four-stroke engine has been designed and tested. Using this range of tools, practical options for gasoline HCCI engines are evaluated, and a scenario for the market introduction of HCCI is presented.
Technical Paper

Laser-Induced Fluorescence Investigation of Nitric Oxide Formation and Hydroxyl Radicals in a Diesel Rapid Compression Machine

The research presented here aims at providing a deeper understanding of the formation of nitric oxide in diesel combustion. To this end, in-cylinder distributions of nitric oxide (NO) were acquired by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) in a rapid compression machine at conditions representative of a modern diesel passenger vehicle. In particular, the effects of injection and in-cylinder pressure on NO formation were investigated temporally and spatially to offer new insight into the formation of NO. Excitation and collection strategies were notably fine-tuned to avoid the collection of spurious signal due to oxygen (O₂) fluorescence. NO fluorescence was first recorded slightly after the onset of the diffusion flame and until late in the expansion stroke. The early low levels of NO were located on the lean side of the high density of hydroxyl radicals (OH).
Journal Article

Simulation and Measurement of Transient Fluid Phenomena within Diesel Injection

Rail pressures of modern diesel fuel injection systems have increased significantly over recent years, greatly improving atomisation of the main fuel injection event and air utilisation of the combustion process. Continued improvement in controlling the process of introducing fuel into the cylinder has led to focussing on fluid phenomena related to transient response. High-speed microscopy has been employed to visualise the detailed fluid dynamics around the near nozzle region of an automotive diesel fuel injector, during the opening, closing and post injection events. Complementary computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations have been undertaken to elucidate the interaction of the liquid and gas phases during these highly transient events, including an assessment of close-coupled injections.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Injector Parameters on the Formation and Break-Up of a Diesel Spray

The influences of injector nozzle geometry, injection pressure and ambient air conditions on a diesel fuel spray were examined using back-lighting techniques. Both stills and high speed imaging techniques were used. Operating conditions representative of a modern turbocharged aftercooled HSDI diesel engine were achieved in an optical rapid compression machine fitted with a common rail fuel injector. Qualitative differences in spray structure were observed between tests performed with short and long injection periods. Changes in the flow structure within the nozzle could be the source of this effect. The temporal liquid penetration lengths were derived from the high-speed images. Comparisons were made between different nozzle geometries and different injection pressures. Differences were observed between VCO (Valve Covers Orifice) and mini-sac nozzles, with the mini-sac nozzles showing a higher rate of penetration under the same conditions.
Technical Paper

The Mixture Response of a Stratified Charge Gasoline Engine with Independent, Twin, Port-Fuel Injector Control

An experimental study of the mixture response performance of novel, port-fuel injection strategies upon combustion stability in a gasoline engine was undertaken at low engine load and speed conditions in the range of 1.0 bar to 1.8 bar GIMEP and 1000 rpm to 1800 rpm. The aim was to improve the thermal efficiency of the engine, by extending the lean limit of combustion stability, through promotion of stable charge stratification. The investigation was carried out using a modified 4-valve single-cylinder head, derived from a 4-cylinder, pent-roof, production, gasoline engine. The cylinder head was modified by dividing the intake tract into two, separate and isolated passages; each incorporating a production fuel injector. The fuel injection timing and duration were controlled independently for each injector.