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Technical Paper

1-D Modeling and Room Temperature Experimental Measurements of the Exhaust System Backpressure: Limits and Advantages in the Prediction of Backpressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0676
It is well known that backpressure is one of the important parameters to be minimised during the exhaust system development. Unfortunately, during the first phases of an engineering process of a new engine, engine prototypes are not available yet. Due to this the exhaust system backpressure is generally evaluated using simulation software, and/or measuring the backpressure by a flow rig test at room temperature. Goal of this paper is to compare exhaust backpressure results obtained respectively: i) at the room temperature flow rig; ii) at the engine dyno bench; iii) by simulation with one of the most common 1D fluidodynamics simulation tool (Gt-Power). A correlation of the three different techniques is presented.
Technical Paper

A Deep Learning based Virtual Sensor for Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation: Experimental Results

2018-04-03
2018-01-1089
Modern vehicles have several active systems on board such as the Electronic Stability Control. Many of these systems require knowledge of vehicle states such as sideslip angle and yaw rate for feedback control. Sideslip angle cannot be measured with the standard sensors present in a vehicle, but it can be measured by very expensive and large optical sensors. As a result, state observers have been used to estimate sideslip angle of vehicles. The current state of the art does not present an algorithm which can robustly estimate the sideslip angle for vehicles with all-wheel drive. A deep learning network based sideslip angle observer is presented in this article for robust estimation of vehicle sideslip angle. The observer takes in the inputs from all the on board sensors present in a vehicle and it gives out an estimate of the sideslip angle. The observer is tested extensively using data which are obtained from proving grounds in high tire-road friction coefficient conditions.
Technical Paper

A Discrete-Event Simulation of the NASA Fuel Production Plant on Mars

2017-09-19
2017-01-2017
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing for a manned mission to Mars to test the sustainment of civilization on the planet Mars. This research explores the requirements and feasibility of autonomously producing fuel on Mars for a return trip back to Earth. As a part of NASA’s initiative for a manned trip to Mars, our team’s work creates and analyzes the allocation of resources necessary in deploying a fuel station on this foreign soil. Previous research has addressed concerns with a number individual components of this mission such as power required for fuel station and tools; however, the interactions between these components and the effects they would have on the overall requirements for the fuel station are still unknown to NASA. By creating a baseline discrete-event simulation model in a simulation software environment, the research team has been able to simulate the fuel production process on Mars.
Technical Paper

A Distributed Environment for Analysis of Events Related to Range Safety

2004-11-02
2004-01-3095
This paper features a distributed environment and the steps taken to incorporate the Virtual Range model into the Virtual Test Bed (VTB) infrastructure. The VTB is a prototype of a virtual engineering environment to study operations of current and future space vehicles, spaceports, and ranges. The High-Level Architecture (HLA) is the main environment. The VTB/HLA implementation described here represents different systems that interact in the simulation of a Space Shuttle liftoff. An example implementation displays the collaboration of a simplified version of the Space Shuttle Simulation Model and a simulation of the Launch Scrub Evaluation Model.
Technical Paper

A Distributed Environment for Spaceports

2004-11-02
2004-01-3094
This paper describes the development of a distributed environment for spaceport simulation modeling. This distributed environment is the result of the applications of the High-Level Architecture (HLA) and integration frameworks based on software agents and XML. This distributed environment is called the Virtual Test Bed (VTB). A distributed environment is needed due to the nature of the different models needed to represent a spaceport. This paper provides two case studies: one related to the translation of a model from its native environment and the other one related to the integration of real-time weather.
Technical Paper

A Distributed Simulation of a Martian Fuel Production Facility

2017-09-19
2017-01-2022
The future of human exploration in the solar system is contingent on the ability to exploit resources in-situ to produce mission consumables. Specifically, it has become clear that the success of a manned mission to Mars will likely depend on fuel components created on the Martian surface. While several architectures for an unmanned fuel production surface facility on Mars exist in theory, a simulation of the performance and operation of these architectures has not been created. In this paper, the framework describing a simulation of one such architecture is defined. Within this architecture, each component of the base is implemented as a state machine, with the ability to communicate with other base elements as well as a supervisor. An environment supervisor is also created which governs low level aspects of the simulation such as movement and resource distribution, in addition to higher-level aspects such as location selection with respect to operations specific behavior.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Programming Algorithm for HEV Powertrains Using Battery Power as a State Variable

2020-04-14
2020-01-0271
One of the first steps in powertrain design is to assess its best performance and consumption in a virtual phase. Regarding hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), it is important to define the best mode profile through a cycle in order to maximize fuel economy. To assist in that task, several off-line optimization algorithms were developed, with Dynamic Programming (DP) being the most common one. The DP algorithm generates the control actions that will result in the most optimal fuel economy of the powertrain for a known driving cycle. Although this method results in the global optimum behavior, the DP tool comes with a high computational cost. The charge-sustaining requirement and the necessity of capturing extremely small variations in the battery State of Charge (SOC) makes this state vector a heavy variable. As things move fast in the industry, a rapid tool with the same performance is required.
Journal Article

A Methodology on Guiding Effectiveness-Focused Training of the Weapon Operator Using Big Data and VC Simulations

2017-09-19
2017-01-2018
Operator training using a weapon in a real-world environment is risky, expensive, time-consuming, and restricted to the given environment. In addition, governments are under intense scrutiny to provide security, yet they must also strive for efficiency and reduce spending. In other words, they must do more with less. Virtual simulation, is usually employed to solve these limitations. As the operator is trained to maximize weapon effectiveness, the effectiveness-focused training can be completed in an economical manner. Unfortunately, the training is completed in limited scenarios without objective levels of training factors for an individual operator to optimize the weapon effectiveness. Thus, the training will not be effective. For overcoming this problem, we suggest a methodology on guiding effectiveness-focused training of the weapon operator through usability assessments, big data, and Virtual and Constructive (VC) simulations.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Fault Diagnostic and Control System for Spacecraft Power

1992-08-03
929099
This paper describes a model-based approach to diagnosing electrical faults in electrical power systems. Until recently, model-based reasoning has only been applied to physical systems with static, persistent states, and with parts whose behavior can be expressed combinatorially, such as digital circuits. Our research is one of a handful of recent efforts to apply model-based reasoning to more complex systems, those whose behavior is difficult or impossible to express combinatorially, and whose states change continuously over time. The chosen approach to representation is loosely based on the idea of the equation network proposed in [6]. This requires a more complex component and behavior model than for simpler physical devices. The resulting system is being tested on fault data from the SSM/PMAD power system breadboard being developed at NASA-MSFC [9].
Journal Article

A New Approach for the Estimation of the Aerodynamic Damping Characteristics of the ETF Demonstrator

2011-10-18
2011-01-2649
Nautilus S.p.A. and the Polytechnic of Turin, in cooperation with Blue Engineering, have developed a very versatile product, the ELETTRA Twin Flyers [6] (ETF), which consists in a very innovative remotely-piloted airship equipped with high precision sensors and communication devices. This multipurpose platform is particularly suitable for border and maritime surveillance missions and for telecommunication, both in military and civil area. To assess the actual maneuver capabilities of the airship [14], a prototype of reduced size and complexity has been assembled [16]. Before the flight tests a further assessment on the flight simulator is needed, because the first version of the software is tuned on the full scale prototype. Steady state performance and static stability of the demonstrator have been evaluated with CFD analysis.
Technical Paper

A New Test Bench for HWA Fluid-Dynamic Characterization of a Two-Valved In-Piston-Bowl Production Engine

1995-10-01
952467
A new test bench has been set up and equipped in order to analyze the air mean motion and turbulence quantities in the combustion system of an automotive diesel engine with one helicoidal intake duct and a conical type in-piston bowl. A sophisticated HWA technique employing single- and dual-sensor probes was applied to the in-cylinder flow investigation under motored conditions. The anemometric probe was also operated as a thermometric sensor. An analytical-numerical procedure, based on the heat balance equations for both anemometric and thermometric wires, was refined and applied to compute the gas velocity from the anemometer output signal. The gas property influence, the thermometric sensor lag and the prong temperature effects were taken into account with this procedure. The in-cylinder velocity data were reduced using both a cycle-resolved approach and the conventional ensemble-averaging procedure, in order to separate the mean flow from the fluctuating motion.
Technical Paper

A Possible Adaptive Wing Apparatus for New UAV Configurations

2015-09-15
2015-01-2463
The problem of wing shape modification under loads in order to enhance the aircraft performance and control is continuously improving by researchers. This requirement is in contrast to the airworthiness regulations that constraint stiffness and stress of the structure in order to maintain structural integrity under operative flight conditions. The lifting surface modification is more stringent in those cases, such as UAV configurations, where the installed power is limited but the variety of operative scenario is wider than in conventional aircraft. A possible solution for adaptive wing configuration can be found in the VENTURAS Project idea. The VENTURAS Project is a funded project with the aim of improve the wind turbine efficiency by means of introducing a twisting capability for the blade sections according to the best situation in any wind condition. The blade structure is composed by two parts: 1) internal supporting element, 2) external deformable envelope.
Technical Paper

A Proposal of an Oil Pan Optimization Methodology

2010-04-12
2010-01-0417
In the powertrain technology, designers must be careful on oil pan design in order to obtain the best noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance. This is a great issue for the automotive design because they affect the passengers' comfort. In order to reduce vibration and radiated noise in powertrain assembly, oil pan is one of the most critical components. The high stiffness of the oil pan permits to move up the natural modes of the component and, as a consequence, reduce the sound emission of the component itself. In addition, the optimized shape of the component allows the increase of natural frequency values of the engine assembly. The aim of this study is the development of a methodology to increase the oil pan stiffness starting from a sketch of the component and adding material where it is needed. The methodology is tested on a series of different models: they have the same geometry but different materials.
Technical Paper

A Prototype Vehicle for Powertrain and Chassis Control System Tests

2011-06-09
2011-37-0028
A prototype vehicle (PV) is equipped to test powertrain and active chassis systems with innovative control strategies for safety and energy saving. Additional sensors installed on-board allow the measurement and estimation of new information useful to the vehicle dynamic control. The PV was based on a serial production passenger car with Electronic Stability Control (ESC). Testing activities on Controller Area Network (CAN) and ESC Electronic Control Unit (ECU) are carried out to compare the vehicle dynamic performance obtainable using serial production rather than customized control strategies, while maintaining the same hardware. The PV is also utilized to provide reverse engineering analysis about the implemented control strategy for the ESC working in serial production mode.
Journal Article

A Reduced Order Model for the Aeroelastic Analysis of Flexible Wings

2013-09-17
2013-01-2158
The aeroelastic design of highly flexible wings, made of extremely light structures yet still capable of carrying a considerable amount of non-structural weights, requires significant effort. The complexity involved in such design demands for simplified mathematical tools based on appropriate reduced order models capable of predicting the accurate aeroelastic behaviour. The model presented in this paper is based on a consistent nonlinear beam model, capable of simulating the unconventional aeroelastic behaviour of flexible composite wings. The partial differential equations describing the wing dynamics are reduced to a dimensionless form in terms of three ordinary differential equations using a discretization technique, along with Galerkin's method. Within this approach the nonlinear structural model an unsteady indicial based aerodynamic model with dynamic stall are coupled.
Technical Paper

A Smart Measuring System for Vehicle Dynamics Testing

2020-04-14
2020-01-1066
A fast measurement of the car handling performance is highly desirable to easily compare and assess different car setup, e.g. tires size and supplier, suspension settings, etc. Instead of the expensive professional equipment normally used by car manufacturers for vehicle testing, the authors propose a low cost solution that is nevertheless accurate enough for comparative evaluations. The paper presents a novel measuring system for vehicle dynamics analysis, which is based uniquely on the sensors embedded in a smartphone and completely independent on the signals available through vehicle CAN bus. Data from tri-axial accelerometer, gyroscope, GPS and camera are jointly used to compute the typical quantities analyzed in vehicle dynamics applications.
Technical Paper

Aeroelastic Behaviour of Flexible Wings Carrying Distributed Electric Propulsion Systems

2017-09-19
2017-01-2061
An accurate aeroelastic assessment of powered HALE aircraft is of paramount importance considering that their behaviour contrasts the one of conventional aircraft mainly due to the use of high aspect-ratio wings with distributed propulsion systems. This particular configuration shows strong dependency of the wing natural frequencies to the propulsion distribution and operating conditions. Numerical and experimental investigations are carried out to better understand the behaviour of flexible wings, focusing on the effect of distributed electric propulsion systems. Several configurations are investigated, including a single propulsion system using an engine pod (a weight with embedded electric motor, a propeller, and the wing-attached structure) installed at selected spanwise positions, and configurations with two and three propellers.
Journal Article

An Architecture for Monitoring and Anomaly Detection for Space Systems

2013-09-17
2013-01-2090
Complex aerospace engineering systems require innovative methods for performance monitoring and anomaly detection. The interface of a real-time data stream to a system for analysis, pattern recognition, and anomaly detection can require distributed system architectures and sophisticated custom programming. This paper presents a case study of a simplified interface between Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) real-time data output, signal processing, cloud computing, and tablet systems. The discussed approach consists of three parts: First, the connectivity of real-time data from PLCs to the signal processing algorithms, using standard communication technologies. Second, the interface of legacy routines, such as NASA's Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), with a hybrid signal processing system. Third, the connectivity and interaction of the signal processing system with a wireless and distributed tablet, (iPhone/iPad) in a hybrid system configuration using cloud computing.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on OBD II Techniques for Fuel Injection System Monitoring in a Common Rail Passenger Car Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0240
Different diagnostic techniques were experimentally tested on a common rail automotive 4 cylinder diesel engine in order to evaluate their capabilities to fulfill the California Air Resources Board (CARB) requirements concerning the monitoring of fuel injected quantity and timing. First, a comprehensive investigation on the sensitivity of pollutant emissions to fuel injection quantity and timing variations was carried out over 9 different engine operating points, representative of the FTP75 driving cycle: fuel injected quantity and injection timing were varied on a single cylinder at a time, until OBD thresholds were exceeded, while monitoring engine emissions, in-cylinder pressures and instantaneous crankshaft revolution speed.
Journal Article

An Experimental and Numerical Study of an Advanced EGR Control System for Automotive Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0208
In this study, a new EGR control technique, based on the estimate of the oxygen concentration in the intake manifold, was firstly investigated through numerical simulation and then experimentally tested, both under steady state and transient conditions. The robustness of the new control technique was also tested and compared with that of the conventional EGR control technique by means of both numerical simulation and experimental tests. Substantial reductions of the NOx emissions under transient operating conditions were achieved, and useful knowledge for controlling the EGR flow rate more accurately was obtained.
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