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Technical Paper

A Case Study: Application of Analytical and Numerical Techniques to Squeak and Rattle Analysis of a Door Assembly

2015-06-15
2015-01-2257
Squeak and rattle (S&R) problems in body structure and trim parts have become serious issues for automakers because of their influence on the initial quality perception of consumers. In this study, various CAE and experimental methods developed by Hyundai Motors for squeak and rattle analysis of door systems are reported. Friction-induced vibration and noise generation mechanisms of a door system are studied by an intelligent combination of experimental and numerical methods. It is shown that the effect of degradation of plastics used in door trims can be estimated by a numerical model using the properties obtained experimentally. Effects of changes in material properties such as Young's modulus and loss factor due to the material degradation as well as statistical variations are predicted for several door system configurations. As a new concept, the rattle and squeak index is proposed, which can be used to guide the design.
Technical Paper

A Dynamometer for Automobile Brake Squeal Study

2001-04-30
2001-01-1599
Automobile brake squeal has been experimentally studied in many ways over the past 65 years. A large body of published research and a substantial amount of unpublished work have attempted to experimentally define the variables involved with and describe the system dynamics initiating the friction-induced self-excited vibration. Much of this work has centered on pin on disk type test rigs used to characterize the contact mechanics and/or friction laws without considering the brake system influence. This paper describes a dynamometer designed and constructed to study brake squeal on a system level.
Technical Paper

Active Vibration Control to Suppress Gear Mesh Response

2007-05-15
2007-01-2420
This paper discusses an enhanced active vibration control concept to suppress the dynamic response associated with gear mesh frequencies. In active control application, the control of dynamic gear mesh tonal response is essentially the rejection or suppression of periodical disturbance. Our active control experimental work shows that the existence of un-controlled harmonic result in the increase at these harmonics when applying direct control to the target mesh frequencies. To address this problem, the effect of the existence of un-correlated harmonic components in error signal when applying active control to suppress the target gear mesh harmonics is examined. The proposed adaptive controller that is designed specifically for tackling gear mesh frequency vibrations is based on an enhanced filtered-x least mean square algorithm (FXLMS) with frequency estimation to synthesize the required reference signal.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Chassis Vibration Transmissibility Applying a Spectral-based Inverse Substructuring Technique

2005-05-16
2005-01-2470
A proposed multi-coordinate spectral-based inverse substructuring approach is applied experimentally to examine the vibration transmissibility through chassis mounts. In this formulation, the vehicle system is partitioned into two substructures. One substructure comprises of the chassis and suspension, while the second one is the body structure and other attached components. The approach yields the free substructure dynamic characteristics that are extracted from the measured coupled system response spectra. The resultant free substructure transfer functions are verified by comparison of the re-synthesized results to the actual vehicle system measurements. A real life vehicle setup is utilized to demonstrate the salient features and capabilities of this approach, which includes the ability to compute the main structure-borne paths, dynamic interactions between the chassis and body, and interior noise and vibration response.
Technical Paper

Application of Analytic Wavelet Transform to Transient Signal Analyses

2007-05-15
2007-01-2321
The analytic wavelet transform (AWT) is a wavelet transform that works much like a transient Fourier transform. Therefore the AWT enables utilizing advantages of both the wavelet transform and Fourier transform. A special form of AWT developed for transient vibration and acoustics signal analyses is applied to various engineering signals in this paper. Application examples include a general time-frequency (T-F) analysis, analysis of exposures to impulsive vibrations and noises, and estimation of reverberation times. Some new definitions such as the T-F noise reduction and frequency weighted time history are defined by taking the advantage of unique capabilities of the AWT. Possible automotive applications of these new concepts are briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

Application of FRF-Based Inverse Substructuring Analysis to Vehicle NVH Problems

2003-05-05
2003-01-1607
A multi-coordinate FRF-based inverse substructuring approach is proposed to partition a vehicle system into two or more substructures, which are coupled at discrete interface points. The joint and free substructure dynamic characteristics are then extracted from the coupled system response spectra. Depending on the actual form of the structural coupling terms, three forms of the coupling matrix are assumed here. The most general one constitutes the non-diagonal form, and the other two simpler cases are the block-diagonal and purely diagonal representations that can be used to simplify testing process and overcome computational problems. The paper is focused on the investigation of the durability of these three formulations when the input FRFs are noise contaminated. A finite element model of a simplified vehicle system is used as the case study.
Technical Paper

Application of Spectral-Based Substructuring Approach to Analyze the Dynamic Interactions of Powertrain Structures

2003-05-05
2003-01-1731
A spectral-based substructuring approach applying linear frequency response functions (FRF) is proposed for improving the accuracy of simulating the dynamics of coupled systems. The method also applies a least square singular value decomposition (SVD) scheme to overcome the inherent computational deficiency in the basic substructuring formulation. The computational problem is caused by the magnification of measurement errors during any one of the matrix inversion calculations required for this method. The primary objective of applying this approach is to examine the possibility of analyzing higher frequency response that is normally not possible using conventional modeling technique such as the direct finite and boundary element, and lumped parameter techniques. In this study, additional concepts are also evaluated to quantify the limitations and range of applicability of the proposed substructuring approach for simulating the vibration response of complex powertrain structures.
Technical Paper

Automotive NVH Research Instrumentation and Infrastructure at UC-SDRL

2003-05-05
2003-01-1689
This paper is intended to describe some of the advances in automotive NVH research and applications based on recent developments in the Structural Dynamics Research Laboratory (SDRL) at the University of Cincinnati. State-of-the-art vibro-acoustic research capabilities and infrastructure ranging from advanced vibration modal analysis and spectral techniques for linear and nonlinear automotive systems to computational tools for structure-borne acoustic noise generation, transmission and synthesis problems are discussed. These systems have been devised with the intent of integrating a versatile set of experimental, computational and analytical approaches in order to be able to investigate a variety of crucial automotive NVH concerns. The materials will be grouped into three separate but closely related sets of applications consisting of (i) powertrain noise and vibration control, (ii) analysis and control vehicle system dynamics, and (iii) NVH and sound quality.
Technical Paper

Coupled Multi-Body Dynamic and Vibration Analysis of High-Speed Hypoid Geared Rotor System

2007-05-15
2007-01-2228
High speed, precision geared rotor systems are often plagued by excessive vibration and noise problems. The response that is primarily excited by gear transmission error is actually coupled to the large displacement rotational motion of the driveline system. Classical pure vibration model assumes that the system oscillates about its mean position without coupling to the large displacement motion. To improve on this approach and understanding of the influences of the dynamic coupling, a coupled multi-body dynamic and vibration simulation model is proposed. Even though the focus is on hypoid geared rotor system, the model is more general since hypoid and bevel gears have more complicated geometry and time and spatial-varying characteristics compared to parallel axis gears.
Technical Paper

Development of a Photoconductive Gamma Dosimeter for Space Application

1994-04-01
941204
Demand for accurate and reliable gamma dosimetry in a radiation environment and the unsatisfactory performance of the existing devices has given rise to the need for a better gamma measurement system, capable of operating in a high dose rate environment and withstanding a high total dose. The concept of a new gamma dose measurement device based on the principle of photoconductivity has the potential of filling this void. Preliminary experiments and analyses indicated that the selected dosimeter materials exhibit photoconductivity in a useful range, responsive to changes in gamma dose rate. The initial Pyrex glass dosimeter appeared to suffer radiation damage at the relatively high dose rates employed (up to 0.116 Mega rads/hour). Quartz is now being studied as an alternative material.
Technical Paper

Development of an Algorithm to Automatically Detect and Distinguish Squeak and Rattle Noises

2015-06-15
2015-01-2258
Squeak and rattle (S&R) noises are undesirable noises caused by friction-induced vibration or impact between surfaces. While several computer programs have been developed to automatically detect and rate S&R events over the years, no reported work has been found that can detect squeak and rattle noises and distinguish them. Because the causes of squeak noises and rattle noises are different, knowing if it is a squeak noise or rattle noise will be very helpful for automotive engineers to choose an appropriate measure to solve the problem. The authors have developed a new algorithm to differentiate squeak noises and rattle noises, and added it to the S&R detection algorithm they had developed previously. The new algorithm utilizes a combination of sound quality metrics, specifically sharpness, roughness, and fluctuation strength.
Journal Article

Effect of Component Flexibility on Axle System Dynamics

2017-06-05
2017-01-1772
The prediction and control of gear vibration and noise has become very important in the design of a quiet, high-quality gearbox systems. The vibratory energy of the gear pair caused by transmission error excitation is transmitted structurally through shaft-bearing-housing assembly and radiates off from exterior housing surface. Most of the previous studies ignore the contribution of components flexibility to the transmission error (TE) and system dynamic responses. In this study, a system level model of axle system with hypoid gear pair is developed, aiming at investigating the effect of the elasticity of the shafts, bearings and housing on TE as well as the contribution of flexible bearings on the dynamic responses. The load distribution results and gear transmission errors are calculated and compared between different assumptions on the boundary conditions.
Journal Article

Effect of Friction Torque on Electromechanical Brake System Dynamics

2017-06-05
2017-01-1902
Actuator and roller screw mechanism are key components of electromechanical brake (EMB) system in automotive and aerospace industry. The inverted planetary roller screw mechanism (IPRSM) is particularly competitive due to its high load-carrying capacity and small assembly size. For such systems, friction characteristic and friction torque generated from rolling/sliding contacts can be an important factor that affects the dynamic performance as well as vibration behavior. This paper investigates the modeling and simulation of the EMB system in early design stage with special attention to friction torque modelling of IPRSM. Firstly, a step-by-step system model development is established, which includes the controller, servo motor, planetary gear train and roller screw mechanism to describe the dynamic behavior of the EMB system.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Sensors for Noise Path Analysis Testing

1999-05-17
1999-01-1859
Test sensors are evaluated for noise path analysis applications. Newly developed ICP™ piezo-electric strain gages are used with accelerometers and microphones in a conventional noise path analysis test on the front body/suspension attachment points of a vehicle. In a less conventional application, a steering knuckle is converted into a 6-DOF force transducer using an array of strain gages and using an array of 3-DOF load cells. The two sensor arrays are both calibrated with a 6-DOF load cell. The result is an estimate of the three translation force and three moment operating inputs entering the steering knuckle from the wheel.
Journal Article

Influence of Gyroscopic Effect on Hypoid and Bevel Geared System Dynamics

2009-05-19
2009-01-2070
The noise and vibration response of hypoid or bevel geared rotor system, primarily excited by transmission error (TE), and mesh vector and stiffness variations, can be affected significantly by the coupling between the driveline rotor dynamics and gear vibratory response. This is because of the inherent design comprising of non-parallel rotational axes and time-varying as well as spatial-varying gear mesh characteristics. One of the important factors of the driveline system dynamics is the rotor gyroscopic effect that has not been studied extensively in traditional gear dynamics. To address this gap in the literature, this paper attempts to examine the influence of incorporating gyroscopic terms in the hypoid gear dynamic simulation. A multi-degrees-of-freedom, multi-body dynamic model is used as a generalized representation of a hypoid geared rotor system.
Journal Article

Interaction of Gear-Shaft Dynamics Considering Gyroscopic Effect of Compliant Driveline System

2015-06-15
2015-01-2182
Due to the design of lightweight, high speed driveline system, the coupled bending and torsional vibration and rotordynamics must be considered to predict vibratory responses more realistically. In the current analysis, a lumped parameter model of the propeller shaft is developed with Timoshenko beam elements, which includes the effect of rotary inertia and shear deformation. The propeller shaft model is then coupled with a hypoid gear pair representation using the component mode synthesis approach. In the proposed formulation, the gyroscopic effect of both the gear and propeller shaft is considered. The simulation results show that the interaction between gear gyroscopic effect and propeller shaft bending flexibility has considerable influence on the gear dynamic mesh responses around bending resonances, whereas the torsional modes still dominate in the overall frequency spectrum.
Journal Article

Multi-Point Mesh Modeling and Nonlinear Multi-Body Dynamics of Hypoid Geared System

2013-05-13
2013-01-1895
A multi-point hypoid gear mesh model based on 3-dimensional loaded tooth contact analysis is incorporated into a coupled multi-body dynamic and vibration hypoid gear model to predict more detailed dynamic behavior of each tooth pair. To validate the accuracy of the proposed model, the time-averaged mesh parameters are applied to linear time-invariant (LTI) analysis and the dynamic responses, such as dynamic mesh force, dynamic transmission error, are computed, which demonstrates good agreement with that predicted by single-point mesh model. Furthermore, a nonlinear time-varying (NLTV) dynamic analysis is performed considering the effect of backlash nonlinearity and time-varying mesh parameters, such as mesh stiffness, transmission error, mesh point and line-of-action. Simulation results show that the time history of the mesh parameters and dynamic mesh force for each pair of teeth within a full engagement cycle can be simulated.
Technical Paper

Numerical Flow Analysis of a Centrifugal Compressor with Ported and without Ported Shroud

2014-04-01
2014-01-1655
Turbochargers are commonly used in automotive engines to increase the internal combustion engine performance during off design operation conditions. When used, a most wide operation range for the turbocharger is desired, which is limited on the compressor side by the choke condition and the surge phenomenon. The ported shroud technology is used to extend the operable working range of the compressor, which permits flow disturbances that block the blade passage to escape and stream back through the shroud cavity to the compressor inlet. The impact of this technology on a speed-line at near optimal operation condition and near surge operation condition is investigated. A numerical study investigating the flow-field in a centrifugal compressor of an automotive turbocharger has been performed using Large Eddy Simulation. The wheel rotation is handled by the numerically expensive sliding mesh technique. In this analysis, the full compressor geometry (360 deg) is considered.
Technical Paper

Practical Aspects of Making NAH Measurements

1999-05-17
1999-01-1847
Practical issues to consider when making measurements for Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) analysis are addressed. These include microphone spacing and placement from the test surface, number of microphones and array size, reference microphone number and placement, and filtering of the data. NAH has become an accepted analysis tool so that several commercial packages are available. Its application is limited to test surfaces that are fairly planar, lending itself well to tire testing, front of dash testing, engine face testing, etc. In order to achieve accurate NAH results, the measurement and analysis process must be clearly understood on a practical level. Understanding the advantages and limitations of NAH and the measurement parameters required of it will allow the user to determine if NAH is applicable to a particular test object and environment.
Technical Paper

Predictive Monitoring and Failure Prevention of Vehicle Electronic Components and Sensor Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-0373
Vehicle electronics and sensor systems have become indispensable parts in providing safety, comfort, personal communication mobility and many other advanced functions in today's vehicles. As a result, reliability requirements for these critical parts have become extremely important. To meet these requirements, more advanced technologies and tools for degradation monitoring and failure prevention are needed. Currently, the development of diagnostics and prognostics techniques, which employ accurate degradation quantification by appropriate sensor selection, location decision, and feature selection and feature fusion, still remains a vital and unsolved issue. This paper addresses several realistic concerns of failure prevention in vehicle electronics and sensor systems. A unified monitoring and prognostics approach that prevents failures by analyzing degradation features, driven by physics-of-failure, is suggested as a general framework to overcome the unsolved challenge.
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