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Technical Paper

3-D PIV Analysis of Structural Behavior of D.I. Gasoline Spray

Three-dimensional behaviors of direct injection (D.I.) gasoline sprays were investigated using 2-D and 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. The fuel was injected with a swirl type injector for D.I. gasoline engines into a constant volume chamber in which ambient pressure was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 MPa at room temperature. The spray was illuminated by a laser light sheet generated by a double-pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wave length: 532 nm) and the succeeding two tomograms of the spray were taken by a high-resolution CCD camera. The 2-D and 3-D velocity distributions of the droplet cloud in the spray were calculated from these tomograms by using the PIV technique. The effects of the swirl groove flows in the injector and the ambient pressure on the structural behavior of the droplet cloud in the spray were also examined.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Ambient Air Entrainment into Split Injection D.I. Gasoline Spray by LIF-PIV Technique

Effects of split injection, with a relatively short time interval between the two sprays, on the spray development process, and the air entrainment into the spray, were investigated by using laser induced fluorescence and particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV) techniques. The velocities of the spray and the ambient air were measured. The cumulative mass of the ambient air entrained into the spray was calculated by using the entrainment velocity normal to the spray boundary. The vortex structure of the spray, formed around the leading edge of the spray, showed a true rotating flow motion at low ambient pressures of 0.1 MPa, whereas at 0.4 MPa, it was not a true rotating flow, but a phenomenon of the small droplets separating from the leading edge of the spray and falling behind, due to air resistance. The development processes of the 2nd spray were considerably different from that of the 1st spray because the 2nd spray was injected into the flow fields formed by the 1st spray.
Technical Paper

An Analysis of Droplets and Ambient Air Interaction in a D.I. Gasoline Spray Using LIF-PIV Technique

Measurements of the droplet and ambient air velocities in and around a D.I. gasoline spray were made by combining the laser induced fluorescence (LIF) and the particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. Before the fuel spray was injected into a constant volume vessel, rhodamine B-water solution was injected into the ambient air by a swirl-type injector for dispersing the fine fluorescent liquid particles as tracers for the ambient air motion. The fuel spray was injected into the fluorescent tracer clouds by a D.I. gasoline injector and was illuminated by an Nd:YAG laser light sheet (wave length: 532 nm). The light scattered by the droplets in the fuel spray was the same as the Nd:YAG laser wavelength, whereas the light emitted by the fluorescent tracer clouds was at a longer wavelength.
Technical Paper

An Insight Into Effect of Split Injection on Mixture Formation and Combustion of DI Gasoline Engines

In the previous study of the authors, it was found that some benefits for the mixture preparation of DI gasoline engines can be offered by splitting the fuel injection, such as the phenomenon of high density liquid phase fuel piling up at the leading edge of the spray can be circumvented. In a further analysis, the vapor quantity in the “stable operating” range (equivalence ratio of vapor ϕv in a range of 0.7≤ϕv≤1.3) was significantly increased by the split injection compared to the single injection. In this work, the mechanism of the effect of the split injection on the mixture formation process was studied by combining the laser-sheet imaging, LIF-PIV and the LAS (Laser Absorption Scattering) technique. As a result, it is found that the spray-induced ambient air motion can help the formation of the more combustible mixture of the split injection whereas it played a minus role of diluting the spray by the single injection.
Technical Paper

Breakup Process of an Initial Spray Injected by a D.I. Gasoline Injector-Simultaneous Measurement of Droplet Size and Velocity by Laser Sheet Image Processing and Particle Tracking Technique

The breakup and atomization processes of the pre-swirl spray, which is produced before the hollow-cone spray from a high-pressure swirl-type D.I. gasoline injector, were investigated under different ambient pressure conditions. The injector has a press-fitted swirl tip, in which six tangential slots giving the injecting fuel an angular momentum are perforated at an equal space interval. A microscopic imaging technique was applied to get the spatially high-resolution LIF tomograms of the pre-swirl spray. The sprays were illuminated by an Nd:YAG laser light sheet and imaged using a high resolution CCD camera, fixed with a micro lens and coupled with an optical low-pass filter. The droplet size and the individual droplet's velocity were obtained by applying the image processing and the particle tracking techniques, respectively.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Spray Flame under Flat Wall Impinging Condition --LAS, OH* Chemiluminescence and Two Color Pyrometry Results

The effect of spray/wall interaction on diesel spray flame characteristics was investigated by applying LAS (Laser Absorption-Scattering) technique, OH* chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry in a constant volume vessel. To insure the precision of this investigation, following necessary verification experiments were carried out: (1) OH* chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry were synchronously employed to analyze the influence of soot incandescence on OH* chemiluminescence signal intensity; and (2) frontal view and side view OH* images of a linearly arranged three holes injector were concentrated on to investigate the effect of soot on optical intensity attenuation under line-of-sight image recording condition. And then the effect of impinging distance (30,40,50,60 mm and free) on diesel spray and combustion behaviors were studied. The results reveal that the impinging distance plays a significant role in mixture formation.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Evaporating Diesel Spray: A Comparison of Laser Measurements and Empirical/Theoretical Predictions

The objective of the paper is to characterize the diesel spray under the ambient conditions relevant for direct injection (D.I.) diesel engines. The particular emphasis is on the comparisons between laser measurements and predictions by empirical correlations and theoretical analyses. The ultraviolet-visible laser absorption-scattering (LAS) imaging technique is employed to quantitively determine the spray/mixture properties of the diesel spray injected by a hole-type injector, in terms of spray tip penetration and spatial concentration distributions of liquid and vapor phase. The structure of evaporating spray is obtained and analyzed. Based on the penetration correlations in the literature, a non-dimensional analysis of the spray tip penetration data is carried out. The results indicate that a self-similar state of the evaporating fuel spray is achieved.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation Processes in D.I. Gasoline Sprays by the Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) Technique - Effect of Injection Conditions

Mixture formation processes play a vital role on the performance of a D.I. Gasoline engine. Quantitative measurement of liquid and vapor phase concentration distribution in a D.I. gasoline spray is very important in understanding the mixture formation processes. In this paper, an unique laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was employed to investigate the mixture formation processes of a fuel spray injected by a D.I. gasoline injector into a high pressure and temperature constant volume vessel. P-xylene, which is quite suitable for the application of the LAS technique, was selected as the test fuel. The temporal variations of the concentration distribution of both the liquid and vapor phases in the spray were quantitatively clarified. Then the effects of injection pressure and quantity on the concentration distributions of both the liquid and vapor phases in the spray were analyzed.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation Processes in DI Gasoline Engine Sprays with Split Injection Strategy via Laser Absorption and Scattering (LAS) Technique

In order to investigate the effect of split injections on mixture formation processes in Direct Injection (DI) gasoline engine sprays, an experimental study was conducted applying the laser absorption and scattering (LAS) technique to the sprays using double pulse injections with various dwells and mass ratios. The effects of various dwells and mass ratios between the pulsed injections on the spatial concentration distributions in the spray, the penetration of vapor and liquid phases, and the mean equivalence ratios of the vapor phase and overall spray, were clarified. It was found that the phenomenon of high concentration liquid spray piling up at the leading edge of the spray is avoided by the double injections with enough dwell or appropriate mass ratio. The maximum penetration length of the spray significantly decreases, especially for the liquid phase with high concentration.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mixture Formation in Split-Injection Diesel Sprays via Laser Absorption-Scattering (LAS) Technique

Experimental results of a diesel engine have shown that using split-injection can reduce the NOx and particulate emissions. For understanding the mechanism of emissions reduction, mixture formation in split-injection diesel sprays was characterized in the present paper. A dual-wavelength laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique was developed by use of the second harmonic (532nm) and the fourth harmonic (266nm) of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the incident light and dimethylnaphthalene (DMN) as the test fuel. By applying this technique, imaging was made of DMN sprays injected into a high-temperature and high-pressure constant volume vessel by a single-hole nozzle incorporated in a common rail injection system for D.I. diesel engine. The line-of-sight optical thickness of both fuel vapor and droplets in the sprays was yielded from the sprays images.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Optical Technique for Measuring Diesel Spray Penetration

A new optical measuring technique of tip penetration of a diesel fuel spray was developed by detecting the arrival times of the spray tip at several light sheets which were preset at various axial locations downstream. Verified by the instantaneous photographic technique, it was confirmed that this technique is effective, with sufficient accuracy, for measuring the spray tip penetration much more easily than the conventional photographic technique. The tip penetrations of diesel sprays injected through single-hole nozzles with various orifice lengths and diameters has been investigated over a wide range of the operating conditions by this technique. The spray injected through two multihole nozzles, either with or without a sac volume, has also been characterized. The results showed that the spray tip penetration is affected somewhat by the operating conditions. Eventually it is affected by the injected fuel momentum flowrate, nozzle geometry and ambient gas density.
Technical Paper

Empirical Equations for the Sauter Mean Diameter of a Diesel Spray

New empirical equations to represent the Sauter mean diameter of a spray injected by a diesel nozzle are presented in this paper. In order to determine the new equations, drop sizes of a diesel spray were analyzed by a laser diffraction technique. Liquids with different viscosities and different surface tensions were tested to obtain the generalized empirical equations. The maximum injection and maximum ambient pressures were 90 MPa and 3.0 MPa respectively. Both the minimum value of the injection pressure to produce a fine spray and the Sauter mean diameter increase the greater the viscosity and the surface tension of the liquid. At a high injection velocity, the Sauter mean diameter increases with an increase in ambient pressure, but it decreases when ambient pressure is increased at a low injection velocity.
Technical Paper

Fuel Spray Simulation of High-Pressure Swirl-Injector for DISI Engines and Comparison with Laser Diagnostic Measurements

A comprehensive model for sprays emerging from high-pressure swirl injectors in DISI engines has been developed accounting for both primary and secondary atomization. The model considers the transient behavior of the pre-spray and the steady-state behavior of the main spray. The pre-spray modeling is based on an empirical solid cone approach with varying cone angle. The main spray modeling is based on the Liquid Instability Sheet Atomization (LISA) approach, which is extended here to include the effects of swirl. Mie Scattering, LIF, PIV and Laser Droplet Size Analyzer techniques have been used to produce a set of experimental data for model validation. Both qualitative comparisons of the evolution of the spray structure, as well as quantitative comparisons of spray tip penetration and droplet sizes have been made. It is concluded that the model compares favorably with data under atmospheric conditions.
Technical Paper

Group-Hole Nozzle Effects on Mixture Formation and In-cylinder Combustion Processes in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

The group-hole (GH) nozzle concept that uses two closely spaced micro-orifices to substitute the conventional single orifice has the potential to facilitate better fuel atomization and evaporation, consequently attenuate the soot emission formed in direct-injection (D.I.) diesel engines. Studies of quantitative mixture properties of the transient fuel spray injected by the group-hole nozzles were conducted in a constant volume chamber via the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique, in comparison with conventional single-hole nozzles. Specific areas investigated involved: the non-evaporating and the evaporating ambient conditions, the free spray and the spray impinging on a flat wall conditions. The particular emphasis was on the effect of one of key parameters, the interval between orifices, of the group-hole (SH) nozzle structure.
Technical Paper

Insight on Early Spray Formation Process of a High-Pressure Swirl Injector for DISI Engines

An early formation process of the spray, which was injected by a high-pressure swirl-type injector that is widely used in direct injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline engines, was investigated through image analyzing techniques. The sprays were illuminated both by an Nd:YAG laser light sheet for getting the spray tomograms and by a tungsten lamp for getting the scattered back light shadow images of the sprays. The sprays were imaged by using a high-resolution CCD camera and a high-speed digital imaging system. The early development aspects of the spray were investigated in detail through the measurement of the tip penetration, cone angle and width of the early spray. At the start of injection, the liquid column emerges first, and it forms the “pre-swirl spray” without the swirl component. Following the liquid column, the liquid sheet emerges, however its radial velocity component is weak to form the complete hollow-cone spray. This spray changes into the “weak-swirl spray”.
Technical Paper

Internal Fuel Flow, Near-Field and Far-Field Spray Evolution, and Mixture Formation Characteristics of Diesel Injectors - A Comparison between Multi- and Single-Hole Injectors

A comparison of spray characteristics was conducted between single- and multi-hole injectors. A commercial software (AVL FIRE) was used to investigate the internal flow inside the sac volume, as well as the initial spray behavior at 1 mm downstream of the nozzle exit. Microscopic imaging was applied to observe the spray dispersion angle (spray cone angle) at the vicinity of the nozzle. Laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique was implemented for measuring the mixture concentration. Three injection quantities, namely 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/hole, were selected to observe the differences between transient and quasi-steady spray. The vapor penetration at the initial stage of the injection was greater for single-hole than that of multi-hole injector due to faster fuel pressure build-up process inside the sac volume.
Technical Paper

PLIF Measurements of the Cyclic Variation of Mixture Concentration in a SI Engine

Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique was employed to perform the quantitative measurements of the cyclic variation of mixture concentration in the combustion chamber of a spark ignition (SI) engine. Nitrogen dioxide was used as the fluorescence tracer to simulate the fuel vapor. A Nd:YAG laser operated at its second harmonic wavelength was employed as the light source. The original engine was modified to introduce laser sheet light into the combustion chamber and the induced fluorescence was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated image intensifier. The measurements were done at the engine crank angles of 180° ∼ 300° ATDC with the engine speeds of 200 ∼ 400 rpm and the injection timings of -70 °, 50° and 100° ATDC. A theoretical analysis was made to describe the cyclically varying characteristics of the mixture concentration.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Imaging of the Fuel Concentration in a SI Engine with Laser Rayleigh Scattering

Quantitative imaging of the fuel concentration distribution was made in the combustion chamber of a propane-fueled spark ignition (SI) engine with the employment of laser-sheet-induced Rayleigh scattering technique for realizing the remote, nonintrusive and highly space- and time-resolved measurement. The original engine was modified to introduce YAG laser-induced sheet light into the combustion chamber and the scattered light was captured by a CCD camera fitted with a gated double-micro- channel plate image intensifier. The measurements were done at the crank angle of 270°ATDC in the combustion chamber of the engine motored at 200rpm with an air fuel ratio of 13 for various injection timing, injection direction and intake flow. The results show that with an appropriate matching of fuel injection timing, injection direction and intake flow, a stratified distribution of the fuel concentration can be realized.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Droplets and Vapor Concentration Distributions in Diesel Sprays by Processing UV and Visible Images

In order to measure the droplets and vapor concentration inside a fuel spray, a dual-wavelength laser absorption-scattering technique was developed using the second harmonic (532nm) and the fourth harmonic (266nm) of a Nd:YAG laser and using dimethylnaphthalene as the test fuel. The investigation results show that dimethylnaphthalene, which has physical properties similar to diesel fuel, is almost transparent to visible light near 532nm and is a strong absorber of ultraviolet light near 266nm. Based on this result, the vapor concentration in a fuel spray can be determined by the two separate measurements: a transmission measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength to detect the droplets optical thickness and a transmission measurement at an absorbing wavelength to detect the joint vapor and droplets optical thickness. The droplets density can be determined by extinction imaging through the transmission at the non-absorbing wavelength.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurement of Liquid and Vapor Phase Concentration Distributions in a D.I. Gasoline Spray by the Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) Technique

To get quantitative measurements of liquid and vapor phase concentration distributions in a gasoline spray, a laser-based absorption and scattering (LAS) technique was developed. The LAS technique adopts ultraviolet and visible lasers as light sources and a test fuel, which absorbs the ultraviolet light but does not absorb the visible light, instead of gasoline. The LAS principle is based on the incident light extinction in the ultraviolet band due to both vapor absorption and droplets scattering, whereas in the visible band, the incident light extinction is due only to the droplet scattering. The absorption spectra and molar absorption coefficients of the candidate test fuels including p-xylene, benzene and toluene, all of which have physical properties similar to gasoline, were investigated, and p-xylene was finally selected as a test fuel. Measurement accuracy of the LAS technique was discussed.