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Technical Paper

Additional Comparison of Iced Aerodynamic Measurements on a Swept Wing from Two Wind Tunnels

Artificial ice shapes of various geometric fidelity were tested on a wing model based on the Common Research Model. Low Reynolds number tests were conducted at Wichita State University’s Walter H. Beech Memorial Wind Tunnel utilizing an 8.9% scale model, and high Reynolds number tests were conducted at ONERA’s F1 wind tunnel utilizing a 13.3% scale model. Several identical geometrically-scaled ice shapes were tested at both facilities, and the results were compared at overlapping Reynolds and Mach numbers. This was to ensure that the results and trends observed at low Reynolds number could be applied and continued to high, near-flight Reynolds number. The data from Wichita State University and ONERA F1 agreed well at matched Reynolds and Mach numbers. The lift and pitching moment curves agreed very well for most configurations.
Journal Article

An Experimentally Validated Model for Predicting Refrigerant and Lubricant Inventory in MAC Heat Exchangers

The paper presents a semi-empirical model to predict refrigerant and lubricant inventory in both evaporator and condenser of an automotive air conditioning (MAC) system. In the model, heat exchanger is discretized into small volumes. Temperature, pressure and mass inventory are calculated by applying heat transfer, pressure drop and void fraction correlations to these volumes respectively. Refrigerant and lubricant are treated as a zeotropic mixture with a temperature glide. As refrigerant evaporates or condenses, thermophysical properties are evaluated accordingly with the change of lubricant concentration. Experimental data is used to validate the model. As a result, refrigerant and lubricant mass is predicted within 20% in the evaporator. However, in the condenser, lubricant mass was consistently under-predicted while refrigerant mass was predicted within 15% error. Moreover, the lubricant under-prediction becomes more significant at higher Oil Circulation Ratio (OCR).
Technical Paper

Costs and Benefits of Head up Displays: An Attention Perspective and a Meta Analysis

This paper reports a meta analysis of all studies located in the literature that have compared head up versus head down display of equivalent information, as these displays support both tracking (e.g., flight path control) and discrete event detection. The data clearly indicate a HUD advantage for most tasks, except tracking during cruise flight and event detection during final approach. The latter HUD cost however is observed only when events to be detected are entirely unexpected, reflecting a form of cognitive tunneling. The meta-analysis also reveals an advantage for conformal over non-conformal HUD imagery.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flow Regime in the Horizontal Inlet Header on Refrigerant-Oil Mixture Distribution in a MAC Microchannel Evaporator

The effect of lubricant on distribution is investigated by relating the flow regime in the horizontal inlet header and the corresponding infrared image of the evaporator. Visualization of the flow regime is performed by high-speed camera. R134a is used as the refrigerant with PAG 46 as lubricant, forming foam in all flow regimes. Quantitative information including foam location, foam layer thickness is obtained using a matlab-based video processing program. Oil circulation rate effect on flow regime is analyzed quantitatively.
Technical Paper

Emergency Response Personnel Training for Aircraft Accidents

A new Aircraft Accident Awareness Program (AAAP) was developed, evaluated, and is available to emergency response service provider organizations (firefighters, emergency medical technicians, trauma center personnel, law enforcement, clergy, coroners, and media) who would be called to an aircraft accident scene. Aircraft accident responder training is a critical factor in accident victim crash survivability and successful life-safety outcomes. This program was designed to teach participants about the unique conditions and safety hazards associated with aircraft crashes. A blend of academic classroom investigation, exposure to airworthy/ unairworthy aircraft including operating systems and components, computer accident simulations, “hands-on” (destructive) extrication protocol training, and participation in simulated in-the-field accident scenarios was used as an instructional delivery model.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Advanced Steering Control with Computer Simulation

Using neural networks, an algorithm has been developed to steer a wheel loader vehicle. Mathematical functions have been used in the past in an attempt to model a human in their operation of many types of vehicles. Since such functions can typically only be derived for situations in which the problem domain is thoroughly understood, research continues in an effort to develop a complete “operator model”. Neural Network algorithms were utilized in an attempt to determine the feasibility of accurately modeling the operator of a wheel loader construction vehicle. These algorithms were also used to determine how the control of different vehicle functions might be automated on a wheel loader.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the SIMON Tractor-Semitrailer Model for Steady State and Transient Handling

This research compares the responses of a vehicle modeled in the 3D vehicle simulation program SIMON in the HVE simulation operating system against instrumented responses of a 3-axle tractor, 2-axle semi-trailer combination. The instrumented tests were previously described in SAE 2001-01-0139 and SAE 2003-01-1324 as part of a continuous research effort in the area of vehicle dynamics undertaken at the Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC). The vehicle inertial and mechanical parameters were measured at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). The tire data was provided by Smithers Scientific Services, Inc. and UMTRI. The series of tests discussed herein compares the modeled and instrumented vehicle responses during quasi-steady state, steady state and transient handling maneuvers, producing lateral accelerations ranging nominally from 0.05 to 0.5 G's.
Technical Paper

Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of Glaze Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

Aerodynamic assessment of icing effects on swept wings is an important component of a larger effort to improve three-dimensional icing simulation capabilities. An understanding of ice-shape geometric fidelity and Reynolds and Mach number effects on iced-wing aerodynamics is needed to guide the development and validation of ice-accretion simulation tools. To this end, wind-tunnel testing was carried out for 8.9% and 13.3% scale semispan wing models based upon the Common Research Model airplane configuration. Various levels of geometric fidelity of an artificial ice shape representing a realistic glaze-ice accretion on a swept wing were investigated. The highest fidelity artificial ice shape reproduced all of the three-dimensional features associated with the glaze ice accretion. The lowest fidelity artificial ice shapes were simple, spanwise-varying horn ice geometries intended to represent the maximum ice thickness on the wing upper surface.
Technical Paper

Experimental Aerodynamic Simulation of a Scallop Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing

Understanding the aerodynamic impact of swept-wing ice accretions is a crucial component of the design of modern aircraft. Computer-simulation tools are commonly used to approximate ice shapes, so the necessary level of detail or fidelity of those simulated ice shapes must be understood relative to high-fidelity representations of the ice. Previous tests were performed in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel to acquire high-fidelity ice shapes. From this database, full-span artificial ice shapes were designed and manufactured for both an 8.9%-scale and 13.3%-scale semispan wing model of the CRM65 which has been established as the full-scale baseline for this swept-wing project. These models were tested in the Walter H. Beech wind tunnel at Wichita State University and at the ONERA F1 facility, respectively. The data collected in the Wichita St.
Journal Article

Experimentally Validated Model of Refrigerant Distribution in a Parallel Microchannel Evaporator

This paper develops a model for a parallel microchannel evaporator that incorporates quality variation at the tube inlets and variable mass flow rates among tubes. The flow distribution is based on the equal pressure drop along each flow path containing headers and tubes. The prediction of pressure drop, cooling capacity, and exit superheat strongly agree with 48 different experimental results obtained in four configurations using R134a. Predicted temperature profiles are very close to infrared images of actual evaporator surface. When compared to the uniform distribution model (that assumes uniform distribution of refrigerant mass flow rate and quality) results from the new model indicate superior prediction of cooling capacity, and exit superheat. Model results indicate maldistribution of refrigerant mass flow rate among the parallel tubes, caused primarily by pressure drop in the outlet header.
Technical Paper

Implementation of Reinforcement Learning on Air Source Heat Pump Defrost Control for Full Electric Vehicles

Air source heat pumps as the heating system for full electric vehicles are drawing more and more attention in recent years. Despite the high energy efficiency, frost accumulation on the heat pump evaporator is one of the major challenges associated with air source heat pumps. The evaporator needs to be actively defrosted periodically and heat pump heating will be interrupted during defrosting process. Proper defrost control is needed to obtain high average heat pump energy efficiency. In this paper, a new method for generating air source heat pump defrost control policy using reinforcement learning is introduced. This model-free method has several advantages. It can automatically generate optimal defrost control policy instead of requiring manually determination of the control policy parameters and logics.
Technical Paper

International Harmonization of Safety Standards in the Automobile Industry: A Policy Perspective

As international markets and competitiveness gain importance in the automobile industry, interest in the issue of standards harmonization is growing. Currently, the main efforts aimed at harmonizing standards are run through the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE). One major area of ongoing progress is safety standard harmonization. One main conflict affecting resolution of this issue is the fundamental difference in regulation administration between the United States, Europe, and Japan for safety standards. Of these regions, Europe and Japan follow type approval methods, while the United States adheres to self-certification. This difference bars the United States from participating in efforts to develop a globally accepted type approval system. Key policy alternatives presented are the continuation of U.S. support for current harmonization efforts, the worldwide acceptance of one set of already-existing regulations, and non-harmonization.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Effect on Performance of R134a MAC Microchannel Evaporators

This paper presents an experimental study of lubricant effect on the performance of microchannel evaporators in a typical MAC system. R134a is used as the refrigerant with PAG46 lubricant. The increase of oil circulation rate elevates the pressure drop of the evaporator. The specific enthalpy change in evaporator decreases with increasing oil circulation rate, while refrigerant distribution appears to be more uniform as indicated by infrared images of the evaporator surface temperatures. Thus mass flow rate increases.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Impact on R134a Distribution and Microchannel Heat Exchanger Performance

Lubricant in compressor usually flows out with refrigerant. Thus, it is evitable for lubricant to be present in the heat exchanger, which significantly affects the heat exchanger performance. This paper is to investigate the effects of PAG oil on R134a distribution in the microchannel heat exchanger (MCHX) with vertical headers and to provide a tool to model R134a (with oil) distribution and its effects on MCHX capacity. The flow configuration in MCHX under the heat pump mode of the reversible system is mimicked in the experimental facility: refrigerant-oil mixture is fed into the test header from the bottom pass and exits through the top pass. It is found that a small amount of oil (OCR=0.5%) worsen the distribution. But further increasing OCR to 2.5% and 4.7%, the distribution becomes better.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Design and Control of the Pendubot

In this paper we demonstrate our work to date on our underactuated two link robot called the Pendubot. First we will overview the Pendubot's design, discussing the components of the linkage and the interface to the PC making up the controller. Parameter identification of the Pendubot is accomplished both by solid modeling methods and energy equation least squares techniques. With the identified parameters, mathematical models are developed to facilitate controller design. The goal of the control is to swing the Pendubot up and balance it about various equilibrium configurations. Two control algorithms are used for this task. Partial feedback linearization techniques are used to design the swing up control. The balancing control is then designed by linearizing the dynamic equations about the desired equilibrium point and using LQR or pole placement techniques to design a stabilizing controller.
Technical Paper

Numerical study on wall film formation and evaporation

The numerical models presented in this study are established based on discrete phase model (DPM) of spray dispersion and evaporation considering the cold wall operating condition of port injection system. All the models were implemented into the CFD software FLUENT. Gas flow and film flow and spray are coupled by mass, momentum and energy transfer due to spray impingement, film evaporation and surface shear stress. Influences of impact parameters including injection height, injection duration and injection angle on the formation and evaporation of wall-film are discussed. The results show that, with the increase of injection height, the maximum film thickness and wall film ratio decrease, and fuel vapor mass ratio increases. The reductions of film thickness and wall film ratio are not obvious as the increasing of injection height. Extending the injection duration could add the maximum film thickness and film area.
Technical Paper

PROPS — An Improved CPM Technique For Project Planning and Control

Two recent developments in the Critical Path Method (CPM) are presented and discussed. First, the advantages of a CIRCLE notation diagram for the presentation of CPM project plans are described. As opposed to the usual operation-on-the-arrow CPM diagram, a CIRCLE diagram requires no extra “dummy” operations or events to describe the logic of the project, and operation numbers can be assigned before the diagram is drawn. Second, the concept of allowing dependent operations to overlap in time is introduced and evaluated. The operation overlapping technique allows the CPM analysis of a project without an excessive amount of breakdown of the project pieces. This idea seems to offer the link between the bar chart and the ordinary CPM diagram.
Technical Paper

Programmable Electrohydraulic Valve

A programmable, four way directional control valve, with the versatility to operate in any type of hydraulic system and perform any function, was designed with functional variations to be made in the control software, rather than the hardware. This paper reports on the first reduction to practice, along with the development of a new “inferred flow feedback” concept. The initial prototype has shown promising results, in spite of hardware limitations encountered: flow forces and valve dynamics. Pressure control is especially encouraging, with nearly perfect regulation of pressure across the flow range of the programmable relief valve.
Technical Paper

Simulator Scene Detail and Visual Augmentation Guidance in Landing Training for Beginning Pilots

Beginning flight students were taught landings in a flight simulator with a visual landing display to examine the effects of scene detail, visual augmented guidance, and the number of landing training trials. Transfer as assessed in a criterion simulator configuration showed advantages for larger numbers of training trials, visual augmented guidance, and moderate scene detail. Transfer of training to the aircraft showed advantages for low-scene detail over moderate-scene detail for the number of landing training sessions. Subjects who received equal simulator time practicing an instrument pattern (control group) performed better than the moderate-scene detail group on student assisted landings and number of landing training sessions.
Technical Paper

The High Mounted Brake Lamp - The 4% Solution

The paper reviews some of the underpinnings of the research that was done that led to adoption of the high mounted brake lamp. The expected reduction in rearend collisions of 50%, attributable to the lamp, has not been realized. Most recently, a reduction of 4% was reported. This large difference between the predicted effectiveness of the safety device with its actual effect is disturbing. The paper attempts to show the reasons for the low effectiveness which include a lack of evidence for the high-mounting location, overriding an SAE standard on the intensity of high-mounted rear signal lamps and no valid theory of driver performance.