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Technical Paper

A Global Model for Steady State and Transient S.I. Engine Heat Transfer Studies

A global, systems-level model which characterizes the thermal behavior of internal combustion engines is described in this paper. Based on resistor-capacitor thermal networks, either steady-state or transient thermal simulations can be performed. A two-zone, quasi-dimensional spark-ignition engine simulation is used to determine in-cylinder gas temperature and convection coefficients. Engine heat fluxes and component temperatures can subsequently be predicted from specification of general engine dimensions, materials, and operating conditions. Emphasis has been placed on minimizing the number of model inputs and keeping them as simple as possible to make the model practical and useful as an early design tool. The success of the global model depends on properly scaling the general engine inputs to accurately model engine heat flow paths across families of engine designs. The development and validation of suitable, scalable submodels is described in detail in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Study of the Effects of Butanol Addition on Aromatic Species in Premixed Butane Flames

The motivation of the present work was to understand the mechanism by which alcohols produce less aromatic species in their combustion process than an equal amount of hydrocarbon with similar molecular structure does. Due to its numerous advantages over short-chain alcohols, butanol has been considered very promising in soot reduction. Excluding the influence of spray, vaporization and mixing process in engine cases, an adiabatic constant-pressure reactor model was applied to investigate the effect of butanol additives on aromatic species, which are known to be soot precursors, in fuel-rich butane flames. To keep the carbon flux constant, 5% and 10% oxygen by mass of the fuel were added to butane using butanol additive, respectively. Based on the soot reduction effects proposed in literature, effects on temperature, key radical concentrations and the carbon removal from the pathway to aromatic species were considered to identify the major mechanism of reduction in aromatic species.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Effects of Hot EGR on the Operation of Natural Gas Engine Ignited by Diesel-Butanol Blends

Butanol, which is a renewable biofuel, has been regarded as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines. When blended with diesel and applied to pilot ignited natural gas engines, butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency. However, high blend ratio of butanol is limited by its longer ignition delay caused by the higher latent heat and higher octane number, which restricts the improvement of emission characteristics. In this paper, the potential of increasing butanol blend ratio by adding hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is investigated. 3D CFD model based on a detailed kinetic mechanism was built and validated by experimental results of natural gas engine ignited by diesel/butanol blends. The effects of hot EGR is then revealed by the simulation results of the combustion process, heat release traces and also the emissions under different diesel/butanol blend ratios.
Journal Article

A Semi-Detailed Chemical Kinetic Mechanism of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) and Diesel Blends for Combustion Simulations

With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. To seek for an optimized volumetric ratio for ABE-diesel blends, the previous work in our team has experimentally investigated and analyzed the combustion features of ABE-diesel blends with different volumetric ratio (A: B: E: 6:3:1; 3:6:1; 0:10:0, vol. %) in a constant volume chamber. It was found that an increased amount of acetone would lead to a significant advancement of combustion phasing whereas butanol would compensate the advancing effect. Both spray dynamic and chemistry reaction dynamic are of great importance in explaining the unique combustion characteristic of ABE-diesel blend. In this study, a semi-detailed chemical mechanism is constructed and used to model ABE-diesel spray combustion in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Additional Comparison of Iced Aerodynamic Measurements on a Swept Wing from Two Wind Tunnels

Artificial ice shapes of various geometric fidelity were tested on a wing model based on the Common Research Model. Low Reynolds number tests were conducted at Wichita State University’s Walter H. Beech Memorial Wind Tunnel utilizing an 8.9% scale model, and high Reynolds number tests were conducted at ONERA’s F1 wind tunnel utilizing a 13.3% scale model. Several identical geometrically-scaled ice shapes were tested at both facilities, and the results were compared at overlapping Reynolds and Mach numbers. This was to ensure that the results and trends observed at low Reynolds number could be applied and continued to high, near-flight Reynolds number. The data from Wichita State University and ONERA F1 agreed well at matched Reynolds and Mach numbers. The lift and pitching moment curves agreed very well for most configurations.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Combustion, Performance and Emission Characteristics of a CI Engine under Diesel-1-Butanol/CNG Dual Fuel Operation Mode

In order to comply with the stringent emission regulations, many researchers have been focusing on diesel-compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel operation in compression ignition (CI) engines. The diesel-CNG dual fuel operation mode has the potential to reduce both the soot and NOx emissions; however, the thermal efficiency is generally lower than that of the pure diesel operation, especially under the low and medium load conditions. The current experimental work investigates the potential of using diesel-1-butanol blends as the pilot fuel to improve the engine performance and emissions. Fuel blends of B0 (pure diesel), B10 (90% diesel and 10% 1-butanol by volume) and B20 (80% diesel and 20% 1-butanol) with 70% CNG substitution were compared based on an equivalent input energy at an engine speed of 1200 RPM. The results indicated that the diesel-1-butanol pilot fuel can lead to a more homogeneous mixture due to the longer ignition delay.
Journal Article

An Experimentally Validated Model for Predicting Refrigerant and Lubricant Inventory in MAC Heat Exchangers

The paper presents a semi-empirical model to predict refrigerant and lubricant inventory in both evaporator and condenser of an automotive air conditioning (MAC) system. In the model, heat exchanger is discretized into small volumes. Temperature, pressure and mass inventory are calculated by applying heat transfer, pressure drop and void fraction correlations to these volumes respectively. Refrigerant and lubricant are treated as a zeotropic mixture with a temperature glide. As refrigerant evaporates or condenses, thermophysical properties are evaluated accordingly with the change of lubricant concentration. Experimental data is used to validate the model. As a result, refrigerant and lubricant mass is predicted within 20% in the evaporator. However, in the condenser, lubricant mass was consistently under-predicted while refrigerant mass was predicted within 15% error. Moreover, the lubricant under-prediction becomes more significant at higher Oil Circulation Ratio (OCR).
Technical Paper

An Optical Investigation of Multiple Diesel Injections in CNG/Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Light Duty Optical Diesel Engine

Dual-fuel combustion combining a premixed charge of compressed natural gas (CNG) and a pilot injection of diesel fuel offer the potential to reduce diesel fuel consumption and drastically reduce soot emissions. In this study, dual-fuel combustion using methane ignited with a pilot injection of No. 2 diesel fuel, was studied in a single cylinder diesel engine with optical access. Experiments were performed at a CNG substitution rate of 70% CNG (based on energy) over a wide range of equivalence ratios of the premixed charge, as well as different diesel injection strategies (single and double injection). A color high-speed camera was used in order to identify and distinguish between lean-premixed methane combustion and diffusion combustion in dual-fuel combustion. The effect of multiple diesel injections is also investigated optically as a means to enhance flame propagation towards the center of the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics in a Constant Volume Chamber of Diesel Blended with HTL

There are a few different ways in which biofuels can be sourced, with the most popular coming from agricultural sources. An alternative approach is to utilize biowaste. An estimated 20 million dry tons of volatile organic compounds, or biowaste, is annually deposited in US municipal wastewaters. Most of this biowaste energy content is not recovered and, as a result, the biowaste could be a massive potential source of renewable energy. Biocrude diesel is converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Three types of feedstocks (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste) were converted into biocrude oil via HTL. From the previous experiments done in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend performed similarly during combustion to pure diesel. By studying these mixtures in a constant volume chamber, these observations could be compared to the results in the diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Acetone, Butanol, and Ethanol (ABE) Blended with Diesel in a Compression-Ignition Engine

Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) is an intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol. As an additive for diesel, it has been shown to improve spray evaporation, improve fuel atomization, enhance air-fuel mixing, and enhance combustion as a whole. The typical compositions of ABE are in a volumetric ratio of 3:6:1 or 6:3:1. From previous studies done in a constant volume chamber, it was observed that the presence of additional acetone in the blend caused advancement in the combustion phasing, but too much acetone content led to an increase in soot emission during combustion. The objective of this research was to investigate the combustion of these mixtures in a diesel engine. The experiments were conducted in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine at different speeds and different loads to study component effects on the various engine conditions. The fuels tested in these experiments were D100, ABE(3:6:1)10, ABE(3:6:1)20, ABE(6:3:1)10, and ABE(6:3:1)20.
Technical Paper

Comparison Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of ABE/IBE-Diesel Blends in a Common-Rreail Diesel Engine

Bio-butanol has been considered as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to its advantageous physicochemical properties. However, the further development of bio-butanol is inhibited by its high recovery cost and low production efficiency. Hence, the goal of this study is to evaluate two upstream products from different fermentation processes of bio-butanol, namely acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) and isopropanol-butanol-ethanol (IBE), as alternative fuels for diesel. The experimental comparison is conducted on a single-cylinder and common-rail diesel engine under various main injection timings (MIT) and equivalent engine load (EEL) conditions. The experimental results show that ABE and IBE significantly affect the combustion phasing. The start of combustion (SOC) is retarded when ABE and IBE are mixed with diesel. Furthermore, the ABE/IBE-diesel blends are more sensitive to the changes in MIT compared with that of pure diesel.
Technical Paper

Comparison of CO2 and R134a Two-Phase Ejector Performance for Use in Automotive Air Conditioning Applications

Two-phase ejectors are devices capable of recovering the expansion power that is lost by the throttling process in air conditioning cycles, resulting in improved system performance. High-pressure fluids such as CO2 have received the majority of attention in two-phase ejector studies in recent years due to the fluid's high throttling loss and high potential for improvement. However, low-pressure working fluids such as R134a, commonly used in automotive applications, have received considerably less attention owing to their lower recovery potential. While the two fluids have very different properties, both offer the potential for noticeable COP improvement with ejector cycles. Thus, understanding the operation and performance of ejectors with both fluids can be important to the design of ejector air conditioning cycles. This paper compares available experimental data for the performance of two-phase ejectors using CO2 and R134a.
Technical Paper

Computational Study of the Equivalence Ratio Distribution from a Diesel Pilot Injection with Different Piston Geometry, Injection Timing and Velocity Initialization in a HSDI Engine

In the new combustion strategies such as RCCI and dual-fuel combustion, the diesel pilot injection plays a pivotal role as it determines the ignition characteristics of the mixture and ultimately the combustion and emission performance. In this regard, equivalence ratio distribution resulted from the pilot injection becomes very important. In this work, computation study is carried out using KIVA-3V to simulate the engine compression stroke from intake valve close (IVC) to close to TDC so as to investigate the impact of piston geometry, injection start timing and flow initialization on the equivalence ratio distribution from a pilot injection in HSDI engine.
Technical Paper

Costs and Benefits of Head up Displays: An Attention Perspective and a Meta Analysis

This paper reports a meta analysis of all studies located in the literature that have compared head up versus head down display of equivalent information, as these displays support both tracking (e.g., flight path control) and discrete event detection. The data clearly indicate a HUD advantage for most tasks, except tracking during cruise flight and event detection during final approach. The latter HUD cost however is observed only when events to be detected are entirely unexpected, reflecting a form of cognitive tunneling. The meta-analysis also reveals an advantage for conformal over non-conformal HUD imagery.
Technical Paper

Damping Effects Introduced by a Nonlinear Vibration Absorber in Automotive Drivelines at Idle Engine Speeds

Legislation on vehicle emissions and the requirements for fuel efficiency are currently the key development driving factors in the automotive industry. Research activities to comply with these targets point to engine downsizing and new boosting technologies, which have adverse effects on the NVH performance, durability and component life. As a consequence of engine downsizing, substantial torsional oscillations are generated due to high combustion pressures. Meanwhile, to attenuate torsional vibrations, the manufacturers have implemented absorbers that are tuned to certain frequency ranges, including clutch dampers, Dual Mass Flywheel (DMF) and centrifugal pendulum dampers. These devices add mass/inertia to the system, potentially introducing negative effects on other vehicle attributes, such as weight, driving performance and gear shiftability.
Technical Paper

Effect of Acetone-Gasoline Blend Ratio on Combustion and Emissions Characteristics in a Spark-Ignition Engine

Due to the increasing consumption of fossil fuels, alternative fuels in internal combustion engines have attracted a lot of attention in recent years. Ethanol is the most common alternative fuel used in spark ignition (SI) engines due to its advantages of biodegradability, positively impacting emissions reduction as well as octane number improvement. Meanwhile, acetone is well-known as one of the industrial waste solvents for synthetic fibers and most plastic materials. In comparison to ethanol, acetone has a number of more desirable properties for being a viable alternative fuel such as its higher energy density, heating value and volatility.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flow Regime in the Horizontal Inlet Header on Refrigerant-Oil Mixture Distribution in a MAC Microchannel Evaporator

The effect of lubricant on distribution is investigated by relating the flow regime in the horizontal inlet header and the corresponding infrared image of the evaporator. Visualization of the flow regime is performed by high-speed camera. R134a is used as the refrigerant with PAG 46 as lubricant, forming foam in all flow regimes. Quantitative information including foam location, foam layer thickness is obtained using a matlab-based video processing program. Oil circulation rate effect on flow regime is analyzed quantitatively.
Technical Paper

Emergency Response Personnel Training for Aircraft Accidents

A new Aircraft Accident Awareness Program (AAAP) was developed, evaluated, and is available to emergency response service provider organizations (firefighters, emergency medical technicians, trauma center personnel, law enforcement, clergy, coroners, and media) who would be called to an aircraft accident scene. Aircraft accident responder training is a critical factor in accident victim crash survivability and successful life-safety outcomes. This program was designed to teach participants about the unique conditions and safety hazards associated with aircraft crashes. A blend of academic classroom investigation, exposure to airworthy/ unairworthy aircraft including operating systems and components, computer accident simulations, “hands-on” (destructive) extrication protocol training, and participation in simulated in-the-field accident scenarios was used as an instructional delivery model.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Advanced Steering Control with Computer Simulation

Using neural networks, an algorithm has been developed to steer a wheel loader vehicle. Mathematical functions have been used in the past in an attempt to model a human in their operation of many types of vehicles. Since such functions can typically only be derived for situations in which the problem domain is thoroughly understood, research continues in an effort to develop a complete “operator model”. Neural Network algorithms were utilized in an attempt to determine the feasibility of accurately modeling the operator of a wheel loader construction vehicle. These algorithms were also used to determine how the control of different vehicle functions might be automated on a wheel loader.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the SIMON Tractor-Semitrailer Model for Steady State and Transient Handling

This research compares the responses of a vehicle modeled in the 3D vehicle simulation program SIMON in the HVE simulation operating system against instrumented responses of a 3-axle tractor, 2-axle semi-trailer combination. The instrumented tests were previously described in SAE 2001-01-0139 and SAE 2003-01-1324 as part of a continuous research effort in the area of vehicle dynamics undertaken at the Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC). The vehicle inertial and mechanical parameters were measured at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI). The tire data was provided by Smithers Scientific Services, Inc. and UMTRI. The series of tests discussed herein compares the modeled and instrumented vehicle responses during quasi-steady state, steady state and transient handling maneuvers, producing lateral accelerations ranging nominally from 0.05 to 0.5 G's.