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Technical Paper

Analytical Descriptions of Service Loading Suitable for Fatigue Analysis

Service loading histories have the same general character for an individual route and the magnitudes vary from driver to driver. Both the magnitude and character of the loading history change from route to route and a linear scaling of one loading history does not characterize the variability of usage over a wide range of operating conditions. In this paper a technique for measuring and extrapolating cumulative exceedance diagrams to quantify the distribution of service loading in a vehicle is described. Monte Carlo simulations are coupled with the local stress strain approach for fatigue to obtain distributions of service loading. Fatigue life estimates based on the original loading histories are compared to those obtained from statistical descriptions of exceedance diagrams.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Realism Versus Algorithmic Efficiency: A Trade-off in Human Motion Simulation Modeling

The purpose this paper is to delineate why there exists a trade-off between biomechanical realism and algorithmic efficiency for human motion simulation models, and to illustrate how empirical human movement data and findings can be integrated with novel modeling techniques to overcome such a realism-efficiency tradeoff. We first review three major classes of biomechanical models for human motion simulation. The review of these models is woven together by a common fundamental problem of redundancy—kinematic and/or muscle redundancy. We describe how this problem is resolved in each class of models, and unveil how the trade-off arises, that is, how the computational demand associated with solving the problem is amplified as a model evolves from small scale to large scale, or from less realism to more realism.
Technical Paper

Continuous Multicomponent Fuel Film Vaporization Model for Multidimensional Engine Modeling

A multicomponent fuel film vaporization model using continuous thermodynamics is developed for multidimensional spray and wall film modeling. The vaporization rate is evaluated using the turbulent boundary-layer assumption and a quasi-steady approximation. Third-order polynomials are used to model the fuel composition profiles and the temperature within the liquid phase in order to predict accurate surface properties that are important for evaluating the mass and moment vaporization rates and heat flux. By this approach, the governing equations for the film are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations and thus offer a significant reduction in computational cost while maintaining adequate accuracy compared to solving the governing equations for the film directly.
Technical Paper

Dynamics and Roll Stability of a Loaded Class 8 Tractor-Livestock Semi-Trailer

The transporting of live cattle involves the use of Class 8 tractors and livestock semi-trailers for transportation from farms and feedlots to processing plants. This travel may include unimproved roads, local streets, two lane highways, as well as interstate highways. Typically, cattle are compartmentalized in a “double deck” fashion as it provides utility and comports with size and weight limits for commercial Class 8 vehicles. Concern has been expressed for the effect of cattle movement upon the dynamic performance of the loaded Class 8 tractor-livestock trailer assembly. Loading guidelines exist for cattle that attempt to prevent injury or debilitation during transit, and literature exists on the orientation and some kinematics of loaded cattle. Considerable literature exists on the effect of liquid slosh in tankers and swinging beef carcasses suspended from hooks in refrigerated van trailers on the dynamic response and roll stability of those vehicles.
Technical Paper

Examining the Trade-Off Between Automobile Acceleration Performance and Fuel Economy

A method for making value tradeoff decisions between fuel economy and acceleration performance is demonstrated. Attribute value as defined by the S-Model Theory of Quality [1,2] is measured for the attributes of fuel economy and acceleration performance through a vehicle driving clinic. Willingness-to-pay values are found for the attributes at several different levels. The willingness-to-pay values are then used to refine the empirical and economic value curves previously determined for those attributes.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of Modifying an Existing Semi-Trailer Air Suspension Into an Anti-Rollover System

This paper examines the feasibility of modifying an existing semi-trailer air suspension system to function as an anti-rollover system in addition to its normal suspension operation. The semi-trailer model used is a dynamic, two-dimensional system. The anti-rollover system controller is formulated using projective control theory. All other factors being equal, simulations show that use of the modified suspension system decreases the weight shift when the semi-trailer undergoes lateral acceleration. By decreasing weight shift, the modified suspension system decreases the possibility of rollover.
Technical Paper

Iced-Airfoil and Wing Aerodynamics

Past research on airfoil and wing aerodynamics in icing are reviewed. This review emphasizes the periods after the 1978 NASA Lewis workshop that initiated the modern icing research program at NASA and the current period after the 1994 ATR accident where aerodynamics research has been more aircraft safety focused. Research pre-1978 is also briefly reviewed. Following this review, our current knowledge of iced airfoil aerodynamics is presented from a flowfield-physics perspective. This section identifies four classes of ice accretions: roughness, rime ice, horn ice, and spanwise ridge ice. In these sections the key flowfield features such as flowfield separation and reattachment are reviewed and how these contribute to the known aerodynamic effects of these ice shapes. Finally Reynolds number and Mach number effects on iced-airfoil aerodynamics are briefly summarized.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Quasi-1D Multi-Component Fuel Droplet Vaporization using Discrete Approach with Experimental Validation

An efficient multi-component fuel droplet vaporization model has been developed in this work using discrete approach. The precise modeling of droplet vaporization process is divided into two parts: vapor-phase and liquid-phase sub-models. Temporal evolution of flow inside the droplet is considered to describe the transient behavior introduced by the slow diffusion process. In order to account for the internal circulation motion, surface regression and finite diffusion without actually resolving the spatial governing equations within the liquid phase, a set of ordinary differential equations is applied to describe the evolution of the non-uniform distributions of universal diffusional variables, i.e. temperature and species mass fraction. The differences between the droplet surface and bulk mean states are modeled by constructing a quasi-1D frame; the effect of the internal circulations is taken into consideration by using the effective diffusivity rather than physical diffusivity.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Spray Vaporization and Air-Fuel Mixing in Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

A numerical investigation of air-fuel mixing in gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines is presented in this paper. The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate the importance of fuel representation. In the past studies, fuel has been usually modeled as a single component substance. However, most fuels are mixtures of hydrocarbons with diverse boiling points, resulting in mixture vaporization behavior substantially different from single-component behavior. This study presents a newly developed multicomponent vaporization model, which takes into account important mechanisms such as preferential vaporization, internal circulation, surface regression, and non-ideal behavior in high-pressure environments. A sheet spray atomization model was also used to calculate the disintegration of the liquid sheet and the breakup of the subsequent droplets. The results of a single-component fuel representation and a multicomponent fuel representation were compared.
Technical Paper

Oversteer/Understeer Characteristics of a Locked Differential

The type of differential used in a vehicle has an important and often-neglected effect on handling performance. This is particularly important in racing applications, such as in IndyCar racing, in which the type of differential chosen depends on the course being raced (superspeedway ovals, short ovals, temporary street courses and permanent road courses). In the present work, we examine the effect of a locked rear differential on oversteer/understeer behavior. Using a linear tire model, it is shown that employing a locked differential adds a constant understeer offset to the steering wheel angle (SWA) -v- lateral acceleration vehicle signature. A computer simulation of steady-state cornering behavior showed that the actual effect is much more complicated, and is strongly influenced by static weight distribution, front/rear roll couple distribution, available traction and the radius of the turn being negotiated.