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Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation of Backhoe Type Excavators

1991-09-01
911838
This paper describes the simulation model of a backhoe excavator. The model uses a prescribed motion cycle and the objective of the program is to determine the power requirements for each of the cylinders as well as the total engine power requirement. Most computer simulations are developed by expressing the differential equations of motion for the system being studied. The known force inputs to the system are applied and the time response of the system is then obtained by numerically integrating the governing differential equations. This paper on the other hand develops the reverse of this. Utilizing a prescribed geometry and trajectory cycle for a linkage system as the input, the program solves for the types of force inputs that are required to achieve that trajectory. With the time dependence of the trajectory known, the total power required and the power required of each cylinder is also evaluated. A typical excavator linkage is shown in Fig. 1.
Technical Paper

A Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Tensile-Shear Spot Welds

1985-02-01
850370
An empirical Three Stage Initiation-Propagation (TSIP) model has been developed which predicts the fatigue resistance of tensile-shear spot welds under constant amplitude loading. The improvements of tensile-shear spot weld fatigue resistance caused by changes in weld geometry, residual stresses and material properties variables are discussed with the aid of the model. The TSIP model suggests that, in addition to the influence of geometry, residual stresses at the site of crack initiation greatly influence the fatigue resistance of tensile-shear spot welds. The TSIP model predicts that material properties play a subtle role in determining the fatigue resistance of tensile-shear spot welds.
Technical Paper

A Field Information System for SSCM

1993-09-01
932422
Site-Specific Crop Management (SSCM) involves use of automated seeders and chemical applicators to make spatially-variable applications to agricultural fields. Soil productivity is spatially variable and thus, SSCM provides an opportunity to reduce total applications of seed and fertilizer without reducing crop yields. Also, more complete crop use of fertilizers with SSCM could reduce the potential for environmental contamination. A key element in SSCM is a Field Information System (FIS) for preparing application maps to control application rates.
Technical Paper

Adaptive PCCI Combustion Using Micro-Variable Circular-Orifice (MVCO) Fuel Injector – Key Enabling Technologies for High Efficiency Clean Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1528
This paper presents the latest results for a new high efficiency clean diesel combustion system – Adaptive PCCI Combustion (a premixed charge compression ignition mixed-mode combustion) using a micro-variable circular orifice (MVCO) fuel injector. Key characteristics of the new combustion system such as low NOx and soot emissions, high fuel efficiency, increased engine torque are presented through KIVA simulation results. While early premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion reduces engine-out NOx and soot, it's limited to partial loads by known issues such as combustion control, high HC and CO, and high pressure rise rate, etc. Conventional combustion is well controlled diffusion combustion but comes with high NOx and soot. Leveraging the key merits of PCCI and conventional combustion in a practical engine is both meaningful and challenging.
Technical Paper

An Empirical Method for Estimating the Fatigue Resistance of Tensile-Shear Spot Welds

1983-02-01
830035
An empirical method which is based principally on estimates of the fatigue crack initiation life (NI) has been developed which predicts the fatigue resistance of tensile-shear spot welds in the long life regime. The method uses Basquin’s law and Peterson’s equation to estimate NI and thus is founded on the fatigue behavior of smooth specimens and modelling of the fatigue notch size effect. The fatigue notch factor (Kf) required in this analysis was obtained from Pook’s relationships for the stress intensity factors of tensile-shear spot welds. Estimates of NI are added to estimates of the fatigue crack propagation life NP to obtain the total fatigue life (NT) but in the long life regime NP can usually be neglected. The improvement of tensile-shear spot weld fatigue resistance through manipulation of geometry and material property variables are discussed with the aid of the model.
Technical Paper

An Enhanced Computer-Based Process Simulation Model for the Cylinder Boring Process

1991-04-01
910957
This paper discusses an advanced computer-based process simulation model to predict cutting forces and surface error (also referred to as the lack of cylindricity) for the cylinder boring process. The model takes into consideration several enhanced features including dual and multiple-cylinder boring, back-boring, boring in the presence of windows/cavities, etc.. The model makes use of a Finite Element product model and the cutting force process model to generate a surface error profile at any axial level in the cylinder bore. A design of experiment approach is employed to study the influence of various process variables on bore surface error. The enhanced process simulation model may be used as a valuable tool in enhancing the simultaneous engineering of products and manufacturing processes.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of In-Cylinder Processes Under Dual-Injection Conditions in a DI Diesel Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1843
Fuel-injection schedules that use two injection events per cycle (“dual-injection” approaches) have the potential to simultaneously attenuate engine-out soot and NOx emissions. The extent to which these benefits are due to enhanced mixing, low-temperature combustion modes, altered combustion phasing, or other factors is not fully understood. A traditional single-injection, an early-injection-only, and two dual-injection cases are studied using a suite of imaging diagnostics including spray visualization, natural luminosity imaging, and planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of nitric oxide (NO). These data, coupled with heat-release and efficiency analyses, are used to enhance understanding of the in-cylinder processes that lead to the observed emissions reductions.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Analytical Study of the Fatigue Life of Weldments with Longitudinal Attachments

2001-03-05
2001-01-0085
Both the experimental results and the analytical predictions of this study confirm that the poor fatigue performance of weldments with longitudinal attachments is due to poor weld quality which in turn leads to either a cold-lap or a very small weld toe radius. as well as to the combination of a very high 3-D stress concentration, and very high tensile residual stresses. Consequently, a specially designed stress-concentration-reducing part termed “stress diffuser” incorporated in the wrap-around welds at the ends of the longitudinal attachments increased the fatigue strength of longitudinal attachments to equal that of transverse attachments but only when cold-laps were eliminated. The fatigue life predictions made using the a two-stage Initiation-Propagation (IP) Model were in good agreement with the experimental results. Procedures for correcting for the curved shape of the crack path are investigated.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Residual Stresses and Cyclic Deformation for Induction Hardened Components

1995-02-01
950707
Induction hardening of mild steel components often results in significant improvements in the static and cyclic load capability, with comparatively small increases in cost. Members subjected primarily to torsional loading are a relevant subset of the broad range of induction hardened components. Due to the variation of material properties and residual stresses, failures are “initiated” at the traditional geometric locations predicted for homogeneous materials and also at subsurface sites. The introduction of shear based fatigue parameters has necessitated the consideration of the residual stress as a three dimensional quantity, especially when analyzing subsurface failures. Not considering the tensoral nature of the residual stress can lead to serious errors when estimating fatigue life, and for larger magnitude loadings, the residual stress field may relax.
Technical Paper

Analytical Descriptions of Service Loading Suitable for Fatigue Analysis

1997-04-08
971535
Service loading histories have the same general character for an individual route and the magnitudes vary from driver to driver. Both the magnitude and character of the loading history change from route to route and a linear scaling of one loading history does not characterize the variability of usage over a wide range of operating conditions. In this paper a technique for measuring and extrapolating cumulative exceedance diagrams to quantify the distribution of service loading in a vehicle is described. Monte Carlo simulations are coupled with the local stress strain approach for fatigue to obtain distributions of service loading. Fatigue life estimates based on the original loading histories are compared to those obtained from statistical descriptions of exceedance diagrams.
Technical Paper

Application of Intermediate Vapor Bypass to Mobile Heat Pump System: Extending Operating Range to Lower Ambient Temperature with Low Pressure Low GWP Fluid

2018-04-03
2018-01-0071
With market share of electric vehicles continue to grow, there is an increasing demand of mobile heat pump for cabin climate control, as it has much higher energy efficiency when compared to electric heating and helps to cut drive range reduction. One big challenge of heat pump systems is that their heating capacities drop significantly when operating at very low ambient temperature, especially for those with low pressure refrigerants. This paper presents a way to improve low ambient temperature heating performance by using intermediate vapor bypass with the outdoor heat exchanger, which works as an evaporator in heat pump mode. The experimental results show a 35% increase of heating capacity at −20 °C ambient with the improved system as compared to the baseline, and heating performance factor also slightly increased when the system is working at higher ambient temperature to reach the same heating capacity as the baseline.
Technical Paper

Atomization Characteristics of Multi-component Bio-fuel Systems under Micro-explosion Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0937
A numerical study of micro-explosion in multi-component droplets is presented. The homogeneous nucleation theory is used in describing the bubble generation process. A modified Rayleigh equation is then used to calculate the bubble growth rate. The breakup criterion is then determined by applying a linear stability analysis on the bubble-droplet system. After the explosion/breakup, the atomization characteristics, including Sauter mean radius and averaged velocity of the secondary droplets, are calculated from conservation equations. Micro-explosion can be enhanced by introducing biodiesel into the fuel blends of ethanol and tetradecane. Micro-explosion is more likely to occur at high ambient pressure. However, increasing the ambient temperature does not have a significant effect on micro-explosion. There exists an optimal composition in the liquid mixture for micro-explosion.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics in a Constant Volume Chamber of Diesel Blended with HTL

2019-04-02
2019-01-0578
There are a few different ways in which biofuels can be sourced, with the most popular coming from agricultural sources. An alternative approach is to utilize biowaste. An estimated 20 million dry tons of volatile organic compounds, or biowaste, is annually deposited in US municipal wastewaters. Most of this biowaste energy content is not recovered and, as a result, the biowaste could be a massive potential source of renewable energy. Biocrude diesel is converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Three types of feedstocks (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste) were converted into biocrude oil via HTL. From the previous experiments done in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend performed similarly during combustion to pure diesel. By studying these mixtures in a constant volume chamber, these observations could be compared to the results in the diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels in Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engines using Multiple Injection Strategies

2008-04-14
2008-01-1388
Biodiesel fuels and their blends with diesel are often used to reduce emissions from diesel engines. However, biodiesel has been shown to increase the NOx emissions. Operating a compression ignition engine in low-temperature combustion mode as well as using multiple injections can reduce NOx emissions. Experimental data for biodiesel are compared to those for diesel to show the effect of the biodiesel on the peak pressure, temperature, and emissions. Accurate prediction of biodiesel properties, combined with the KIVA 3V code, is used to investigate the combustion of biodiesel. The volume fraction of the cylinder that has temperatures greater than 2200 K is shown to directly affect the production of oxides of nitrogen. Biodiesel is shown to burn faster during the combustion events, though the ignition delay is often longer for biodiesel compared to diesel.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Operation of a High Speed Direction Injection Engine Using MVCO Injector and Conventional Fuel Injector

2009-04-20
2009-01-0718
The operation of a small bore high speed direct injection (HSDI) engine with a MVCO injector is simulated by the KIVA 3V code, developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The MVCO injector extends the range of injection timings over conventional injectors and it extra flexibility in designing injection schemes. Combustion from very early injection is observed with MVCO injections but not with conventional injection. This improves the fuel economy of the engine in terms of lower ISFC. Even better efficiency can be achieved by using biodiesel, which may be due to extra oxygen in the fuel improving the combustion process. Biodiesel sees a longer ignition delay for the initial injection. It also exhibits a faster burning rate and shorter combustion duration. Biodiesel also lowered both NOx and soot emissions. This is consistent with the general observation for soot emissions.
Technical Paper

Comparison Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of ABE/IBE-Diesel Blends in a Common-Rreail Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2321
Bio-butanol has been considered as a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines due to its advantageous physicochemical properties. However, the further development of bio-butanol is inhibited by its high recovery cost and low production efficiency. Hence, the goal of this study is to evaluate two upstream products from different fermentation processes of bio-butanol, namely acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) and isopropanol-butanol-ethanol (IBE), as alternative fuels for diesel. The experimental comparison is conducted on a single-cylinder and common-rail diesel engine under various main injection timings (MIT) and equivalent engine load (EEL) conditions. The experimental results show that ABE and IBE significantly affect the combustion phasing. The start of combustion (SOC) is retarded when ABE and IBE are mixed with diesel. Furthermore, the ABE/IBE-diesel blends are more sensitive to the changes in MIT compared with that of pure diesel.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Computed and Measured Results for a HSDI Diesel Engine Operating Under HCCI Mode

2006-04-03
2006-01-1519
As engine researchers are facing the task of designing more powerful, more fuel efficient and less polluting engines, a large amount of research has been focused towards homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation for diesel engines. Ignition timing of HCCI operation is controlled by a number of factors including intake temperatures, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection timing to name a few. This study focuses on the computational modeling of an optically accessible high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) small bore diesel engine. In order to capture the phenomena of HCCI operation, the KIVA computational code package has been outfitted with an improved and optimized Shell autoignition model, the extended Zeldovich thermal NOx model, and soot formation and oxidation models. With the above named models in place, several cases were computed and compared to experimentally measured data and captured images of the DIATA test engine.
Technical Paper

Computational Analysis of Biodiesel Combustion in a Low-Temperature Combustion Engine using Well-Defined Fuel Properties

2007-04-16
2007-01-0617
Biodiesel fuel can be produced from a wide range of source materials that affect the properties of the fuel. The diesel engine has become a highly tuned power source that is sensitive to these properties. The objectives of this research were to measure and predict the key properties of biodiesel produced from a broad range of source materials to be used as inputs for combustion modeling; and second to compare the results of the model with and without the biodiesel fuel definition. Substantial differences in viscosity, surface tension, density and thermal conductivity were obtained relative to reference diesel fuels and among the different source materials. The combustion model revealed differences in the temperature and emissions of biodiesel when compared to reference diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Data Acquisition and Heat Release Analysis on a Personal Computer

1986-02-01
860029
The availability and low price of personal computers with suitable interface equipment has made it practical to use such a system for cylinder pressure data acquisition. With this objective, procedures have been developed to measure and record cylinder pressure on an individual crank angle basis and obtain an average cylinder pressure trace using an Apple II Plus personal computer. These procedures as well as methods for checking the quality of cylinder pressure data are described. A simplified heat release analysis technique for an approximate first look at the data quality is presented. Comparisons are made between the result of this analysis, the Krieger-Borman heat release analysis which uses complete chemical equilibrium. The comparison is made to show the suitability of the simplified analysis in judging the quality of the pressure data.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Model for Predicting Hand Prehensile Movements

2006-07-04
2006-01-2329
A prediction model for hand prehensile movements was developed and validated. The model is based on a new approach that blends forward dynamics and a simple parametric control scheme. In the development phase, model parameters were first estimated using a set of hand grasping movement data, and then statistically analyzed. In the validation phase, the model was applied to novel conditions created by varying the subject group and size of the object grasped. The model performance was evaluated by the prediction errors under various novel conditions as compared to the benchmark values with no extrapolation. Analyses of the model parameters led to insights into human movement production and control. The resulting model also offers computational simplicity and efficiency, a much desired attribute for digital applications.
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