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Technical Paper

Analysis of Various Driving Parameters and Emissions for Passenger Cars Driven With and Without Stops at Intersections under Different Test Cycles

Different driving test cycles, the Leeds-West Park (LWP) loop and the Leeds-High Park (LHP) or HPL-A and B (Leeds-Hyde Park Loop-A or B, hereafter referred as HPL-A or B cycle) loop were selected for this urban intersection research and results are presented in this study. Different emissions-compliant petrol passenger cars (EURO 1, 2, 3 and 4) were compared for their real-world emissions. A reasonable distance of steady state speed was needed and for the analysis made in this paper were chosen vehicle speeds at ~20, ~30 and ~40 km/h. Specific spot of periods of driving at the speeds mentioned above were identified, then the starting and ending point was found and the total emissions in g for that period divided by the distance was calculated. A typical urban driving cycle including a loop and a section of straight road was used for the comparison test as it was similar to the legislative ECE15 urban driving cycle.
Technical Paper

Cold Start SI Passenger Car Emissions from Real World Urban Congested Traffic

The tailpipe exhaust emissions were measured under real world urban driving conditions by using a EURO4 emissions compliant SI car equipped with an on-board heated FTIR for speciated gaseous emission measurements, a differential GPS for travel profiles, thermocouples for temperatures, and a MAX fuel meter for transient fuel consumption. Emissions species were measured at 0.5 Hz. The tests were designed to enable cold start to occur into congested traffic, typical of the situation of people living alongside congested roads into a large city. The cold start was monitored through temperature measurements of the TWC front and rear face temperatures and lubricating oil temperatures. The emissions are presented to the end of the cold start, defined when the downstream TWC face temperature is hotter than the front face which occurred at ∼350-400oC. Journeys at various times of the day were conducted to investigate traffic flow impacts on the cold start.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Circumferential Waviness of the Journal on the Lubrication of Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearings

Current trends in automotive engine design are towards smaller, lighter components operating under higher specific loads. Consequently, engine bearings are expected to operate under highly stressed conditions, with minimum lubricant film thicknesses falling below 1μm. There is, however, insufficient understanding of acceptable tolerances on surface geometry of bearing shells and crankshaft pins. Measurement data suggest that some engine crankpins are machined with as many as 21 circumferential lobes. Some lobes have amplitudes in excess of 5 μm and are thought to be responsible for premature bearing damage. This study presents results from a theoretical analysis of dynamically loaded journal bearings with circumferential lobes on the journal. The Reynolds equation for a rigid journal bearing is solved for an incompressible, Newtonian, iso-viscous lubricant, with a flow conserving cavitation model accommodating oil film history.
Technical Paper

The Role of Exhaust Pipe and Incylinder Deposits on Diesel Particulate Composition

Diesel engine exhaust pipe and incylinder deposits were analysed for the global fuel, lube oil, carbon and ash fractions for a range of diesel engines. A large SOF fraction, typically 30%, was found and this was dominated by lubricating oil. These deposits are shown to contain significant levels of PAH and hence provide a source of diesel PAH emissions and possible sites for incylinder pyrosynthesis of high molecular weight PAH. A Perkins 4-236 NA DI was used to investigate the role of exhaust pipe deposits on PAH emissions. It was shown that PAH compounds could be volatilised from the exhaust pipe. The difference in the exhaust inlet and outlet particulate composition for diesel and kerosene fuels was used to quantify the n-alkane and PAH emissions originating from the exhaust pipe deposits. Comparison with pure PAH free fuels showed that the exhaust outlet PAH composition was similar to that expected from the exhaust pipe deposits.
Journal Article

Waste Lubricating Oil as a Source of Hydrogen Fuel using Chemical Looping Steam Reforming

Initial results are presented for the production of hydrogen from waste lubricating oil using a chemical looping reforming (CLR) process. The development of flexible and sustainable sources of hydrogen will be required to facilitate a "hydrogen economy." The novel CLR process presented in this paper has an advantage over hydrogen production from conventional steam reforming because CLR can use complex, low value, waste oils. Also, because the process is scalable to small and medium size, hydrogen can be produced close to where it is required, minimizing transport costs. Waste lubricating oil typically contains 13-14% weight of hydrogen, which through the steam reforming process could produce a syngas containing around 75 vol% H₂, representing over 40 wt% of the fuel. The waste oil was converted to a hydrogen-rich syngas in a packed bed reactor, using a Ni/ Al₂O₃ catalyst as the oxygen transfer material (OTM).