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Technical Paper

Battery Thermal Management Simulation - 1D+1D Electrochemical Battery and 3D Module Modeling on Vehicle System Level

Approaching engineering limits for the thermal design of battery modules requires virtual prototyping and appropriate models with respect to physical depth and computational effort. A multi-scale and multi-domain model describes the electrochemical behavior of a single battery unit cell in 1D+1D at the level of intra-cell phenomena, and it applies a 3D thermal model at module level. Both models are connected within a common vehicle simulation platform. The models are discussed with special emphasis on battery degradation such as solid electrolyte interphase layer formation, decomposition and lithium plating. The performance of the electrochemical model is assessed by discharge cycles and repeated charge/discharge simulations. The thermal module model is compared to CFD reference data and studied with respect to its grid sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection, Combustion and Emission Formation for Engine Optimization and Calibration on Real-Time Systems

The present work introduces an innovative mechanistically based 0D spray model which is coupled to a combustion model on the basis of an advanced mixture controlled combustion approach. The model calculates the rate of heat release based on the injection rate profile and the in-cylinder state. The air/fuel distribution in the spray is predicted based on momentum conservation by applying first principles. On the basis of the 2-zone cylinder framework, NOx emissions are calculated by the Zeldovich mechanism. The combustion and emission models are calibrated and validated with a series of dedicated test bed data specifically revealing its capability of describing the impact of variations of EGR, injection timing, and injection pressure. A model based optimization is carried out, aiming at an optimum trade-off between fuel consumption and engine-out emissions. The findings serve to estimate an economic optimum point in the NOx/BSFC trade-off.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Real-Time Capable Engine and Vehicle Simulation - Fuel Consumption and Driving Performance

The present work introduces a fully integrated real-time (RT) capable engine and vehicle model. The gas path and drive line are described in the time domain of seconds whereas the reciprocating characteristics of an IC engine are reflected by a crank angle resolved cylinder model. The RT engine model is derived from a high fidelity 1D cycle simulation and gas exchange model to support an efficient and consistent transfer of model data like geometries, heat transfer or combustion. The workflow of model calibration and application is outlined and base ECU functionalities for boost pressure, EGR, smoke and idle speed control are applied for transient engine operation. Steady state results of the RT engine model are compared to experimental data and 1D high fidelity simulations for 19 different engine load points. In addition an NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) is simulated and results are evaluated with data from chassis dynamometer measurements.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Hybrid Power Trains-Physical Based Modeling for Concept Design

This paper presents a comparison of a hybrid and a conventional powertrain using physical based simulation models on the system engineering level. The system engineering model comprises mechanistic sub-models of the internal combustion engine including exhaust aftertreatment devices, electric components, mechanical drivetrain, thermoregulation system and the corresponding controllers. Essential sub-models are discussed in detail and their interaction on the system level is pointed out. Special attention is paid to compile a real-time capable model by combining mean value air path and drivetrain models with a crank-angle resolved cylinder description and quasi-steady state considerations applied in electrical and cooling networks. A turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine is modeled and calibrated based on steady-state measurements. The conversion performance of a three way catalyst is compared to light-off measurements.