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Technical Paper

A Computational Study on the Impact of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Fluctuations on Fuel Consumption and Knock in Steady-State and Drivecycle Operation

In spark-ignition engines, fluctuations of the in-cylinder pressure trace and the apparent rate of heat release are usually observed from one cycle to another. These Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV) are affected by the early flame development and the subsequent flame front propagation. The CCV are responsible for engine performance (e.g. fuel consumption) and the knock behavior. The occurrence of the phenomena is unpredictable and the stochastic nature offers challenges in the optimization of engine control strategies. In the present work, CCV are analyzed in terms of their impact on the engine knock behavior and the related efficiency. Target is to estimate the possible fuel consumption savings in steady-state operation and in the drivecycle, when CCV are reduced. Since CCV are immanent on real engines, such a study can only be done by means of simulation.
Technical Paper

A Scalable Simulation Method for the Assessment of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Variations and their impact on Fuel Consumption and Knock

In the present work, a scalable simulation methodology is presented that enables the assessment of the impact of SI-engine cycle-to-cycle combustion variations on fuel consumption and hence CO2 emissions on three different levels of modeling depth: in-cylinder, steady-state engine and transient engine and vehicle simulation. On the detailed engine combustion chamber level, a 3D-CFD approach is used to study the impact of the turbulent in-cylinder flow on the cycle-resolved flame propagation characteristics. On engine level, cycle-to-cycle combustion variations are assessed regarding their impact on indicated mean effective pressure, aiming at estimating the possible fuel consumption savings when cyclic variations are minimized. Finally, on the vehicle system level, a combined real-time engine approach with crank-angle resolved cylinder is used to assess the potential fuel consumption savings for different vehicle drivecycle conditions.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Approach for Vehicle Life-Time Thermal Analysis Applied to a HEV Battery System

In order to meet current and future emission and CO2 targets, an efficient vehicle thermal management system is one of the key factors in conventional as well as in electrified powertrains. Global vehicle simulation is already a well-established tool to support the vehicle development process. In contrast to conventional vehicles, electrified powertrains offer an additional challenge to the thermal conditioning: the durability of E-components is not only influenced by temperature peaks but also by the duration and amplitude of temperature swings as well as temperature gradients within the components during their lifetime. Keeping all components always at the preferred lowest temperature level to avoid ageing under any conditions (driving, parking, etc.) will result in very high energy consumption which is in contradiction to the efficiency targets.
Technical Paper

Automated EMS Calibration using Objective Driveability Assessment and Computer Aided Optimization Methods

Future demands regarding emissions, fuel consumption and driveability lead to complex engine and power train control systems. The calibration of the increasing number of free parameters in the ECU's contradicts the demand for reduced time in the power train development cycle. This paper will focus on the automatic, unmanned closed loop optimization of driveability quality on a high dynamic engine test bed. The collaboration of three advanced methods will be presented: Objective real time driveability assessment, to predict the expected feelings of the buyers of the car Automatic computer assisted variation of ECU parameters on the basis of statistical methods like design of experiments (DoE). Thus data are measured in an automated process allowing an optimization based on models (e.g. neural networks).
Technical Paper

Battery Thermal Management Simulation - 1D+1D Electrochemical Battery and 3D Module Modeling on Vehicle System Level

Approaching engineering limits for the thermal design of battery modules requires virtual prototyping and appropriate models with respect to physical depth and computational effort. A multi-scale and multi-domain model describes the electrochemical behavior of a single battery unit cell in 1D+1D at the level of intra-cell phenomena, and it applies a 3D thermal model at module level. Both models are connected within a common vehicle simulation platform. The models are discussed with special emphasis on battery degradation such as solid electrolyte interphase layer formation, decomposition and lithium plating. The performance of the electrochemical model is assessed by discharge cycles and repeated charge/discharge simulations. The thermal module model is compared to CFD reference data and studied with respect to its grid sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection, Combustion and Emission Formation for Engine Optimization and Calibration on Real-Time Systems

The present work introduces an innovative mechanistically based 0D spray model which is coupled to a combustion model on the basis of an advanced mixture controlled combustion approach. The model calculates the rate of heat release based on the injection rate profile and the in-cylinder state. The air/fuel distribution in the spray is predicted based on momentum conservation by applying first principles. On the basis of the 2-zone cylinder framework, NOx emissions are calculated by the Zeldovich mechanism. The combustion and emission models are calibrated and validated with a series of dedicated test bed data specifically revealing its capability of describing the impact of variations of EGR, injection timing, and injection pressure. A model based optimization is carried out, aiming at an optimum trade-off between fuel consumption and engine-out emissions. The findings serve to estimate an economic optimum point in the NOx/BSFC trade-off.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Real-Time Capable Engine and Vehicle Simulation - Fuel Consumption and Driving Performance

The present work introduces a fully integrated real-time (RT) capable engine and vehicle model. The gas path and drive line are described in the time domain of seconds whereas the reciprocating characteristics of an IC engine are reflected by a crank angle resolved cylinder model. The RT engine model is derived from a high fidelity 1D cycle simulation and gas exchange model to support an efficient and consistent transfer of model data like geometries, heat transfer or combustion. The workflow of model calibration and application is outlined and base ECU functionalities for boost pressure, EGR, smoke and idle speed control are applied for transient engine operation. Steady state results of the RT engine model are compared to experimental data and 1D high fidelity simulations for 19 different engine load points. In addition an NEDC (New European Drive Cycle) is simulated and results are evaluated with data from chassis dynamometer measurements.
Journal Article

Definition of Gearshift Pattern: Innovative Optimization Procedures Using System Simulation

Today's powertrains are becoming more and more complex due to the increasing number of gear box types requiring gearshift patterns like conventional (equipped with GSI) and automatic-manual transmissions (AT, AMT), double clutch and continuous variable transmissions (DCT, CVT). This increasing variety of gear boxes requires a higher effort for the overall optimization of the powertrain. At the same time, it is necessary to assess the impact of different powertrains and control strategies on CO₂ emissions very early in the development process. The optimization of Gear Shift Patterns (G.S.P.) has to fulfill multiple constraints in terms of objective customers' requirements, like driveability, NVH, performance, emissions and fuel consumption. For these reasons, RENAULT and AVL entered an engineering collaboration in order to develop a dedicated simulation tool: CRUISE GSP.
Technical Paper

Increased 2-Wheeler Development Efficiency by Using a New Dedicated Test System Solution

Fuel consumption is the most important contributor to the total cost of ownership for mass produced motorcycles. Therefore, best fuel economy is one main influencing criteria for a decision to purchase motorcycles. Furthermore, increasingly stringent emission legislations limit and additional OBD requirements must be fulfilled. A new combined test approach has been developed that minimizes accuracy losses in the development process which compensates for the variability of driving behavior in the chassis dyno environment. An engine testbed combined with a belt drive transmission enables operation in single engine or in Powerpack (i.e. internal combustion engine including transmission) configuration as well as under steady state or dynamic operating mode. Since the belt drive transmission is integrated in the test rig, realistic inertia situation for the single engine operating test configuration is ensured.
Technical Paper

Modeling of the System Level Electric Drive using Efficiency Maps Obtained by Simulation Methods

This work presents a physical model that calculates the efficiency maps of the inverter-fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) drive. The corresponding electrical machine and its controller are implemented based on the two-phase (d-q) equivalent circuits that take into account the copper loss as well as the iron loss of the PMSM. A control strategy that optimizes the machine efficiency is applied in the controller to maximize the possible output torque. In addition, the model applies an analytical method to predict the losses of the voltage source inverter. Consequently, the efficiency maps within the entire operating region of the PMSM drive can be derived from the simulation results, and they are used to represent electric drives in the system simulation model of electric vehicles (EVs).
Technical Paper

The OBD System Development Database - a Solution for Knowledge Management and Tool Supported Control System Design and Calibration

The correct information about legal demands of the On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) system in a vehicle project is required throughout the entire development process. Usually, the main obstacle in succeeding is to provide the company's expertise of some few experts for all employees who work in OBD related projects. The paper describes the AVL solution for knowledge management and tool supported control system design and calibration: OBD System Development Database. The software enables the user to access the regulatory requirements for a specific application and legislation from past, present and future (proposed rule-making) point of view. Information concerning already available and stored monitoring concepts is linked to the requirements in order to re-use potentially suitable concepts and to enable an efficient knowledge exchange within the company.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Thermal Management Simulation Method Integrated in the Development Process from Scratch to Prototype

In order to meet current and future emission and CO2 targets, an efficient vehicle thermal management system is one of the key factors in conventional as well as in electrified powertrains. Furthermore the increasing number of vehicle configurations leads to a high variability and degrees of freedom in possible system designs and the control thereof, which can only be handled by a comprehensive tool chain of vehicle system simulation and a generic control system architecture. The required model must comprise all relevant systems of the vehicle (control functionality, cooling system, lubrication system, engine, drive train, HV components etc.). For proper prediction with respect to energy consumption all interactions and interdependencies of those systems have to be taken into consideration, i.e. all energy fluxes (mechanical, hydraulically, electrical, thermal) have to be exchanged among the system boundaries accordingly.