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Technical Paper

Analysis of Fast Charging Station Network for Electrified Ride-Hailing Services

Today’s electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles mostly at home and seldom use public direct current fast charger (DCFCs), reducing the need for a large deployment of DCFCs for private EV owners. However, due to the emerging interest among transportation network companies to operate EVs in their fleet, there is great potential for DCFCs to be highly utilized and become economically feasible in the future. This paper describes a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of EVs within a hypothetical transportation network company fleet using a large global positioning system data set from Columbus, Ohio. DCFC requirements supporting operation of EVs are estimated using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool. Operation and installation costs were estimated using real-world data to assess the economic feasibility of the recommended fast charging stations.
Technical Paper

Clean and Cost-effective Dry Boundary Lubricants for Aluminum Forming

Preliminary research in our laboratory has demonstrated that boric acid is an effective lubricant with an unusual capacity to reduce the sliding friction (providing friction coefficients as low as 0.02) and wear of metallic and ceramic materials. More recent studies have revealed that water or methanol solutions of boric acid can be used to prepare strongly bonded layers of boric acid on aluminum surfaces. It appears that boric acid molecules have a strong tendency to bond chemically to the naturally oxidized surfaces of aluminum and its alloys and to make these surfaces very slippery. Recent metal-formability tests indicated that the boric acid films applied to aluminum surfaces worked quite well, improving draw scale performance by 58 to 75%.
Journal Article

Design of an On-Road PHEV Fuel Economy Testing Methodology with Built-In Utility Factor Distance Weighting

As vehicle technology progresses to new levels of sophistication, so too, vehicle test methods must evolve. This is true for analytical testing in a laboratory and for on-road vehicle testing. Every year since 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and original equipment manufacturer (OEM) sponsors have organized a series of competitions featuring advanced hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technology to develop and promote DOE goals in fuel savings and alternative fuel usage. The competition has evolved over many years and has included many alternative fuels feeding the prime mover (including hydrogen fuel cells). EcoCAR turned its focus to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and it was quickly realized that to keep using on-road testing methods to evaluate fuel and electricity consumption, a new method needed to be developed that would properly weight depleting operation with the sustaining operation, using the established Utility Factor (UF) method.
Technical Paper

Development in Lost Foam Casting of Magnesium

Preliminary work was conducted in the casting of magnesium using the lost foam casting process. The lost foam or expendable pattern casting (EPC) process is capable of making extremely complicated part shapes at acceptable soundness levels and with low manufacturing costs. Standard test shapes were used to determine the ability of the magnesium to fill the mold and to assess the types of defects encountered. This paper will briefly explain how this project evolved including the developmental strategies formed, the products selected, the casting trials performed, and the casting results.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Consumption Standards for Chinese Light-Duty Vehicles

To restrain the phenomenal increase in oil consumption in China, the Chinese government called for measures to reduce oil consumption of the road transportation sector through adopting vehicle fuel consumption standards. This paper describes the development of China's first set of fuel consumption standards for light-duty passenger vehicles. The adopted standards cover M1 class vehicles, which, according to European definition (and adopted by China), include passenger cars, minivans, and sports utility vehicles (SUVs). In particular, we present the goal, technical background, structure, and values of the adopted standards. We also present their potential effect on oil use reduction. The standards are set in liters of fuel consumption per 100 km for individual vehicle weight categories. The standards are maximum fuel consumption values for given vehicle weight categories.
Technical Paper

Diffusive Sampling of US Navy Submarine Atmospheres

The atmospheres of US Navy Submarines are unique closed environments in which sailors both live and work for extended periods. Although this atmosphere is continuously monitored with a real-time, mass spectrometer-based Central Atmosphere Monitoring System (CAMS), the ability to measure trace constituents is limited. The identity, concentrations and distributions of trace constituents have been studied more exhaustively, in some cases for as long as the duration of a patrol, using conventional active air sampling methods such as passivated stainless steel canisters and solid sorbent tubes. The results from these studies indicate that trace constituents are generally present at concentrations well below levels that would present health concerns. However, these studies also show that there is a fairly wide variation in such levels over time, operational conditions, submarine and class of submarine.
Journal Article

Life Cycle Analysis of 1995-2014 U.S. Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet: The Environmental Implications of Vehicle Material Composition Changes

Vehicle lightweighting has been a focus of the automotive industry, as car manufacturers seek to comply with corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards for model year (MY) 2017-2025 vehicles. However, when developing a lightweight vehicle design, the automotive industry typically targets maximum vehicle weight reduction at minimal cost increase. In this paper, we consider the environmental impacts of the lightweighting technology options. The materials used for vehicle lightweighting include high-strength steel (HSS), aluminum, magnesium and carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Except for HSS, the production of these light materials is more GHG-intensive (on a kg-to-kg basis) compared with the conventional automotive materials they substitute. Lightweighting with these materials, therefore, may partially offset the GHG emission reductions achieved through improved fuel economy.
Journal Article

Lignin-Derived Carbon Fiber as a Co-Product of Refining Cellulosic Biomass

Lignin by-products from biorefineries has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to petroleum-based precursors to manufacture carbon fiber, which can be combined with a binding matrix to produce a structural material with much greater specific strength and specific stiffness than conventional materials such as steel and aluminum. The market for carbon fiber is universally projected to grow exponentially to fill the needs of clean energy technologies such as wind turbines and to improve the fuel economies in vehicles through lightweighting. In addition to cellulosic biofuel production, lignin-based carbon fiber production coupled with biorefineries may provide $2,400 to $3,600 added value dry Mg−1 of biomass for vehicle applications. Compared to producing ethanol alone, the addition of lignin-derived carbon fiber could increase biorefinery gross revenue by 30% to 300%.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Failure Modes Induced by Plastic Strain Localization in Dual Phase Steels

Microstructure level inhomogeneities between the harder martensite phase and the softer ferrite phase render the dual phase (DP) steels more complicated failure mechanisms and associated failure modes compared to the conventionally used low alloy homogenous steels. This paper examines the failure mode DP780 steel under different loading conditions using finite element analyses on the microstructure levels. Micro-mechanics analyses based on the actual microstructures of DP steel are performed. The two-dimensional microstructure of DP steel was recorded by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plastic work hardening properties of the ferrite phase was determined by the synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffraction technique. The work hardening properties of the martensite phase were calibrated and determined based on the uniaxial tensile test results. Under different loading conditions, different failure modes are predicted in the form of plastic strain localization.
Technical Paper

Near-Frictionless Carbon Coatings for Use in Fuel Injectors and Pump Systems Operating with Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuels

While sulfur in diesel fuels helps reduce friction and prevents wear and galling in fuel pump and injector systems, it also creates environmental pollution in the form of hazardous particulates and SO2 emissions. The environmental concern is the driving force behind industry's efforts to come up with new alternative approaches to this problem. One such approach is to replace sulfur in diesel fuels with other chemicals that would maintain the antifriction and antiwear properties provided by sulfur in diesel fuels while at the same time reducing particulate emissions. A second alternative might be to surface-treat fuel injection parts (i.e., nitriding, carburizing, or coating the surfaces) to reduce or eliminate failures associated with the use of low-sulfur diesel fuels. Our research explores the potential usefulness of a near-frictionless carbon (NFC) film developed at Argonne National Laboratory in alleviating the aforementioned problems.
Technical Paper

Separation Techniques for Auto Shredder Residue

Disposal of automobile shredder residue (ASR), remaining from the reclamation of steel from junked automobiles, promises to be an increasing environmental and economic concern. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is investigating alternative technology for recovering value from ASR while also, it is hoped, lessening landfill disposal concerns. Of the ASR total, some 20% by weight consists of plastics. Preliminary work at ANL is being directed toward developing a protocol, both mechanical and chemical (solvent dissolution), to separate and recover polyurethane foam and the major thermoplastic fraction from ASR. Feasibility has been demonstrated in laboratory-size equipment.
Technical Paper

Tahoe HEV Model Development in PSAT

Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL), working with the FreedomCAR and Fuels Partnership, lead activities in vehicle dynamometer and fleet testing as well as in modeling activities. By using Argonne’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF), the General Motors (GM) Tahoe 2-mode was instrumented and tested in the 4-wheel-drive test facility. Measurements included both sensors and controller area network (CAN) messages. In this paper, we describe the vehicle instrumentation as well as the test results. On the basis of the analysis performed, we discuss the vehicle model developed in Argonne’s vehicle simulation tool, the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT), and its comparison with test data. Finally, on-road vehicle data, performed by INL, is discussed and compared with the dynamometer results.
Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.
Journal Article

X-ray Imaging of Cavitation in Diesel Injectors

Cavitation plays a significant role in high pressure diesel injectors. However, cavitation is difficult to measure under realistic conditions. X-ray phase contrast imaging has been used in the past to study the internal geometry of fuel injectors and the structure of diesel sprays. In this paper we extend the technique to make in-situ measurements of cavitation inside unmodified diesel injectors at pressures of up to 1200 bar through the steel nozzle wall. A cerium contrast agent was added to a diesel surrogate, and the changes in x-ray intensity caused by changes in the fluid density due to cavitation were measured. Without the need to modify the injector for optical access, realistic injection and ambient pressures can be obtained and the effects of realistic nozzle geometries can be investigated. A range of single and multi-hole injectors were studied, both sharp-edged and hydro-ground. Cavitation was observed to increase with higher rail pressures.