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Technical Paper

Comparison of the Homogeneous Relaxation Model and a Rayleigh Plesset Cavitation Model in Predicting the Cavitating Flow Through Various Injector Hole Shapes

Two cavitation models are evaluated based on their ability to reproduce the development of cavitation experimentally observed by Winklhofer et al. inside injector hole geometries. The first is Singhal's model, derived from a reduced form of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation, implemented in the commercial CFD package Fluent. The second is the homogeneous relaxation model, a continuum model that uses an empirical timescale to reproduce a range of vaporization mechanisms, implemented in the OpenFOAM framework. Previous work by Neroorkar et al. validated the homogeneous relaxation model for one of the nozzle geometries tested by Winklhofer et al. The present work extends that validation to all the three geometries considered by Winklhofer et al in order to compare the models' ability to capture the effects of nozzle convergence.
Technical Paper

Parallel Computation of Mesh Motion for CFD of IC Engines

The burden of creating meshes increases the cost of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and slows the rate at which new engine geometries can be investigated. Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) with moving valves and piston present a special challenge, often requiring numerous different target meshes or case-specific codes for adapting the mesh. The goal of the present paper is to facilitate remeshing by calculating vertex motion, in parallel, for hybrid tetrahedral and hexahedral meshes. The calculated vertex motion is intended to maintain good mesh quality and reduce the need for interpolation to a new mesh. The demonstrated approach uses Laplacian-based smoothing for hexahedral cells and optimization-based smoothing for tetrahedral cells. Further, planar and cylindrical surfaces in the engine geometry are automatically recognized. As the engine volume changes shape, vertices may slide along the planar and cylindrical surfaces.
Journal Article

Single-Hole Asymmetric GDI Injector: Influence of the Drill Angle and the Counter-Bore under Flash-Boiling and Non-Flash-Boiling Conditions

Sac-type nozzles, which are often used in gasoline direct injection (DI), induce asymmetry to the spray. The drill angle, that is, the angle between the axis of the nozzle and the axis of the injector, is one of the key causes of the asymmetric flow. Despite its significance, the influence of the drill angle on spray is poorly understood. In the current work, a parametric study has been carried out using single-hole sac-type nozzles by varying the drill angle. The drill angle was varied from a value of 0° to 45° in steps of 15°. Apart from the geometric variation, the ambient pressure and the fuel temperature were varied to achieve flash-boiling and non-flash-boiling spray conditions. Simulations were carried out using an in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver that accounts for thermodynamic non-equilibrium coupled with a liquid-gas interface-area-density transport model to account for primary atomization of the fuel.