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Journal Article

A Copula-Based Approach for Model Bias Characterization

2014-04-01
2014-01-0735
Available methodologies for model bias identification are mainly regression-based approaches, such as Gaussian process, Bayesian inference-based models and so on. Accuracy and efficiency of these methodologies may degrade for characterizing the model bias when more system inputs are considered in the prediction model due to the curse of dimensionality for regression-based approaches. This paper proposes a copula-based approach for model bias identification without suffering the curse of dimensionality. The main idea is to build general statistical relationships between the model bias and the model prediction including all system inputs using copulas so that possible model bias distributions can be effectively identified at any new design configurations of the system. Two engineering case studies whose dimensionalities range from medium to high will be employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the copula-based approach.
Technical Paper

A Distributed Control System Framework for Automotive Powertrain Control with OSEK Standard and CAN Network

1999-03-01
1999-01-1276
This paper presents a distributed control system framework for next-generation automotive control systems, in which various control units are connected with CAN bus. The framework is a software platform that performs communication between control units and invocation of application programs. The framework includes necessary functions for data transmission to meet end-to-end timing constraints in distributed control systems. Application programmers don't have to write any communication procedure but focus on developing application programs with appropriate API (Application Program Interface). The framework is based on driving force management and also OSEK, which is a standard real-time operating system (OSEK-OS) and a communication protocol (CAN) for automotive control. We are now applying our prototype framework to an adaptive cruise control system in our experimental vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Dual-Use Enterprise Context for Vehicle Design and Technology Valuation

2004-03-08
2004-01-1588
Developing a new technology requires decision-makers to understand the technology's implications on an organization's objectives, which depend on user needs targeted by the technology. If these needs are common between two organizations, collaboration could result in more efficient technology development. For hybrid truck design, both commercial manufacturers and the military have similar performance needs. As the new technology penetrates the truck market, the commercial enterprise must quantify how the hybrid's superior fuel efficiency will impact consumer purchasing and, thus, future enterprise profits. The Army is also interested in hybrid technology as it continues its transformation to a more fuel-efficient force. Despite having different objectives, maximizing profit and battlefield performance, respectively, the commercial enterprise and Army can take advantage of their mutual needs.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Optimization of the Traction Motor Design Based on the Series-HEV System Level Goals

2014-04-01
2014-01-1801
The fidelity of the hybrid electric vehicle simulation is increased with the integration of a computationally-efficient finite-element based electric machine model, in order to address optimization of component design for system level goals. In-wheel electric motors are considered because of the off-road military application which differs significantly from commercial HEV applications. Optimization framework is setup by coupling the vehicle simulation to the constrained optimization solver. Utilizing the increased design flexibility afforded by the model, the solver is able to reshape the electric machine's efficiency map to better match the vehicle operation points. As the result, the favorable design of the e-machine is selected to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce cost, while satisfying performance constraints.
Technical Paper

A Magic Cube Approach for Crashworthiness Design

2006-04-03
2006-01-0671
Vehicle structure crashworthiness design is one of the most challenging problems in product development and it has been studied for decades. Challenges still remain, which include developing a reliable and systematic approach for general crashworthiness design problems, which can be used to design an optimum vehicle structure in terms of topology, shape, and size, and for both structural layout and material layout. In this paper, an advanced and systematic approach is presented, which is called Magic Cube (MQ) approach for crashworthiness design. The proposed MQ approach consists of three major dimensions: Decomposition, Design Methodology, and General Considerations. The Decomposition dimension is related to the major approaches developed for the crashworthiness design problem, which has three layers: Time (Process) Decomposition, Space Decomposition, and Scale Decomposition.
Technical Paper

A Network-Based Expert System for Comparative Analysis of Pulley Assembly Methods

1990-02-01
900818
The pulleys employed in automotive accessory drive systems very often consist of a two piece assembly; a multitude of fastening techniques are used in completing the assembly. There are numerous assembly methods and a variety of distinct pulley configurations dictated by the various automobile manufacturers in accordance with individual accessory drive needs. An expert system is being developed to evaluate the merit of multiple assembly alternatives for a specific pulley application. The expert system provides a consistent evaluation tool for assembly alternatives, balancing the influence of product cost, strength and quality considerations. The knowledge-based system is implemented in an expert system shell called AGNESS (A Generalized Network-based Expert System Shell). The expert system judges the acceptability of various pulley assembly techniques, assigning a high “merit value” to the better designs and proportionately lower values to less desirable designs.
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Modeling Driver Reach

2003-03-03
2003-01-0587
The reach capability of drivers is currently represented in vehicle design practice in two ways. The SAE Recommended Practice J287 presents maximum reach capability surfaces for selected percentiles of a generic driving population. Driver reach is also simulated using digital human figure models. In typical applications, a family of figure models that span a large range of the target driver population with respect to body dimensions is positioned within a digital mockup of the driver's workstation. The articulated segments of the figure model are exercised to simulate reaching motions and driver capabilities are calculated from the constraints of the kinematic model. Both of these current methods for representing driver reach are substantially limited. The J287 surfaces are not configurable for population characteristics, do not provide the user with the ability to adjust accommodation percentiles, and do not provide any guidance on the difficulty of reaches that are attainable.
Journal Article

A Reduced-Order Model for Evaluating the Dynamic Response of Multilayer Plates to Impulsive Loads

2016-04-05
2016-01-0307
Assessing the dynamic performance of multilayer plates subjected to impulsive loading is of interest for identifying configurations that either absorb energy or transmit the energy in the transverse directions, thereby mitigating the through-thickness energy propagation. A reduced-order modeling approach is presented in this paper for rapidly evaluating the structural dynamic performance of various multilayer plate designs. The new approach is based on the reverberation matrix method (RMM) with the theory of generalized rays for fast analysis of the structural dynamic characteristics of multilayer plates. In the RMM model, the waves radiated from the dynamic load are reflected and refracted at each interface between layers, and the waves within each layer are transmitted with a phase lag. These two phenomena are represented by the global scattering matrix and the global phase matrix, respectively.
Technical Paper

A Substructuring Formulation for the Energy Finite Element Analysis

2007-05-15
2007-01-2325
In applications of the Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) there is an increasing need for developing comprehensive models with a large number of elements which include both structural and interior fluid elements, while certain parts of the structure are considered to be exposed to an external fluid loading. In order to accommodate efficient computations when using simulation models with a large number of elements, joints, and domains, a substructuring computational capability has been developed. The new algorithm is based on dividing the EFEA model into substructures with internal and interface degrees of freedom. The system of equations for each substructure is assembled and solved separately and the information is condensed to the interface degrees of freedom. The condensed systems of equations from each substructure are assembled in a reduced global system of equations. Once the global system of equations has been solved the solution for each substructure is pursued.
Technical Paper

A Two-Tracer LIF Strategy for Quantitative Oxygen Imaging in Engines Applied to Study the Influence of Skip-Firing on In-Cylinder Oxygen Contents of an SIDI Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-1114
The effect of skip-firing (which is often applied in optical engine work) on the available in-cylinder oxygen concentration was investigated with a laser-induced fluorescence imaging setup that combines the measurement of fluorescence signals from toluene and 3-pentanone to quantitatively determine the distribution of molecular oxygen. We describe in detail the image processing procedure for this measurement. The reduction of in-cylinder oxygen when switching from skip-fired to continuous-fired engine operation is measured and compared to traditional exhaust measurements.
Technical Paper

ADAS Feature Concepts Development Framework via a Low Cost RC Car

2017-03-28
2017-01-0116
ADAS features development involves multidisciplinary technical fields, as well as extensive variety of different sensors and actuators, therefore the early design process requires much more resources and time to collaborate and implement. This paper will demonstrate an alternative way of developing prototype ADAS concept features by using remote control car with low cost hobby type of controllers, such as Arduino Due and Raspberry Pi. Camera and a one-beam type Lidar are implemented together with Raspberry Pi. OpenCV free open source software is also used for developing lane detection and object recognition. In this paper, we demonstrate that low cost frame work can be used for the high level concept algorithm architecture, development, and potential operation, as well as high level base testing of various features and functionalities. The developed RC vehicle can be used as a prototype of the early design phase as well as a functional safety testing bench.
Journal Article

Accessibility and User Performance Modeling for Inclusive Transit Bus Design

2014-04-01
2014-01-0463
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the impact of low- floor bus seating configuration, passenger load factor (PLF) and passenger characteristics on individual boarding and disembarking (B-D) times -a key component of vehicle dwell time and overall transit system performance. A laboratory study was conducted using a static full-scale mock-up of a low-floor bus. Users of wheeled mobility devices (n=48) and walking aids (n=22), and visually impaired (n=17) and able-bodied (n=17) users evaluated three bus layout configurations at two PLF levels yielding information on B-D performance. Statistical regression models of B-D times helped quantify relative contributions of layout, PLF, and user characteristics viz., impairment type, power grip strength, and speed of ambulation or wheelchair propulsion. Wheeled mobility device users, and individuals with lower grip strength and slower speed were impacted greater by vehicle design resulting in increased dwell time.
Technical Paper

Advanced Anthropomorphic Test Device Concept Definition

1985-01-01
856030
This paper summarizes the results of Phase 1, Concept Definition, of the AATD program and identifies the reasons such a new test device is needed. The following areas are addressed: 1) injury priority from accident data; 2) current dummy design, use, and potential improvements; and 3) technical characteristics and design concepts for a new AATD, its data processing, and its certification systems.
Technical Paper

An Architecture for Autonomous Agents in a Driving Simulator

2000-04-02
2000-01-1596
The addition of synthetic traffic to a driving simulation greatly enhances the realism of the virtual world. Giving this traffic human-like behavior is likewise desirable, and has been the focus of some research over the past few years. This paper presents a modular architecture for including autonomous traffic in a driving simulation, and describes the first steps taken toward the application of this architecture to the DaimlerChrysler Auburn Hills Simulator. By separating the planning part of the agent from the low-level control and vehicle dynamics systems, the described architecture permits the inclusion of powerful, previously developed components in a straightforward way; in the present application, agents use Soar to reason about their actions. This paper gives an overview of the structures of the agents, and of the entire system, describes the components and their implementations, and discusses the current state of the project and plans for the future.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Transient Heat Losses to Tank Wall During the Inflator Tank Test

1998-09-29
982326
A series of inflator tank tests was carried out to determine the amount of transient heat losses to the tank wall during these tests. The time history data of tank wall temperature, and tank interior gas temperature and pressure, were measured. The tank wall temperature data were analyzed using an inverse heat conduction method to generate the transient heat loss fluxes from the tank gas to the tank wall. The validity of the results are discussed along with the physical reasoning and experimental observations. This is the first part of an effort in a research project to develop a comprehensive heat transfer model to predict the transient heat losses to the tank wall during the inflator tank test.
Technical Paper

An Improved Seating Accommodation Model with Application to Different User Populations

1998-02-23
980651
A new approach to driver seat-position modeling is presented. The equations of the Seating Accommodation Model (SAM) separately predict parameters of the distributions of male and female fore/aft seat position in a given vehicle. These distributions are used together to predict specific percentiles of the combined male-and-female seat-position distribution. The effects of vehicle parameters-seat height, steering-wheel-to-accelerator pedal distance, seat-cushion angle, and transmission type-are reflected in the prediction of mean seat position. The mean and standard deviation of driver population stature are included in the prediction for the mean and standard deviation of the seat-position distribution, respectively. SAM represents a new, more flexible approach to predicting fore/aft seat-position distributions for any driver population in passenger vehicles. Model performance is good, even at percentiles in the tails of the distribution.
Technical Paper

An Optimization Study of Manufacturing Variation Effects on Diesel Injector Design with Emphasis on Emissions

2004-03-08
2004-01-1560
This paper investigates the effects of manufacturing variations in fuel injectors on the engine performance with emphasis on emissions. The variations are taken into consideration within a Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO) framework. A reduced version of Multi-Zone Diesel engine Simulation (MZDS), MZDS-lite, is used to enable the optimization study. The numerical noise of MZDS-lite prohibits the use of gradient-based optimization methods. Therefore, surrogate models are developed to filter out the noise and to reduce computational cost. Three multi-objective optimization problems are formulated, solved and compared: deterministic optimization using MZDS-lite, deterministic optimization using surrogate models and RBDO using surrogate models. The obtained results confirm that manufacturing variation effects must be taken into account in the early product development stages.
Technical Paper

Analysis of FEM Results Based upon FOA

2004-03-08
2004-01-1729
In FOA (First Order Analysis) any vehicle body structure might be interpreted as a collective simple structure that can be decomposed into 3 fundamental structure types. The first structure is the “BEAM”, whose cross sectional properties as well as its material dominates the mechanical behavior, the second is the “PANEL (shear panel, plate, and shell)”, whose mechanical behavior can be varied by changing its geometrical properties in the thickness direction, i.e. adding beads or flanges. The third structure is the “JOINT”, which connects the proceeding structures, and transfer complex three-dimensional loads with three-dimensional deformation. In the present work, we shall propose a methodology to identify a portion of an arbitrary FE model of an automotive body structure, with a “BEAM” structure in the FOA approach. In the latter chapter of this paper, cross section loads will be related with cross sectional properties in the aspect of the element strain energy concept.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Passenger Car Side Impacts - Crash Location, Injuries, AIS and Contacts

1992-02-01
920353
NASS 80-88 passenger side impacts data were analyzed. Location of primary car damage using the CDC classification, the AIS for injury severity studies, and the interior contacts of the various body areas. Drivers alone, or with passengers were studied separately in both left and right side crashes. Direct impacts to the passenger compartment only are less frequent than to other CDC side zones. Driver interior contacts vary by body region but also by side impacted in the crash. The presence of an unrestrained front passenger appears to enhance driver injury level in left side crashes but the presence of a passenger, in right side crashes appears to moderate driver injury severity.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion With a Sequential Fluid Mechanics-Multizone Chemical Kinetics Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0115
We have developed a methodology for analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) engines that applies to conditions in which there is some stratification in the air-fuel distribution inside the cylinder at the time of combustion. The analysis methodology consists of two stages: first, a fluid mechanics code is used to determine temperature and equivalence ratio distributions as a function of crank angle, assuming motored conditions. The distribution information is then used for grouping the mass in the cylinder into a two-dimensional (temperature-equivalence ratio) array of zones. The zone information is then handed on to a detailed chemical kinetics model that calculates combustion, emissions and engine efficiency information. The methodology applies to situations where chemistry and fluid mechanics are weakly linked.
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