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Journal Article

A Fatigue Life Prediction Method of Laser Assisted Self-Piercing Rivet Joint for Magnesium Alloys

2015-04-14
2015-01-0537
Due to magnesium alloy's poor weldability, other joining techniques such as laser assisted self-piercing rivet (LSPR) are used for joining magnesium alloys. This research investigates the fatigue performance of LSPR for magnesium alloys including AZ31 and AM60. Tensile-shear and coach peel specimens for AZ31 and AM60 were fabricated and tested for understanding joint fatigue performance. A structural stress - life (S-N) method was used to develop the fatigue parameters from load-life test results. In order to validate this approach, test results from multijoint specimens were compared with the predicted fatigue results of these specimens using the structural stress method. The fatigue results predicted using the structural stress method correlate well with the test results.
Technical Paper

A Test Method for Quantifying Residual Stress Due to Heat Treatment in Metals

2006-04-03
2006-01-0319
Quantification of residual stresses is an important engineering problem impacting manufacturabilty and durability of metallic components. An area of particular concern is residual stresses that can develop during heat treatment of metallic components. Many heat treatments, especially in heat treatable cast aluminum alloys, involve a water-quenching step immediately after a solution-treatment cycle. This rapid water quench has the potential to induce high residual stresses in regions of the castings that experience large thermal gradients. These stresses may be partially relaxed during the aging portion of the heat treatment. The goal of this research was to develop a test sample and quench technique to quantify the stresses created by steep thermal gradients during rapid quenching of cast aluminum. The development and relaxation of residual stresses during the aging cycle was studied experimentally with the use of strain gauges.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Temperatures and Stresses in Wet Friction Disks Involving Thermally Induced Changes of Contact Pressure

1998-09-14
982035
Thermal distortions of friction disks caused by frictional heating modify pressure distribution on friction surfaces. Pressure distribution, in turn, determines distribution of generated frictional heat. These interdependencies create a complex thermoelastic system that, under some conditions, may become unstable and may lead to severe pressure concentrations with very high local temperature and stress. The phenomenon is responsible for many common thermal failure modes of friction elements and is known as frictionally excited thermoelastic instability (TEI). In the paper, one of the cases of TEI is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The study involves a two-disk structure with one fiction disk and one matching steel disk that have one friction interface. An unsteady heat conduction problem and an elastic contact problem are modeled as axisymmetric ones and are solved using the finite element method.
Technical Paper

Bolt-Load Retention Behavior of Die-Cast AZ91D and AE42 Magnesium

1998-02-23
980090
The effect of temperature and preload on the bolt load retention (BLR) behavior of AZ91D and AE42 magnesium die castings was investigated. The results were compared to those of 380 aluminum die castings. Test temperatures from 125 to 175°C and preloads from 7 to 28 kN were investigated. The loss of preload for AZ91D was more sensitive to temperature than that observed for AE42, especially at low preloads. In general, retained bolt-load was lowest in AZ91D. All test assemblies were preloaded at room temperature and load levels increased when the assemblies reached test temperature. The load-increase was dependent on the preload level, test temperature, alloy, and results from thermal expansion mismatch between the steel bolt and the magnesium alloy components, mitigated by the onset of primary creep. Thermal exposure (aging) of AZ91D at 150°C improved BLR behavior.
Technical Paper

Bolt-Load Retention Behavior of a Die Cast Magnesium-Rare Earth Alloy

2001-03-05
2001-01-0425
The need for improved understanding of new magnesium alloys for the automotive industry continues to grow as the application for these lightweight alloys expands to more demanding environments, particularly in drivetrain components. Their use at elevated temperatures, such as in transmission cases, presents a challenge because magnesium alloys generally have lower creep resistance than aluminum alloys currently employed for such applications. In this study, a new die cast magnesium alloy, MEZ, containing rare earth (RE) elements and zinc as principal alloying constituents, was examined for its bolt-load retention (BLR) properties. Preloads varied from 14 to 28 kN and test temperatures ranged from 125 to 175°C. At all test temperatures and preloads, MEZ retained the greatest fraction of the initial imposed preload when compared to the magnesium alloys AZ91D, AE42, AM50, and the AM50+Ca series alloys.
Technical Paper

Bolt-Load Retention and Creep of Die-Cast Magnesium Alloys

1997-02-24
970325
New high-temperature Mg alloys are being considered to replace 380 Al in transmission cases, wherein bolt-load retention, and creep, is of prime concern. One of these alloys is die cast AE42, which has much better creep properties than does AZ91D but is still not as creep resistant as 380 Al. It is thus important to investigate bolt-load retention and creep of AE42 as an initial step in assessing its suitability as a material for transmission housings. To that end, the bolt-load retention behavior of die-cast AE42, AZ91D and 380 Al have been examined using standard M10 bolts specially instrumented with stable high-temperature strain gages. The bolt-load retention test pieces were die cast in geometries approximating the flange and boss regions in typical bolted joints. Bolt-load retention properties were examined as a function of time (at least 100 hours), temperature (150 and 175 °C) and initial bolt preload (14 to 34 kN).
Technical Paper

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic and Steel Vehicle Fuel Tanks

1998-11-30
982224
Federal standards that mandate improved fuel economy have resulted in the increased use of lightweight materials in automotive applications. However, the environmental burdens associated with a product extend well beyond the use phase. Life cycle assessment is the science of determining the environmental burdens associated with the entire life cycle of a given product from cradle-to-grave. This report documents the environmental burdens associated with every phase of the life cycle of two fuel tanks utilized in full-sized 1996 GM vans. These vans are manufactured in two configurations, one which utilizes a steel fuel tank, and the other a multi-layered plastic fuel tank consisting primarily of high density polyethylene (HDPE). This study was a collaborative effort between GM and the University of Michigan's National Pollution Prevention Center, which received funding from EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory.
Journal Article

Development and Validation of an Analytical Seal Bead Design Model for Automotive Superplastic Forming

2010-04-12
2010-01-0979
With the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles, technologies like superplastic forming (SPF) are being developed and implemented to allow for the utilization of lightweight automotive sheet materials. While forming under superplastic conditions leads to increased formability in lightweight alloys, such as aluminum, the slower forming times required by the technology can limit the technology to low to mid production levels. One problem that can increase forming time is the reduction of forming pressure due to pressurizing (forming) gas leaks, during the forming cycle, at the die/sheet/blankholder interface. Traditionally, such leaks have been successfully addressed through the use of a seal bead. However, for advanced die technologies that result in reduced cycle times (such as hot draw mechanical performing, which combine aspects of mechanical preforming of the sheet metal followed by SPF), the use of seal beads can restrict the drawing of sheet material into the forming die.
Technical Paper

Development of an Adaptive Workload Management System using Queueing Network-Model Human Processor (QN-MHP)

2008-04-14
2008-01-1251
The chance of vehicle collisions significantly increases when drivers are overloaded with information from in-vehicle systems. Developing adaptive workload management systems (AWMS) to dynamically control the rate of messages from these in-vehicle systems is one of the solutions to this problem. However, existing AWMSs do not use a model of driver cognitive system to estimate workload and only suppress or redirect in-vehicle system messages, without changing their rate based on driver workload. In this work, we propose a prototype of a new adaptive workload management system (QN-MHP AWMS) and it includes: a queueing network model of driver workload (Wu & Liu, In Press) that estimates driver workload in different driving situations, and a message controller that determines the optimal delay times between messages and dynamically controls the rate of messages presented to drivers.
Journal Article

Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling

2008-10-06
2008-01-2475
The buildup of deposits in EGR coolers causes significant degradation in heat transfer performance, often on the order of 20-30%. Deposits also increase pressure drop across coolers and thus may degrade engine efficiency under some operating conditions. It is unlikely that EGR cooler deposits can be prevented from forming when soot and HC are present. The presence of cooled surfaces will cause thermophoretic soot deposition and condensation of HC and acids. While this can be affected by engine calibration, it probably cannot be eliminated as long as cooled EGR is required for emission control. It is generally felt that “dry fluffy” soot is less likely to cause major fouling than “heavy wet” soot. An oxidation catalyst in the EGR line can remove HC and has been shown to reduce fouling in some applications. The combination of an oxidation catalyst and a wall-flow filter largely eliminates fouling. Various EGR cooler designs affect details of deposit formation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Pore Distributions on Ductility of Thin-Walled High Pressure Die-Cast Magnesium

2013-04-08
2013-01-0644
In this paper, a microstructure-based three-dimensional (3D) finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of porosity in thin-walled high pressure die-cast (HPDC) magnesium alloys on their ductility. For this purpose, the cross-sections of AM60 casting samples are first examined using optical microscope and X-ray tomography to obtain the general information on the pore distribution features. The experimentally observed pore distribution features are then used to generate a series of synthetic microstructure-based 3D finite element models with different pore volume fractions and pore distribution features. Shear and ductile damage models are adopted in the finite element analyses to induce the fracture by element removal, leading to the prediction of ductility.
Technical Paper

Effects of Surface Treatment (Lubricant) on Spot Friction Welded Joints Made of 6111-T4 Aluminum Sheets

2007-04-16
2007-01-1706
The effects of lubricant on lap shear strength of Spot Friction Welded (SFW) joints made of 6111-T4 alloys were studied. Taguchi L8 design of experiment methodology was used to determine the lubricant effects. The results showed that the lap shear strength increased by 9.9% when the lubricant was present at the top surface compared to that of the baseline (no lubricant) whereas the lap shear strength reduced by 10.2% and 10.9% when the lubricant was present in the middle and at the bottom surfaces compared to that of the baseline (no lubricant), respectively. The microstructure analysis showed a zigzag interface at the joint between the upper and the lower sheet metal for the baseline specimen, the specimens with the lubricant at the top and at the bottom. However, a straight line interface is exhibited at the joint between the upper and the lower sheet for the specimen with the lubricant in the middle. The weld nugget sizes of the lap shear tested specimens were measured.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of the Quench Rate of AA7075

2014-04-01
2014-01-0984
The aluminum alloy 7075-T6 has the potential to be used for structural automotive body components as an alternative to boron steel. Although this alloy shows poor formability at room temperature, it has been demonstrated that hot stamping is a feasible sheet metal process that can be used to overcome the forming issues. Hot stamping is an elevated temperature forming operation in which a hot blank is formed and quenched within a stamping die. Attaining a high quench rate is a critical step of the hot stamping process and corresponds to maximum strength and corrosion resistance. This work looks at measuring the quench rate of AA7075-T6 by way of three different approaches: water, a water-cooled plate, and a bead die. The water-cooled plate and the bead die are laboratory-scale experimental setups designed to replicate the hot stamping/die quenching process.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Dissimilar Laser Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Low Carbon Steel and HSLA Steel Sheets

2015-04-14
2015-01-0706
In this paper, failure modes of dissimilar laser welds in lap-shear specimens of low carbon steel and high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel sheets are investigated based on experimental observations. Micro-hardness tests across the weld zones of dissimilar laser welds were conducted. The hardness values of the fusion zones and heat affected zones are significantly higher than those of the base metals. The fatigue lives and the corresponding failure modes of laser welds as functions of the load ranges are then examined. Optical micrographs of the laser welds before and after failure under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are then examined. The failure modes and fatigue behaviors of the laser welds under different loading conditions are different. Under quasi-static loading conditions, a necking failure occurred in the upper low carbon steel sheet far away from the laser weld.
Technical Paper

Failure Prediction of Sheet Metals Based on an Anisotropic Gurson Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0766
A failure prediction methodology that can predict sheet metal failure under arbitrary deformation histories including rotating principal stretch directions and bending/unbending with consideration of damage evolution is reviewed in this paper. An anisotropic Gurson yield criterion is adopted to characterize the effects of microvoids on the load carrying capacity of sheet metals where Hill’s quadratic anisotropic yield criterion is used to describe the matrix normal anisotropy and planar isotropy. The evolution of the void damage is based on the growth, nucleation and coalescence of microvoids. Mroz’s anisotropic hardening rule, which was proposed based on the cyclic plastic behavior of metals observed in experiments, is generalized to characterize the anisotropic hardening behavior due to loading/unloading with consideration of the evolution of void volume fraction. The effects of yield surface curvature are also included in the plasticity model.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Laser Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA) Steels

2009-04-20
2009-01-0028
Fatigue behavior of laser welds in lap-shear specimens of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels is investigated based on a fatigue crack growth model. Fatigue experiments of laser welded lap-shear specimens were conducted. Analytical global stress intensity factor solutions are developed and compared with finite element computational results. A fatigue crack growth model based on the analytical local stress intensity factor solutions of kinked cracks and the Paris law for crack growth is then adopted to estimate the fatigue lives of the laser welds under cyclic loading conditions. The estimated fatigue lives are compared with the experimental results. The results indicate that the fatigue life predictions based on the fatigue crack growth model are slightly longer than the experimental results.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Behavior of Semi-Solid Formed A357-T6 Aluminum

2001-03-05
2001-01-0413
The fundamental relationship between semi-solid processing and microstructure and their effect on the flow characteristics of semi-solid metals have been studied for several years. However, how the process related microstructure influences fatigue properties has not been given the same attention. This study examines the influence of process-related microstructure on the fatigue properties of semi-solid formed A357 alloys. High-solid-fraction (62% solid) and low-solid-fraction (31% and 36% solid) semi-solid formed A357 was tested in axial fatigue with a stress ratio (R) equal to -1. The high solid fraction (HSF) material had better fatigue properties than the low solid fraction (LSF) material. This is attributed to the fatigue crack initiation mechanisms, as related to the fatigue crack initiation features and the strengths of the materials.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction for Adaptable Insert Welds between Sheet Steel and Cast Magnesium Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0392
Joining technology is a key factor to utilize dissimilar materials in vehicle structures. Adaptable insert weld (AIW) technology is developed to join sheet steel (HSLA350) to cast magnesium alloy (AM60) and is constructed by combining riveting technology and electrical resistance spot welding technology. In this project, the AIW joint technology is applied to construct front shock tower structures composed with HSLA350, AM60, and Al6082 and a method is developed to predict the fatigue life of the AIW joints. Lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were constructed and tested to develop the fatigue parameters (load-life curves) of AIW joint. Two FEA modeling techniques for AIW joints were used to model the specimen geometry. These modeling approaches are area contact method (ACM) and TIE contact method.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of Friction Stir Linear Welds for Magnesium Alloys

2016-04-05
2016-01-0386
Friction stir linear welding (FSLW) is widely used in joining lightweight materials including aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys. However, fatigue life prediction method for FSLW is not well developed yet for vehicle structure applications. This paper is tried to use two different methods for the prediction of fatigue life of FSLW in vehicle structures. FSLW is represented with 2-D shell elements for the structural stress approach and is represented with TIE contact for the maximum principal stress approach in finite element (FE) models. S-N curves were developed from coupon specimen test results for both the approaches. These S-N curves were used to predict fatigue life of FSLW of a front shock tower structure that was constructed by joining AM60 to AZ31 and AM60 to AM30. The fatigue life prediction results were then correlated with test results of the front shock tower structures.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Bolt Load Retention of Die-Cast Magnesium

2000-03-06
2000-01-1121
The use of die cast magnesium for automobile transmission cases offers promise for reducing weight and improving fuel economy. However, the inferior creep resistance of magnesium alloys at high temperature is of concern since transmission cases are typically assembled and joined by pre-loaded bolts. The stress relaxation of the material could thus adversely impact the sealing of the joint. One means of assessing the structural integrity of magnesium transmission cases is modeling the bolted joint, the topic of this paper. The commercial finite element code, ABAQUS, was used to simulate a well characterized bolt joint sample. The geometry was simulated with axi-symmetric elements with the exact geometry of a M10 screw. Frictional contact between the male and female parts is modeled by using interface elements. Material creep is described by a time hardening power law whose parameters are fit to experimental creep test data.
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