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Technical Paper

Analysis of Temperatures and Stresses in Wet Friction Disks Involving Thermally Induced Changes of Contact Pressure

1998-09-14
982035
Thermal distortions of friction disks caused by frictional heating modify pressure distribution on friction surfaces. Pressure distribution, in turn, determines distribution of generated frictional heat. These interdependencies create a complex thermoelastic system that, under some conditions, may become unstable and may lead to severe pressure concentrations with very high local temperature and stress. The phenomenon is responsible for many common thermal failure modes of friction elements and is known as frictionally excited thermoelastic instability (TEI). In the paper, one of the cases of TEI is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The study involves a two-disk structure with one fiction disk and one matching steel disk that have one friction interface. An unsteady heat conduction problem and an elastic contact problem are modeled as axisymmetric ones and are solved using the finite element method.
Technical Paper

Bolt-Load Retention Behavior of Die-Cast AZ91D and AE42 Magnesium

1998-02-23
980090
The effect of temperature and preload on the bolt load retention (BLR) behavior of AZ91D and AE42 magnesium die castings was investigated. The results were compared to those of 380 aluminum die castings. Test temperatures from 125 to 175°C and preloads from 7 to 28 kN were investigated. The loss of preload for AZ91D was more sensitive to temperature than that observed for AE42, especially at low preloads. In general, retained bolt-load was lowest in AZ91D. All test assemblies were preloaded at room temperature and load levels increased when the assemblies reached test temperature. The load-increase was dependent on the preload level, test temperature, alloy, and results from thermal expansion mismatch between the steel bolt and the magnesium alloy components, mitigated by the onset of primary creep. Thermal exposure (aging) of AZ91D at 150°C improved BLR behavior.
Technical Paper

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Plastic and Steel Vehicle Fuel Tanks

1998-11-30
982224
Federal standards that mandate improved fuel economy have resulted in the increased use of lightweight materials in automotive applications. However, the environmental burdens associated with a product extend well beyond the use phase. Life cycle assessment is the science of determining the environmental burdens associated with the entire life cycle of a given product from cradle-to-grave. This report documents the environmental burdens associated with every phase of the life cycle of two fuel tanks utilized in full-sized 1996 GM vans. These vans are manufactured in two configurations, one which utilizes a steel fuel tank, and the other a multi-layered plastic fuel tank consisting primarily of high density polyethylene (HDPE). This study was a collaborative effort between GM and the University of Michigan's National Pollution Prevention Center, which received funding from EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory.
Journal Article

Development and Validation of an Analytical Seal Bead Design Model for Automotive Superplastic Forming

2010-04-12
2010-01-0979
With the increasing demand for fuel efficient vehicles, technologies like superplastic forming (SPF) are being developed and implemented to allow for the utilization of lightweight automotive sheet materials. While forming under superplastic conditions leads to increased formability in lightweight alloys, such as aluminum, the slower forming times required by the technology can limit the technology to low to mid production levels. One problem that can increase forming time is the reduction of forming pressure due to pressurizing (forming) gas leaks, during the forming cycle, at the die/sheet/blankholder interface. Traditionally, such leaks have been successfully addressed through the use of a seal bead. However, for advanced die technologies that result in reduced cycle times (such as hot draw mechanical performing, which combine aspects of mechanical preforming of the sheet metal followed by SPF), the use of seal beads can restrict the drawing of sheet material into the forming die.
Technical Paper

Development of an Adaptive Workload Management System using Queueing Network-Model Human Processor (QN-MHP)

2008-04-14
2008-01-1251
The chance of vehicle collisions significantly increases when drivers are overloaded with information from in-vehicle systems. Developing adaptive workload management systems (AWMS) to dynamically control the rate of messages from these in-vehicle systems is one of the solutions to this problem. However, existing AWMSs do not use a model of driver cognitive system to estimate workload and only suppress or redirect in-vehicle system messages, without changing their rate based on driver workload. In this work, we propose a prototype of a new adaptive workload management system (QN-MHP AWMS) and it includes: a queueing network model of driver workload (Wu & Liu, In Press) that estimates driver workload in different driving situations, and a message controller that determines the optimal delay times between messages and dynamically controls the rate of messages presented to drivers.
Journal Article

Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling

2008-10-06
2008-01-2475
The buildup of deposits in EGR coolers causes significant degradation in heat transfer performance, often on the order of 20-30%. Deposits also increase pressure drop across coolers and thus may degrade engine efficiency under some operating conditions. It is unlikely that EGR cooler deposits can be prevented from forming when soot and HC are present. The presence of cooled surfaces will cause thermophoretic soot deposition and condensation of HC and acids. While this can be affected by engine calibration, it probably cannot be eliminated as long as cooled EGR is required for emission control. It is generally felt that “dry fluffy” soot is less likely to cause major fouling than “heavy wet” soot. An oxidation catalyst in the EGR line can remove HC and has been shown to reduce fouling in some applications. The combination of an oxidation catalyst and a wall-flow filter largely eliminates fouling. Various EGR cooler designs affect details of deposit formation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of the Quench Rate of AA7075

2014-04-01
2014-01-0984
The aluminum alloy 7075-T6 has the potential to be used for structural automotive body components as an alternative to boron steel. Although this alloy shows poor formability at room temperature, it has been demonstrated that hot stamping is a feasible sheet metal process that can be used to overcome the forming issues. Hot stamping is an elevated temperature forming operation in which a hot blank is formed and quenched within a stamping die. Attaining a high quench rate is a critical step of the hot stamping process and corresponds to maximum strength and corrosion resistance. This work looks at measuring the quench rate of AA7075-T6 by way of three different approaches: water, a water-cooled plate, and a bead die. The water-cooled plate and the bead die are laboratory-scale experimental setups designed to replicate the hot stamping/die quenching process.
Journal Article

Failure Mode and Fatigue Behavior of Dissimilar Laser Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Low Carbon Steel and HSLA Steel Sheets

2015-04-14
2015-01-0706
In this paper, failure modes of dissimilar laser welds in lap-shear specimens of low carbon steel and high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel sheets are investigated based on experimental observations. Micro-hardness tests across the weld zones of dissimilar laser welds were conducted. The hardness values of the fusion zones and heat affected zones are significantly higher than those of the base metals. The fatigue lives and the corresponding failure modes of laser welds as functions of the load ranges are then examined. Optical micrographs of the laser welds before and after failure under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions are then examined. The failure modes and fatigue behaviors of the laser welds under different loading conditions are different. Under quasi-static loading conditions, a necking failure occurred in the upper low carbon steel sheet far away from the laser weld.
Technical Paper

Failure Prediction of Sheet Metals Based on an Anisotropic Gurson Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0766
A failure prediction methodology that can predict sheet metal failure under arbitrary deformation histories including rotating principal stretch directions and bending/unbending with consideration of damage evolution is reviewed in this paper. An anisotropic Gurson yield criterion is adopted to characterize the effects of microvoids on the load carrying capacity of sheet metals where Hill’s quadratic anisotropic yield criterion is used to describe the matrix normal anisotropy and planar isotropy. The evolution of the void damage is based on the growth, nucleation and coalescence of microvoids. Mroz’s anisotropic hardening rule, which was proposed based on the cyclic plastic behavior of metals observed in experiments, is generalized to characterize the anisotropic hardening behavior due to loading/unloading with consideration of the evolution of void volume fraction. The effects of yield surface curvature are also included in the plasticity model.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction for Adaptable Insert Welds between Sheet Steel and Cast Magnesium Alloy

2016-04-05
2016-01-0392
Joining technology is a key factor to utilize dissimilar materials in vehicle structures. Adaptable insert weld (AIW) technology is developed to join sheet steel (HSLA350) to cast magnesium alloy (AM60) and is constructed by combining riveting technology and electrical resistance spot welding technology. In this project, the AIW joint technology is applied to construct front shock tower structures composed with HSLA350, AM60, and Al6082 and a method is developed to predict the fatigue life of the AIW joints. Lap-shear and cross-tension specimens were constructed and tested to develop the fatigue parameters (load-life curves) of AIW joint. Two FEA modeling techniques for AIW joints were used to model the specimen geometry. These modeling approaches are area contact method (ACM) and TIE contact method.
Technical Paper

Influence of Textures on Sheet Forming

2000-03-06
2000-01-0771
This paper reviews the relationship of the anisotropy of plastic behavior of sheet metal to crystallographic textures and the effect of anisotropic plastic behavior on sheet forming processes Although the basis is crystallographic, the anisotropy of cubic metals can be approximated by a continuum yield criterion. Use of this criterion in analyses of sheet forming gives better results than the usual quadratic criterion.
Journal Article

Mechanical Behavior and Failure Mechanism of Nb-Clad Stainless Steel Sheets

2009-04-20
2009-01-1393
Because niobium-clad 304L stainless steel sheets are considered for use as bipolar plates in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells, their mechanical behavior and failure mechanism are important to be examined. As-rolled and annealed specimens were tested in tension, bending and flattening. The effects of annealing temperature and time on the mechanical behavior and failure mechanism were investigated. Micrographic analyses of bent and flattened specimens showed that the as-rolled specimens have limited ductility and that the annealed specimens can develop an intermetallic layer of thickness of a few microns. The annealed specimens failed due to the breakage of intermetallic layer causing localized necking and the subsequent failure of Nb layer. The springback angles of the as-rolled and annealed specimens were also obtained from guided-bend tests.
Technical Paper

NH3 Storage in Sample Lines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1586
Ammonia, often present in exhaust gas samples, is a polar molecule gas that interacts with walls of the gas sampling and analysis equipment resulting in delayed instrument response. A set of experiments quantified various materials and process parameters of a heated sample line system for ammonia (NH3) response using a Fourier Transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Response attenuation rates are due to mixing and diffusion during transport as well as NH3 wall storage. Mixing/diffusion effects cause attenuation with a time constant 1-10 seconds. Wall storage attenuation has a time constant 10-200 seconds. The effects of sample line diameter and length, line temperature, line material, hydrated versus dry gas, and flow rate were examined. All of these factors are statistically significant to variation of at least one of the time constants. The NH3 storage on the sample system walls was calculated as a function of the experimental test as well.
Technical Paper

Permanent Mold Casting and Creep Behavior of Mg - 4 Al - 4 X: (Ca, Ce, La, Sr) Alloys

2007-04-16
2007-01-1027
Creep-resistant magnesium alloys for automotive powertrain applications offer significant potential for vehicle weight reduction. In this study permanent mold casting, microstructure and creep behavior have been investigated for a series of ternary magnesium alloys (Mg-4Al-4X (X: Ca, Ce, La, Sr) wt%) and AXJ530 (Mg-5Al-3Ca-0.15Sr, wt%). A permanent mold was instrumented with twelve thermocouples and mold temperature was monitored during the casting process. Average mold temperature increased from 200°C to 400°C during a typical alloy casting series (fifteen to twenty castings). The cast microstructure for all alloys consists of primary α-Mg globular phase surrounded by eutectic structure which is composed of intermetallic(s) and α-Mg magnesium phases. The primary cell size of the AXJ530 increased from 18 to 24 μm with increasing mold temperature and a similar trend is expected for all alloys.
Technical Paper

Sandwich Panels with Corrugated Core - A Lightweighting Concept with Improved Stiffness

2014-04-01
2014-01-0808
Sandwich panels with high modulus/high strength skin material and low density/low modulus core material have higher stiffness-to-weight ratio than monolithic panels. In this paper, sandwich panels with corrugated core are explored as a lightweighting concept for improved stiffness. The skin and the core materials are a high strength steel, aluminum alloy or carbon fiber-epoxy composite. The core has a triangular corrugation, a trapezoidal corrugation and a rectangular corrugation. The stiffness of the sandwich panels is analytically determined and compared with monolithic panels of equal mass. It is shown that the stiffness of the sandwich panels is 5 to 7 times higher than that of the monolithic panels.
Journal Article

Stress Intensity Factor Solutions for Dissimilar Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens of Steel, Magnesium, Aluminum and Copper Sheets

2015-04-14
2015-01-1754
In this paper, the analytical stress intensity factor and J integral solutions for welds in lap-shear specimens of two dissimilar sheets based on the beam bending theory are first reviewed. The solutions are then presented in the normalized forms. Next, two-dimensional finite element analyses were selectively conducted to validate the analytical solutions based on the beam bending theory. The interface crack parameters, the stress intensity factor solutions, and the J integral solutions for welds in lap-shear specimens of different combinations of steel, aluminum, and magnesium, and the combination of aluminum and copper sheets of different thickness ratios are then presented for convenient fracture and fatigue analyses. The transition thickness ratios for critical crack locations for different combinations of dissimilar materials are then determined from the analytical solutions.
Journal Article

Study on Fatigue Behaviors of Porous T300/924 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Unidirectional Laminates

2017-03-28
2017-01-0223
Morphological features of voids were characterized for T300/924 12-ply and 16-ply composite laminates at different porosity levels through the implementation of a digital microscopy (DM) image analysis technique. The composite laminates were fabricated through compression molding. Compression pressures of 0.1MPa, 0.3MPa, and 0.5MPa were selected to obtain composite plaques at different porosity levels. Tension-tension fatigue tests at load ratio R=0.1 for composite laminates at different void levels were conducted, and the dynamic stiffness degradation during the tests was monitored. Fatigue mechanisms were then discussed based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fatigue fracture surfaces. The test results showed that the presence of voids in the matrix has detrimental effects on the fatigue resistance of the material, depending on the applied load level.
Journal Article

Vehicle and Drive Cycle Simulation of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter

2016-04-05
2016-01-0967
A GT-SUITE vehicle-aftertreatment model has been developed to examine the cold-start emissions reduction capabilities of a Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter (VICC). This converter features a thermal management system to maintain the catalyst monolith above its light-off temperature between trips so that most of a vehicle’s cold-start exhaust emissions are avoided. The VICC thermal management system uses vacuum insulation around the monoliths. To further boost its heat retention capacity, a metal phase-change material (PCM) is packaged between the monoliths and vacuum insulation. To prevent overheating of the converter during periods of long, heavy engine use, a few grams of metal hydride charged with hydrogen are attached to the hot side of the vacuum insulation. The GT-SUITE model successfully incorporated the transient heat transfer effects of the PCM using the effective heat capacity method.
Technical Paper

Warpage Prediction on Injection Molded Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0149
Warpage is the distortion induced by inhomogeneous shrinkage during injection molding of plastic parts. Uncontrolled warpage will result in dimensional instability and bring a lot of challenges to the mold design and part assembly. Current commercial simulation software for injection molding cannot provide consistently accurate warpage prediction, especially for semi-crystalline thermoplastics. In this study, the root cause of inconsistency in warpage prediction has been investigated by using injection molded polypropylene plaques with a wide range of process conditions. The warpage of injection molded plaques are measured and compared to the numerical predictions from Moldex3D. The study shows that with considering cooling rate effect on crystallization kinetics and using of the improved material model for residual stress calculations, good agreements are obtained between experiment and simulation results.
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