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Technical Paper

A Comparison of Burn Characteristics and Exhaust Emissions from Off-Highway Engines Fueled by E0 and E85

2004-01-16
2004-28-0045
Ethanol fuel has received renewed attention in recent years because of its oxygenate content and its potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from spark ignition engines. The economic impact on farm industry has been one of the drivers for its use in engines in the U.S. Although ethanol, in various blends, has been used in automotive engines for almost a decade the fuel has seldom been utilized in off-highway engines where the fuel systems are not well controlled. This investigation was conducted to evaluate exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of E85 fuel in an off-highway engine used in farm equipment. A single-cylinder, four-stroke, spark ignition engine equipped with a carburetor was used to investigate combustion and exhaust emissions produced by gasoline and blends of gasoline and ethanol fuels. The engine fuel system was modified to handle flow rates required by the engine. A variable size-metering orifice was used to control air-to-fuel ratios.
Journal Article

Active Thermal Management with a Dual Mode Coolant Pump

2013-04-08
2013-01-0849
A GT-suite commercial code was used to develop a fully integrated model of a light duty commercial vehicle with a V6 diesel engine, to study the use of a BorgWarner dual mode coolant pump (DMCP) in active thermal management of the vehicle. An Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) was used to validate the simulation results with the experimental data. The conventional mechanical pump from the validated model was then replaced with the dual mode coolant pump. The control algorithm for the pump was based on controlling the coolant temperature with pump speed. Maximum electrical speed of the pump and the efficiency of the pump were used to determine whether the pump should run in mechanical or electrical mode. The model with the dual mode coolant pump was simulated for the UDDS cycle to demonstrate the effectiveness of control strategy.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of High-Pressure Spray and Exhaust Emissions in a Single- Cylinder Di Diesel Engine

2000-06-12
2000-05-0333
Regulations on exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty diesel engines have generated interest in high-pressure fuel injection systems. It has been recognized that high-pressure injection systems produce fuel sprays that may be more conductive to reducing exhaust emissions in direct-injection diesel engines. However, for such a system to be effective it must be matched carefully with the engine design and its operating parameters. A common-rail type of fuel injection system was investigated in the present study. The injection system utilizes an intensifier to generate injection pressures as high as 160 MPa. The fuel spray characteristics were evaluated on a test bench in a chamber containing pressurized nitrogen gas. The injection system was then incorporated in a single-cylinder diesel engine. The injection system parameters were adjusted to match engine specifications and its operating parameters.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Exhaust Emissions in a SI Engine using E85 and Cooled EGR

2009-06-15
2009-01-1952
Gasoline-ethanol blends are being used or have been considered as a fuel for spark ignition engines. The motivation for using the blends varies in indifferent parts of the world and even in regions within a country. The increasing cost of gasoline, combined with regional tax incentives, is one of the reasons for increased interests in gasoline-ethanol blends in recent years in the U.S. Many vehicular engines are not designed to use a specific gasoline-ethanol blend. Rather, the engines have multi-blend capability, ranging from E0 to about E85. It is plausible that engine-out emissions will vary depending on the blend being used which may be further impacted by the level of EGR used with the blends. The present work was carried out to investigate engine out emissions when a vehicular spark-ignition engine was operated on E0 and E85 and different levels of EGR. A 4-cylinder, 2.5 liter, PFI engine was used in the experimental investigation.
Technical Paper

Combustion Variability in Natural Gas Fueled Engines

2003-05-19
2003-01-1935
A study was conducted to investigate combustion variability and exhaust emissions from high-speed, natural gas fueled engines. Two types of fuel systems were used in the investigation: a mixer and a port fuel injection. The overall engine performances were not much different at stoichiometric fuel-air ratio. But as the equivalence ratio was reduced the engine with the mixer produced higher levels of hydrocarbons and larger coefficient of variations in imep. The same engine exhibited longer flame development angle and rapid burn duration in comparison to the fuel injected engine. The differences in burn durations increased as the equivalence ratio decreased and the mixer system produced larger variations in their values at these operating points. The investigation showed the performance of the engine was better with natural gas injection system than with the mixer, particularly at lean equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Their Control in Natural Gas Fueled Engines

1992-10-01
922250
An experimental study was undertaken to investigate emissions of hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane hydrocarbons emitted by natural gas fueled engines and the extent of their conversion in catalysts. Two engines were used in the study: a four cylinder, 1.6 liter, spark ignition engine and a modified version of the same engine with only one of the cylinders operating at 0.4 liter capacity. Two-way and three-way catalysts were used to treat exhaust gases leaving the engine. Natural gas was supplied through gas carburetors operated at regulated pressures and supplying air-fuel ratios in the desired range. The results of the investigation showed that oxides of nitrogen could not be reduced in a three-way catalyst to the levels found in gasoline fueled engines when the operating air-fuel ratio was stoichiometric.
Technical Paper

Energy Method for Torque Control of a Synchronous Traction Motor

2018-04-03
2018-01-0766
The problem of increasing the accuracy of determining the torque and the load angle of the permanent magnet synchronous motor of an electric traction drive to the predicted level (2.5...3)% of the full-scale error is solved by an indirect method. We considered the algorithms for calculating the generalized current and voltage of the electric motor, the total power, the instantaneous values of the power factor, and the sine of the phase angle between the first harmonics of voltages and currents. We determined the requirements for the accuracy of determining these values at the level of 1% of the full-scale error. We considered the algorithms for determining the total instantaneous power losses by the indirect method at the predicted level (15...20)% of the full-scale error with the efficiency of the motor (90...95)%.
Technical Paper

Energy-Efficient Traction Induction Machine Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-0598
The article solves the problem of increasing the energy efficiency of the traction electric drive in the low load conditions. The set objective is achieved by analogy with internal combustion engines by decreasing the consumed energy using the amplitude control of the three-phase voltage of the induction machine. The basis of the amplitude control is laid by the constancy criterion of the overload capacity with respect to the electromagnetic torque, which provides a reliable reserve from a "breakdown" of the induction machine mode in a wide range of speeds and loads. The control system of the traction electric drive contains a reference model of electromechanical energy conversion represented by the generalized equations of the instantaneous balance of the active and reactive power and the mechanical load. The induction machine is controlled by two adaptive variables: the electromagnetic torque and the voltage amplitude.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effect of Two-Stage Turbocharger Configurations on the Perceived Vehicle Acceleration Using Numerical Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1029
Charge boosting strategy plays an essential role in improving the power density of diesel engines while meeting stringent emissions regulations. In downsized two-stage turbocharged engines, turbocharger matching is critical to achieve desired boost pressure while maintaining sufficiently fast transient response. A numerical simulation model is developed to evaluate the effect of two-stage turbocharger configurations on the perceived vehicle acceleration. The simulation model developed in GT-SUITE consists of engine, drivetrain, and vehicle dynamics sub-models. A model-based turbocharger control logic is developed in MATLAB using an analytical compressor model and a mean-value engine model. The components of the two-stage turbocharging system evaluated in this study include a variable geometry turbine in the high-pressure stage, a compressor bypass valve in the low-pressure stage and an electrically assisted turbocharger in the low-pressure stage.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen-Diesel Engine: Problems and Prospects of Improving the Working Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0541
The diesel engine with direct injection of hydrogen gas has clear advantages over the hydrogen engine with forced ignition of a hydrogen-air mixture. Despite of this, the concept of hydrogen-diesel engine has not investigated until now. In the paper, a detailed study of the working process of hydrogen-diesel engine carried out for the first time. Based on the results of the experimental studies and mathematical modeling, it has established that the behavior of thermo-physical processes in the combustion chamber of hydrogen-diesel engine, in a number of cases, differs fundamentally from the processes that take place in the conventional diesel engines. There have been identified the reasons for their difference and determined the values of the operating cycle parameters of hydrogen diesel engine, which provide the optimal correlation between the indicator values and the environmental performance.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Benchmarking for Vehicle Floor Coverings

2003-05-05
2003-01-1575
A systematic benchmarking study was performed to investigate the acoustic performance of production floor coverings (i.e. carpets) of vehicles. A larger number of passenger cars including compact, mid-size, full size, and a truck were selected. The floor coverings were removed from these vehicles and evaluated both on absorption and sound transmission loss (STL) performances. The methodology used and the experimental results are presented in this paper. It was discovered that the design of the carpet is more important than the materials used. In addition, a carpet with highest absorption does not necessarily have the best STL and vice versa. However, an optimum design could achieve high performance in both categories.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Validation of Transmission Loss for Vehicle Components with a Large Aperture

2001-04-30
2001-01-1621
Determination of the sound transmission loss (STL) of a vehicle component that has a large aperture, such as an air exhauster or an air extraction opening, always presents a challenge to an acoustics engineer. The complexity of the aperture's physical conditions cannot be easily solved with conventional, analytical or numerical methods. A systematic study of investigating the transmission loss characteristics of the large aperture is presented in this paper. Both conventional potential noise reduction predictions of large apertures and SEA simulations were performed. Transmission losses with different acoustic treatments were measured and predicted when using AutoSEA2. Finally, correlation between measured results and predications were developed. The ultimate goal of this study is to reduce the costly transmission loss measurements with correlated analytical estimations
Technical Paper

Investigation of Thermoforming as a Method of Manufacturing Plastic Air Intake Manifolds

2000-03-06
2000-01-0045
Current plastic intake manifolds are manufactured using the injection molding process. In this paper, thermoforming is explored as an alternative to injection molding for making intake manifold shells, which can then be joined by one of the welding techniques used for thermoplastic materials. The investigation reported here includes press-forming experiments of a simple bowl shaped shell and subsequent welding experiments to join these shells.
Technical Paper

Lean Burn Natural Gas Fueled S.I.Engine and Exhaust Emissions

1995-10-01
952499
An experimental study was undertaken to study exhaust emission from a lean-burn natural gas spark ignition engine. The possibility that such an engine may help to reduce exhaust emissions substantially by taking advantage of natural gas fuel properties, such as its antiknock properties and extended lean flammability limit compared to gasoline, was the main motivation behind the investigation. A four cylinder, automotive type spark ignition engine was used in the investigation. The engine was converted to operate on natural gas by replacing its fuel system with a gaseous carburetion system. A 3-way metal metrix catalytic converter was used in the engine exhaust system to reduce emission levels. The engine operated satisfactorily at an equivalence ratio as lean as 0.6, at all speeds and loads. As a result NOx emissions were significantly reduced. However, hydrocarbon emissions were high, particularly at very lean conditions and light loads.
Technical Paper

Line Voltage Control of Induction Motor for Increase Its Efficiency in Stable Area

2018-09-10
2018-01-1830
Regular induction motors operate at a constant value of voltage. They operate from zero external load to rated value. At low loads, motors works with reserve of the power. At low loads, motor can work with lower voltage, with lower current (lower power losses) and higher power factor (cos φ). In the paper, we consider theoretical basics of reduction of idle current and increase power factor in idle mode operation. We consider speed controller by changing value of motor voltage. With this controller, we can reduce idle current and increase its power factor. In addition, we consider current controller for limiting starting current by decreasing voltage during motor start, and reduction idle current with improved power factor in idle steady state conditions. Voltage change includes controlled (thyristor) rectifier or pulse width modulated converter of voltage. Controllers can include speed or current feedbacks. We consider digital model of induction motor with different controllers.
Journal Article

Measurement and Modeling of Perceived Gear Shift Quality for Automatic Transmission Vehicles

2014-05-09
2014-01-9125
This study was conducted to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of shift quality as perceived by drivers during kick-down shift events for automatic transmission vehicles. As part of the first study, a survey was conducted among common drivers to identify primary factors used to describe subjective gear-shifting qualities. A factor analysis on the survey data revealed four semantic subdimensions. These subdimensions include responsiveness, smoothness, unperceivable, and strength. Based on the four descriptive terms, a measure with semantic scales on each subdimension was developed and used in an experiment as the second study. Twelve participants drove and evaluated five vehicles with different gear shifting patterns. Participants were asked to make kick-down events with two different driving intentions (mild vs. sporty) across three different speeds on actual roadway (local streets and highway).
Technical Paper

Relationship Between the Corner Depth and Quality of Mixing in a Square Combustion Chamber Di Diesel Engine

2000-06-12
2000-05-0041
This paper provides an insight into the design of a compound combustion chamber, with square and circular cavities, for use in a direct-injection diesel engine. Automotive diesel engines using square combustion chamber design have shown improvement in oxides of nitrogen and particulate exhaust emissions. In spite of this, neither the quality of mixture formation in such chambers nor the relationship between the engine performance and combustion chamber designs have been adequately addressed. Compound combustion chambers have potential to combine attributes of square and circular chambers to provide improved engine performance. An experimental study, based on liquid injection technique (LIT), was conducted to evaluate mixture formation in compound combustion chambers of different designs. These chambers have square geometry of depth "h" at the top and a curricular cavity at the bottom, with the total chamber depth being "H."
Technical Paper

The Electric Drive of a Tram with an Average Floor

2008-06-23
2008-01-1828
The urban trams with a low floor are more convenient for the passengers, and with a high floor - more cheaply and more technologically during manufacturing and operation. The combined advantages those and others in themselves are trams with average height of a floor, but for this purpose it is necessary to lower height of tram carriages, that is reached by application of electric motors with a small stator external diameter. It is offered in this the perspective electric drive on the base of the synchronous motor with independent excitation. The salient rotor poles of the motor do not contain windings. The motors stator is carried out on the base of the stator body of regular AC electric motor. The multiphase winding is located in the stator. A winding section, which conductors settle down above the between rotor poles, carry out a role of the excitation winding, and others, which conductors lay above poles, - a role of the armature winding.
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