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Technical Paper

A Rear Spoiler of a New Type that Reduces the Aerodynamic Forces on a Mini-Van

The Low Mass Vehicle (LMV) that is a minivan designed to compete with the Toyota Echo but with 30% less mass has been used for the research in the Institute for Advanced Vehicle Systems. To reduce the aerodynamic forces on the LMV, the present authors have developed a rear spoiler of a new type based on the principles of fluid dynamics and through numerical computations. This new spoiler has been developed in such a way that the aerodynamic drag as well as lift on vehicles having a bluff back can be reduced when the new spoiler is attached to them. Numerical simulations show that the aerodynamic drag and lift on the LMV moving at 30 m/s reduce by 5 % and more than 100 %, respectively, when the new spoiler is attached to it.
Technical Paper

A Transportable Instrumentation Package for In-Vehicle On-Road Data Collection for Driver Research

We present research in progress to develop and implement a transportable instrumentation package (TIP) to collect driver data in a vehicle. The overall objective of the project is to investigate the symbiotic relationship between humans and their vehicles. We first describe the state-of-art technologies to build the components of TIP that meet the criteria of ease of installation, minimal interference with driving, and sufficient signals to monitor driver state and condition. This method is a viable alternative to current practice which is to first develop a fully instrumented test vehicle, often at great expense, and use it to collect data from each participant as he/she drives a prescribed route. Another practice, as for example currently being used in the SHRP-2 naturalistic driving study, is to install the appropriate instrumentation for data collection in each individual's vehicle, often requiring several hours.
Technical Paper

A Value Analysis Tool for Automotive Interior Door Trim Panel Materials and Process Selection

This paper describes a computerized value analysis tool (VAT) developed to aid automotive interior designers, engineers and planners to achieve the high levels of perceived quality of materials used in automotive door trim panels. The model requires a number of inputs related to types of materials, their manufacturing processes and customer perceived quality ratings, costs and importance of materials, features located in different areas of the door trim panel, etc. It allows the user to conduct iterative evaluation of total cost, total weighted customer perceived quality ratings, and estimates of perceived value (perceived quality divided by cost) for different door trim areas as well as the entire door trim panel. The VAT, thus, allows value and cost management related to materials and processing choices for automotive interiors.
Technical Paper

Aqueous Corrosion of Experimental Creep-Resistant Magnesium Alloys

This paper presents a comparison of aqueous corrosion rates in 5% NaCl solution for eight experimental creep-resistant magnesium alloys considered for automotive powertrain applications, as well as three reference alloys (pure magnesium, AM50B and AZ91D). The corrosion rates were measured using the techniques of titration, weight loss, hydrogen evolution, and DC polarization. The corrosion rates measured by these techniques are compared with each other as well as with those obtained with salt-spray testing using ASTM B117. The advantages and disadvantages of the various corrosion measurement techniques are discussed.
Technical Paper

Commonality and Differences between Cruiser, Sport, and Touring Motorcycles: An Ergonomics Study

This paper presents results of two surveys, namely, a photographic measurements survey and a rider survey, conducted to determine how the type and origin of a motorcycle related to motorcycle dimensions, rider characteristics, seating posture, and motorcycle controls and displays. In the photographic survey, 12 most popular motorcycles covering three types (cruiser, sport, and touring) and three origins (Europe, Asia and North America) were measured from photographs taken in a standardized procedure with and without a rider. The data showed that the Asian and North American cruisers were very similar in all dimensions. These include seat height, seat to handlebar location, seat to foot rest location, foot rest size, and handgrip stance. This resulted in similar rider posture. North American sport motorcycles were more like cruisers than the Asian and European sport motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Driver Behavior and Performance in Two Driving Simulators

This paper presents results of a study conducted to compare driving behavior and performance of drivers in two different fixed-base driving simulators (namely, FAAC and STI) while performing a same set of distracting tasks under geometrically similar freeway and traffic conditions. The FAAC simulator had a wider three-screen road view with steering feedback as compared to the STI simulator which had a single screen and narrower road view and had no steering feedback. Twenty four subjects (12 younger and 12 mature) drove each simulator and were asked to perform a set of nine different tasks involving different distracting elements such as, using a cell phone, operating the car radio, retrieving and selecting a map from map pocket in the driver's door, collecting coins to pay toll, etc.
Journal Article

Determining Perceptual Characteristics of Automotive Interior Materials

This paper presents results of a three-phase research project aimed at understanding how future automotive interior materials should be selected or designed to satisfy the needs of the customers. The first project phase involved development of 22 five-point semantic differential scales to measure visual, visual-tactile, and evaluative characteristics of the materials. Some examples of the adjective pairs used to create the semantic differential scales to measure the perceptual characteristics of the material are: a) Visual: Light vs. Dark, Flat vs. Shiny, etc., b) Visual-Tactile: Smooth vs. Rough, Slippery vs. Sticky, Compressive vs. Non-Compressive, Textured vs. Non-Textured, etc., c) Evaluative (overall perception): Dislike vs. Like, Fake vs. Genuine, Cheap vs. Expensive, etc. In the second phase, 12 younger and 12 older drivers were asked to evaluate a number of different automotive interior materials by using the 22 semantic differential scales.
Technical Paper

Development of Specifications for the UM-D's Low Mass Vehicle for China, India and the United States

This paper presents results of a research project conducted to develop a methodology and to refine the specifications of a small, low mass, low cost vehicle being developed at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. The challenge was to assure that the design would meet the needs and expectations of customers in three different countries, namely, China, India and the United States. U.S, Chinese and Indian students studying on the university campus represented customers from their respective countries for our surveys and provided us with the necessary data on: 1) Importance of various vehicle level attributes to the entry level small car customer, 2) Preferences to various features, and 3) Direction magnitude estimation on parameters to size the vehicle for each of the three markets.
Technical Paper

Development of a Parametric Model for Advanced Vehicle Design

This paper describes a research project currently in-progress to develop a parametric model of a vehicle for use in early design stages of a new vehicle program. The model requires key input parameters to define the kind of new vehicle to be designed — in terms of details such as its intended driver/user population, vehicle type (e.g. 2-box, 3-box designs), and some key exterior and interior dimensions related to its size and proportions. The model computes and graphically displays interior package, ergonomics zones for driver controls and displays, and field of views through window openings. It also allows importing or inputting and superimposing and manipulating exterior surfaces created by a designer to assess compatibility between the interior occupant package and the vehicle exterior.
Technical Paper

Driver Workload in an Autonomous Vehicle

As intelligent automated vehicle technologies evolve, there is a greater need to understand and define the role of the human user, whether completely hands-off (L5) or partly hands-on. At all levels of automation, the human occupant may feel anxious or ill-at-ease. This may reflect as higher stress/workload. The study in this paper further refines how perceived workload may be determined based on occupant physiological measures. Because of great variation in individual personalities, age, driving experiences, gender, etc., a generic model applicable to all could not be developed. Rather, individual workload models that used physiological and vehicle measures were developed.
Technical Paper

Graduate Education in Manufacturing Engineering for the Automotive Industry of the Future

This paper discusses the evolution of graduate education in manufacturing engineering and the curriculum needed to educate manufacturing engineers in the automotive industry. This paper examines the master's and doctoral curriculum in manufacturing engineering at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. Finally, it proposes future direction for graduate education in manufacturing that will be needed for the automotive industry of the future.
Technical Paper

How the University of Michigan-Dearborn Prepares Engineering Graduates for Careers in Automotive Systems Engineering

The automotive industry is expected to accelerate the transition to revolutionary products, rapid changes in technology and increasing technological sophistication. This will require engineers to advance their knowledge, connect and integrate different areas of knowledge and be skilled in synthesis. In addition, they must learn to work in cross-disciplinary teams and adopt a systems approach. The College of Engineering and Computer Science (CECS) at the University of Michigan-Dearborn (UM-Dearborn) responded by creating interdisciplinary MS and Ph.D. programs in automotive systems engineering (ASE) and augmenting them with hands-on research. Students at the undergraduate level can also engage in numerous ASE activities. UM-Dearborn's ASE programs offer interesting and possibly unique advantages. The first is that it offers a spectrum of ASE degree and credit programs, from the MS to the Ph.D. to continuing education.
Technical Paper

Incorporating Hard Disks in Vehicles- Usages and Challenges

With recent advances in microprocessors and data storage technologies, vehicle users can now bring or access large amounts of data in vehicles for purposes such as communication (e.g. e-mail, phone books), entertainment (e.g. music and video files), browsing and searching for information (e.g. on-board computers and internet). The challenge for the vehicle designer is how to design data displays and retrieval methods to allow data search and manipulation tasks by managing driver workload at safe acceptable levels. This paper presents a data retrieval menu system developed to assess levels of screens (depth of menu) that may be needed to select required information when a vehicle is equipped with the capability to access audio files, cell phone, PDA, e-mail and “On-star” type functions.
Technical Paper

Independent Control of All-Wheel-Drive Torque Distribution

The sophistication of all-wheel-drive technology is approaching the point where the drive torque to each wheel can be independently controlled. This potentially offers vehicle handling enhancements similar to those provided by Dynamic Stability Control, but without the inevitable reduction in vehicle acceleration. Independent control of all-wheel-drive torque distribution would therefore be especially beneficial under acceleration close to the limit of stability. A vehicle model of a typical sports sedan was developed in Simulink, with fully independent control of torque distribution. Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to determine which torque distribution parameters have the greatest impact on the vehicle course and acceleration. A proportional-integral control strategy was implemented, applying yaw rate feedback to vary the front-rear torque distribution, and lateral acceleration feedback to adjust the left-right distribution.
Technical Paper

Insightful Representations of Roll Plane Model Stability Limits

Yaw and roll stability limits are derived for three quasi-static roll plane models: rigid vehicle, suspended vehicle, and compliant tire vehicle. A generalized stability equation is identified that fits the stability limits for each model. This generalized stability equation leads to the definition of two new parameters referred to as the generalized superelevation and generalized center of gravity height. These parameters are shown to be physically meaningful. The use of linearizing assumptions is minimized and road superelevation is included, resulting in a more complete equation for each stability limit. Each derived stability limit is then compared and contrasted to the typical representations found in the literature.
Technical Paper

Interior Design Process for UM-D's Low Mass Vehicle

This paper describes a unique interior design and multidisciplinary process implemented by the faculty and students to develop the interior for a Low Mass Vehicle (LMV). The 103 inch LMV was designed with the goal of about 30% reduction in weight than a typical class C segment vehicle and would require low investment in manufacturing. In the early stages of the program, the UM-Dearborn team developed detailed requirements of the vehicle interior based on the vehicle's exterior developed using a similar process. The requirements were given to a senior class of automotive design students from the College of Creative Studies in Detroit to create different interior design themes. Approximately twenty-five interior design themes were judged by a panel of automotive industry experts, and a winning design was selected.
Technical Paper

LS-DYNA3D Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming using Damage Based User Subroutine

LS-DYNA3D has been widely used to perform computer simulation of sheet metal forming. In the material library of LS-DYNA3D there are a number of user defined material models. In order to take full advantage of the material subroutines, it is important for the users to be able to display user defined history variables in the post processing and to establish user-defined failure criterion. In this report, the development of a damage coupled plastic model is firstly described. The damage model is then programmed in a user defined material subroutine. This is followed by performing finite element simulation of sheet metal forming with the LS-DYNA3D that has incorporated the damage coupled plastic model. The way to display the user defined history variables and how to deal with the failure criterion during the postprocessing of ETA/DYNAFORM are described. History variable distributions at several time steps are displayed and discussed in this paper.
Journal Article

Predicting Effects of Veiling Glare Caused by Instrument Panel Reflections in the Windshields

This paper presents quantitative effects of windshield veiling glare on the visibility of targets based on a two part research project. The first part involved measurement and modeling of luminance of veiling glare caused by the reflection of different instrument panel materials under range of conditions defined by combination of windshield angle, instrument panel angle, and sun angle. In the second part, the veiling glare model was incorporated in a visibility prediction model based on visual contrast threshold data. A critical visibility condition of a driver approaching a tunnel with the sunlight falling on his windshield and attempting to detect a target inside the tunnel was studied by conducting sensitivity analyses. The sensitivity analysis showed that a 2 ft diameter 10% reflectance target illuminated by 5000 lux of lighting inside a tunnel visibility distances can be seen from 0 to 3,000 feet depending upon driver's age, vehicle design parameters and sun illumination levels.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Limit Strains in Sheet Metal Forming Under Complex Strain History

In this paper, a predictive method is developed to determine the forming limit strain and fracture limit strain in a stamped automotive component subjected to a complex strain history that would be experienced during an actual forming operation. The method of analysis is based on a damage mechanics model developed recently by the authors and extended to take into account the hysteretic effects of the principal strain and damage planes. The forming limit and fracture limit strains are then predicted using the modified damage model. Satisfactory predictions have been achieved for a practical case where the complex strain history is prescribed based an actual stamping operation.
Technical Paper

Seat Comfort as a Function of Occupant Characteristics and Pressure Measurements at the Occupant-Seat Interface

Seat comfort is a highly subjective attribute and depends on a wide range of factors, but the successful prediction of seat comfort from a group of relevant variables can hold the promise of eliminating the need for time-consuming subjective evaluations during the early stages of seat cushion selection and development. This research presents the subjective seat comfort data of a group of 30 participants using a controlled range of seat foam samples, and attempts to correlate this attribute with a) the anthropometric and demographic characteristics of the participants, b) the objective pressure distribution at the body-seat interface and c) properties of the various foam samples that were used for the test.