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Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-1277
A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Remote Connectivity to Automotive Communication Networks

2001-03-05
2001-01-0069
This paper describes a case study led by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) of Dayton, OH USA and Dearborn Group Inc. to prove the feasibility of employing Telematics technologies to the vehicle test and measurement industry. Many test functions can be automated through the use of secure wireless technologies. For example, vehicle data can be dynamically monitored on the vehicle and data meeting pre-determined criteria could be downloaded via the wireless communications center. Additionally, central, real-time wireless monitoring of vehicle fleets provides the vehicle fleet manager with the ability to manage multiple tests simultaneously, thus improving efficiencies and potentially reducing manpower costs and compressing test schedules.
Technical Paper

A Modular Designed Three-phase ~98%-Efficiency 5kW/L On-board Fast Charger for Electric Vehicles Using Paralleled E-mode GaN HEMTs

2017-03-28
2017-01-1697
Most of the present electric vehicle (EV) on-board chargers utilize a conventional design, i.e., a boost-type Power Factor Correction (PFC) controller followed by an isolated DC/DC converter. Such design usually yields a ~94% wall-to-battery efficiency and 2~3kW/L power density at most, which makes a high-power charger, e.g., 20kW module difficult to fit in the vehicle. As described in this paper, first, an E-mode GaN HEMT based 7.2kW single-phase charger was built. Connecting three such modules to the three-phase grid allows a three-phase >20kW charger to be built, which compared to the conventional three-phase charger, saves the bulky DC-bus capacitor by using the indirect matrix converter topology. To push the efficiency and power density to the limit, comprehensive optimization is processed to optimize the single-phase module through incorporating the GaN HEMT switching performance and securing its zero-voltage switching.
Technical Paper

A Real-Time Computer System for the Control of Refrigerant Flow

1997-02-24
970108
This paper presents a real-time computer system for the control of refrigerant flow in an automotive air conditioning system. This is an experimental system used to investigate the potential advantages of electronic flow control over conventional flow control (using an orifice tube or thermal expansion valve). Two features of this system are presented. First, the system organization is described. Second, the control and interface software are presented. The emphasis is on the software. The system is organized as a closed loop control system. The inputs to the controller are measurements of the refrigerant system. In particular, thermocouples are used to measure the refrigerant temperature before and after the evaporator. The analog thermocouple signals are converted to digital form by an off-the-shelf, portable, data acquisition system (DAQ). Via a parallel port link, these digital measurements are transfered to a laptop computer.
Technical Paper

Incorporating Hard Disks in Vehicles- Usages and Challenges

2006-04-03
2006-01-0814
With recent advances in microprocessors and data storage technologies, vehicle users can now bring or access large amounts of data in vehicles for purposes such as communication (e.g. e-mail, phone books), entertainment (e.g. music and video files), browsing and searching for information (e.g. on-board computers and internet). The challenge for the vehicle designer is how to design data displays and retrieval methods to allow data search and manipulation tasks by managing driver workload at safe acceptable levels. This paper presents a data retrieval menu system developed to assess levels of screens (depth of menu) that may be needed to select required information when a vehicle is equipped with the capability to access audio files, cell phone, PDA, e-mail and “On-star” type functions.
Technical Paper

Influence of Suspension Properties on Vehicle Roll Stability

2006-02-14
2006-01-1950
Vehicle roll dynamics is strongly influenced by suspension properties such as roll center height, roll steer and roll camber. In this paper, the effects of suspension properties on vehicle roll response has been investigated using a multi-body vehicle dynamics program. A full vehicle model equipped with front MacPherson and rear multilink suspensions has been used for the study. Roll dynamics of the vehicle were evaluated by performing fixed timing fishhook maneuver in the simulation. Variations of vehicle roll response due to changes in the suspension properties were assessed by quantitatively analyzing the vehicle response through simulation. Critical suspension design parameters for vehicle roll dynamics were identified and adjusted to improve roll stability of the vehicle model with passive suspension. Design of Experiments has been used for identifying critical hardpoints affecting the suspension parameters and optimization techniques were employed for parameter optimization.
Technical Paper

Interior Design Process for UM-D's Low Mass Vehicle

2004-03-08
2004-01-1709
This paper describes a unique interior design and multidisciplinary process implemented by the faculty and students to develop the interior for a Low Mass Vehicle (LMV). The 103 inch LMV was designed with the goal of about 30% reduction in weight than a typical class C segment vehicle and would require low investment in manufacturing. In the early stages of the program, the UM-Dearborn team developed detailed requirements of the vehicle interior based on the vehicle's exterior developed using a similar process. The requirements were given to a senior class of automotive design students from the College of Creative Studies in Detroit to create different interior design themes. Approximately twenty-five interior design themes were judged by a panel of automotive industry experts, and a winning design was selected.
Technical Paper

Issues on Load Availability and Reliability in Vehicular Multiplexed and Non-Multiplexed Wiring Harness Systems

2003-03-03
2003-01-1096
In military vehicles reliability can sometimes be a more important issue than cost. With that in perspective, this paper discusses the load availability and reliability issues in automotive multiplexed wiring harness systems, which are potentially useful in the military, and compares the same with a regular non-multiplexed system. For that purpose, a figure of merit or metric is introduced, and the load availability is described in terms of this metric, which depends on the architecture chosen.
Technical Paper

MOSTVS: A New Class of Transient Voltage Suppressors to Reduce Voltage Rating and Cost of Automotive Power Electronics

2003-03-03
2003-01-0100
Power electronics is playing an increasingly important role in vehicle systems. The voltage rating of automotive power electronics is predominantly determined by the transient immunity requirement, which considerably exceeds the maximum operating voltages of 12V and 24V automotive power systems, and imposes a large cost penalty. In contrast, the emerging 42V systems require a much improved bus voltage regulation to maintain system affordability. In this paper, we introduce a new class of transient voltage suppressors termed as MOSTVS, which provides a more accurately controlled clamping voltage than the conventional Zener diodes and MOVs over a wide range of current and temperature. The new MOSTVS concept, based on power MOSFET and polysilicon thin-film technologies, makes it possible to relax the breakdown voltage requirement of automotive power electronics and result in significant cost reduction.
Technical Paper

PEM Fuel Cell Stack Characterization and its Integration in Simulating a Fuel Cell Powertrain

2008-06-23
2008-01-1796
Fuel cell based powertrains are considered as potential candidates for future vehicles. Modeling of vehicle powertrains, using a combination of components and energy storage media, are widely used to predict vehicle performances under different duty cycles. This paper deals with performance analysis of a light-duty vehicle comprised of a PEM fuel cell stack, in combination with different energy storage systems using Powertrain Simulation Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The performance of the stack was characterized by experimental data on a smaller PEM stack and was used in the simulation. The stack data was collected at controlled loading and thermal parameters. Three energy storage systems are considered in the analysis: nickel metal hydride battery storage, lithium-ion battery storage and ultra capacitor energy storage. The simulation results were analyzed for comparative evaluations and to optimize the performance of the fuel cell powertrain configurations.
Technical Paper

Secure and Privacy-Preserving Data Collection Mechanisms for Connected Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1660
Nowadays, the automotive industry is experiencing the advent of unprecedented applications with connected devices, such as identifying safe users for insurance companies or assessing vehicle health. To enable such applications, driving behavior data are collected from vehicles and provided to third parties (e.g., insurance firms, car sharing businesses, healthcare providers). In the new wave of IoT (Internet of Things), driving statistics and users’ data generated from wearable devices can be exploited to better assess driving behaviors and construct driver models. We propose a framework for securely collecting data from multiple sources (e.g., vehicles and brought-in devices) and integrating them in the cloud to enable next-generation services with guaranteed user privacy protection.
Technical Paper

Synchronous Motor with Silicon Steel Salient Poles Rotor and All Coils Placed on the Stator

2017-03-28
2017-01-1606
In this paper, we consider a new design of synchronous motor with salient poles rotor and all coils placed on the stator. This design, uses a laminated silicon steel rotor, which is not so expensive as a rotor with super strong permanent magnets. This design of machine eliminates copper rings on the rotor and brushes which is used in regular synchronous motors, and eliminates disadvantages involved with these arrangements. In an earlier publication, authors considered the opportunity realization of synchronous mode operation in the machine with salient pole rotor and DC stator excitation. Now, we consider the new synchronous mode operation with individual DC excitation of each the alternative current (AC) windings for realization the first, second and third phase synchronous machines. In theoretical basics of analyses and design of synchronous motors we pay more attention to the single-phase motor because it is the basis for design polyphase synchronous machines.
Technical Paper

The Application of Middleware to In-Vehicle Applications

2002-03-04
2002-01-0264
With the increasing presence of the Internet in today's applications, ranging from legacy enterprise systems to handheld devices and home appliances, there is an increasing need for a generic middleware that can enable the interoperability between heterogeneous systems. In the specific case of in-vehicle networks, a generic middleware would enable the vehicle/driver to interact with a diversity of applications, including legacy enterprise systems, other embedded systems and wireless ad-hoc and ubiquitous applications. This paper is the result of an initial investigation into the requirements for such a middleware, and possible directions to be taken for its implementation.
Technical Paper

The Electric Drive of a Tram with an Average Floor

2008-06-23
2008-01-1828
The urban trams with a low floor are more convenient for the passengers, and with a high floor - more cheaply and more technologically during manufacturing and operation. The combined advantages those and others in themselves are trams with average height of a floor, but for this purpose it is necessary to lower height of tram carriages, that is reached by application of electric motors with a small stator external diameter. It is offered in this the perspective electric drive on the base of the synchronous motor with independent excitation. The salient rotor poles of the motor do not contain windings. The motors stator is carried out on the base of the stator body of regular AC electric motor. The multiphase winding is located in the stator. A winding section, which conductors settle down above the between rotor poles, carry out a role of the excitation winding, and others, which conductors lay above poles, - a role of the armature winding.
Technical Paper

The Multiobjective Optimal Design Problems and their Pareto Optimal Fronts for Li-Ion Battery Cells

2016-04-05
2016-01-1199
This paper begins with a baseline multi-objective optimization problem for the lithium-ion battery cell. Maximizing the energy per unit separator area and minimizing the mass per unit separator area are considered as the objectives when the thickness and the porosity of the positive electrode are chosen as design variables in the baseline problem. By employing a reaction zone model of a Graphite/Iron Phosphate Lithium-ion Cell and the Genetic Algorithm, it is shown the shape of the Pareto optimal front for the formulated optimization takes a convex form. The identified shape of the Pareto optimal front is expected to guide Design of Experiments (DOE) and product design. Compared with the conventional studies whose optimizations are based on a single objective of maximizing the specific energy, the proposed multi-objective optimization approach offers more flexibility to the product designers when trade-off between conflicting objectives is required.
Technical Paper

Touch Feel and Appearance Characteristics of Automotive Door Armrest Materials

2007-04-16
2007-01-1217
This paper presents results of a five phase study conducted to evaluate touch feel and appearance of door armrest materials. Seven different production door armrests with different material characteristics such as softness, smoothness, compressibility, texture, etc. were evaluated. In the first phase, the subjects seated in a vehicle buck in their preferred seating position with the armrests adjusted at their preferred heights, provided ratings on a number of touch feel and appearance of the door armrest materials using 5-point semantic differential scales. In the second phase, the armrests were presented to each subject in all possible pairs and they were asked to select preferred armrest material in each pair.
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