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Technical Paper

A Transportable Instrumentation Package for In-Vehicle On-Road Data Collection for Driver Research

2013-04-08
2013-01-0202
We present research in progress to develop and implement a transportable instrumentation package (TIP) to collect driver data in a vehicle. The overall objective of the project is to investigate the symbiotic relationship between humans and their vehicles. We first describe the state-of-art technologies to build the components of TIP that meet the criteria of ease of installation, minimal interference with driving, and sufficient signals to monitor driver state and condition. This method is a viable alternative to current practice which is to first develop a fully instrumented test vehicle, often at great expense, and use it to collect data from each participant as he/she drives a prescribed route. Another practice, as for example currently being used in the SHRP-2 naturalistic driving study, is to install the appropriate instrumentation for data collection in each individual's vehicle, often requiring several hours.
Technical Paper

A Value Analysis Tool for Automotive Interior Door Trim Panel Materials and Process Selection

2007-04-16
2007-01-0453
This paper describes a computerized value analysis tool (VAT) developed to aid automotive interior designers, engineers and planners to achieve the high levels of perceived quality of materials used in automotive door trim panels. The model requires a number of inputs related to types of materials, their manufacturing processes and customer perceived quality ratings, costs and importance of materials, features located in different areas of the door trim panel, etc. It allows the user to conduct iterative evaluation of total cost, total weighted customer perceived quality ratings, and estimates of perceived value (perceived quality divided by cost) for different door trim areas as well as the entire door trim panel. The VAT, thus, allows value and cost management related to materials and processing choices for automotive interiors.
Technical Paper

Aqueous Corrosion of Experimental Creep-Resistant Magnesium Alloys

2006-04-03
2006-01-0257
This paper presents a comparison of aqueous corrosion rates in 5% NaCl solution for eight experimental creep-resistant magnesium alloys considered for automotive powertrain applications, as well as three reference alloys (pure magnesium, AM50B and AZ91D). The corrosion rates were measured using the techniques of titration, weight loss, hydrogen evolution, and DC polarization. The corrosion rates measured by these techniques are compared with each other as well as with those obtained with salt-spray testing using ASTM B117. The advantages and disadvantages of the various corrosion measurement techniques are discussed.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Driver Behavior and Performance in Two Driving Simulators

2008-04-14
2008-01-0562
This paper presents results of a study conducted to compare driving behavior and performance of drivers in two different fixed-base driving simulators (namely, FAAC and STI) while performing a same set of distracting tasks under geometrically similar freeway and traffic conditions. The FAAC simulator had a wider three-screen road view with steering feedback as compared to the STI simulator which had a single screen and narrower road view and had no steering feedback. Twenty four subjects (12 younger and 12 mature) drove each simulator and were asked to perform a set of nine different tasks involving different distracting elements such as, using a cell phone, operating the car radio, retrieving and selecting a map from map pocket in the driver's door, collecting coins to pay toll, etc.
Technical Paper

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites for Structural Automotive Applications

2002-06-03
2002-01-1891
This paper presents cost-benefit analysis of glass and carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites for structural automotive applications based on press forming operation. Press forming is very similar to stamping operation for steel. The structural automotive applications involve beam type components. The part selected for a case study analysis is a crossbeam support for instrument panels.
Journal Article

Determining Perceptual Characteristics of Automotive Interior Materials

2009-04-20
2009-01-0017
This paper presents results of a three-phase research project aimed at understanding how future automotive interior materials should be selected or designed to satisfy the needs of the customers. The first project phase involved development of 22 five-point semantic differential scales to measure visual, visual-tactile, and evaluative characteristics of the materials. Some examples of the adjective pairs used to create the semantic differential scales to measure the perceptual characteristics of the material are: a) Visual: Light vs. Dark, Flat vs. Shiny, etc., b) Visual-Tactile: Smooth vs. Rough, Slippery vs. Sticky, Compressive vs. Non-Compressive, Textured vs. Non-Textured, etc., c) Evaluative (overall perception): Dislike vs. Like, Fake vs. Genuine, Cheap vs. Expensive, etc. In the second phase, 12 younger and 12 older drivers were asked to evaluate a number of different automotive interior materials by using the 22 semantic differential scales.
Technical Paper

Development of Specifications for the UM-D's Low Mass Vehicle for China, India and the United States

2005-04-11
2005-01-1027
This paper presents results of a research project conducted to develop a methodology and to refine the specifications of a small, low mass, low cost vehicle being developed at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. The challenge was to assure that the design would meet the needs and expectations of customers in three different countries, namely, China, India and the United States. U.S, Chinese and Indian students studying on the university campus represented customers from their respective countries for our surveys and provided us with the necessary data on: 1) Importance of various vehicle level attributes to the entry level small car customer, 2) Preferences to various features, and 3) Direction magnitude estimation on parameters to size the vehicle for each of the three markets.
Technical Paper

Development of a Parametric Model for Advanced Vehicle Design

2004-03-08
2004-01-0381
This paper describes a research project currently in-progress to develop a parametric model of a vehicle for use in early design stages of a new vehicle program. The model requires key input parameters to define the kind of new vehicle to be designed — in terms of details such as its intended driver/user population, vehicle type (e.g. 2-box, 3-box designs), and some key exterior and interior dimensions related to its size and proportions. The model computes and graphically displays interior package, ergonomics zones for driver controls and displays, and field of views through window openings. It also allows importing or inputting and superimposing and manipulating exterior surfaces created by a designer to assess compatibility between the interior occupant package and the vehicle exterior.
Technical Paper

Driver Workload in an Autonomous Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0872
As intelligent automated vehicle technologies evolve, there is a greater need to understand and define the role of the human user, whether completely hands-off (L5) or partly hands-on. At all levels of automation, the human occupant may feel anxious or ill-at-ease. This may reflect as higher stress/workload. The study in this paper further refines how perceived workload may be determined based on occupant physiological measures. Because of great variation in individual personalities, age, driving experiences, gender, etc., a generic model applicable to all could not be developed. Rather, individual workload models that used physiological and vehicle measures were developed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel on the Tensile Properties of Nylon-6

2012-04-16
2012-01-0752
With increasing use of biofuels in the automotive industry, it has become necessary to evaluate their effects on the properties of polymers used in the fuel delivery systems. In this study, we have considered the effect of biodiesel on the tensile properties of nylon-6, 30% E-glass fiber reinforced nylon-6 and impact-modified nylon-6. The tensile specimens were immersed in 100% biodiesel for up to 7 days before determining their tensile properties. Another set of specimens were immersed in 100% biodiesel under stressed condition and then their tensile properties were determined. The absorption of biodiesel and their effects on tensile modulus, tensile strength and failure strain are reported in this paper.
Technical Paper

Effect of Surface Pretreatments on Adhesive Bonding and Corrosion Resistance of AM60B, AZ31-H24, and AM30 Magnesium

2009-04-20
2009-01-0037
This study reports the performance of three different automotive magnesium substrate materials (AM60B diecastings, AZ31-H24 sheet, and AM30 extrusions), each bonded to a common aluminum reference material with two different toughened adhesives. The magnesium substrates were pretreated with six different commercial pretreatments both with and without a final fused-powder polymeric topcoat. These samples were then evaluated by comparing initial lap-shear strength to the lap-shear strength after cyclic-corrosion testing. Additionally, use of a scribe through the polymer primer permitted assessment of: 1) distance of corrosion undercutting from the scribe (filiform), and 2) percent corrosion over the area of the coupon. The results showed that the performance of each magnesium pretreatment varied on cast AM60B, sheet AZ31-H24, and extruded AM30 substrates.
Technical Paper

Formability Analysis of Thermoplastic Lightweight Fiber-Metal Laminates

2006-04-03
2006-01-0118
This study investigates numerically and experimentally the formability of two Fiber-Metal Laminate systems based on a thermoplastic self-reinforced polypropylene and a glass fiber polypropylene composite materials. These hybrid systems consist of layered arrangements of aluminum 2024-T3 sheets and thermoplastic-based composite materials. Flat panels were manufactured using a fast one step cold press manufacturing procedure. Punch-stretch forming tests and numerical simulations were performed in order to evaluate the formability of the hybrid systems. Experimental and simulation results revealed that the self reinforced thermoplastic composite-based Fiber-Metal Laminate exhibit excellent forming properties similar to that of the monolithic aluminum alloy of comparable thickness.
Technical Paper

Graduate Education in Manufacturing Engineering for the Automotive Industry of the Future

1999-05-10
1999-01-1638
This paper discusses the evolution of graduate education in manufacturing engineering and the curriculum needed to educate manufacturing engineers in the automotive industry. This paper examines the master's and doctoral curriculum in manufacturing engineering at the University of Michigan-Dearborn. Finally, it proposes future direction for graduate education in manufacturing that will be needed for the automotive industry of the future.
Technical Paper

How the University of Michigan-Dearborn Prepares Engineering Graduates for Careers in Automotive Systems Engineering

2010-10-19
2010-01-2327
The automotive industry is expected to accelerate the transition to revolutionary products, rapid changes in technology and increasing technological sophistication. This will require engineers to advance their knowledge, connect and integrate different areas of knowledge and be skilled in synthesis. In addition, they must learn to work in cross-disciplinary teams and adopt a systems approach. The College of Engineering and Computer Science (CECS) at the University of Michigan-Dearborn (UM-Dearborn) responded by creating interdisciplinary MS and Ph.D. programs in automotive systems engineering (ASE) and augmenting them with hands-on research. Students at the undergraduate level can also engage in numerous ASE activities. UM-Dearborn's ASE programs offer interesting and possibly unique advantages. The first is that it offers a spectrum of ASE degree and credit programs, from the MS to the Ph.D. to continuing education.
Technical Paper

Incorporating Hard Disks in Vehicles- Usages and Challenges

2006-04-03
2006-01-0814
With recent advances in microprocessors and data storage technologies, vehicle users can now bring or access large amounts of data in vehicles for purposes such as communication (e.g. e-mail, phone books), entertainment (e.g. music and video files), browsing and searching for information (e.g. on-board computers and internet). The challenge for the vehicle designer is how to design data displays and retrieval methods to allow data search and manipulation tasks by managing driver workload at safe acceptable levels. This paper presents a data retrieval menu system developed to assess levels of screens (depth of menu) that may be needed to select required information when a vehicle is equipped with the capability to access audio files, cell phone, PDA, e-mail and “On-star” type functions.
Technical Paper

Independent Control of All-Wheel-Drive Torque Distribution

2004-05-04
2004-01-2052
The sophistication of all-wheel-drive technology is approaching the point where the drive torque to each wheel can be independently controlled. This potentially offers vehicle handling enhancements similar to those provided by Dynamic Stability Control, but without the inevitable reduction in vehicle acceleration. Independent control of all-wheel-drive torque distribution would therefore be especially beneficial under acceleration close to the limit of stability. A vehicle model of a typical sports sedan was developed in Simulink, with fully independent control of torque distribution. Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to determine which torque distribution parameters have the greatest impact on the vehicle course and acceleration. A proportional-integral control strategy was implemented, applying yaw rate feedback to vary the front-rear torque distribution, and lateral acceleration feedback to adjust the left-right distribution.
Technical Paper

Insightful Representations of Roll Plane Model Stability Limits

2006-04-03
2006-01-1284
Yaw and roll stability limits are derived for three quasi-static roll plane models: rigid vehicle, suspended vehicle, and compliant tire vehicle. A generalized stability equation is identified that fits the stability limits for each model. This generalized stability equation leads to the definition of two new parameters referred to as the generalized superelevation and generalized center of gravity height. These parameters are shown to be physically meaningful. The use of linearizing assumptions is minimized and road superelevation is included, resulting in a more complete equation for each stability limit. Each derived stability limit is then compared and contrasted to the typical representations found in the literature.
Technical Paper

Interfacial Fracture in Environmentally Friendly Thermoplastic Composite-Metal Laminates

2006-04-03
2006-01-0117
This paper investigates the interfacial fracture properties of composite-metal laminates by using the single-cantilever beam testing technique. The hybrid systems consisted of a layer of aluminum alloy (6061 or 2024-T3) bonded to polypropylene based composites. In this study, two non-chromate surface treatments were applied to the aluminum substrates: SafeGard CC-300 Chrome free seal (from Sanchem Inc.) and TCP-HF (from Metalast International Inc.). These are environmentally friendly surface treatments that enhance the adhesion and corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys. Flat hybrid panels were manufactured using a one step cold press manufacturing procedure. Single cantilever bend specimens were cut from the panels and tested at 1mm/min. Results have shown that the CC-300 treated Al 2024-T3 alloy and Twintex exhibited higher interfacial fracture energy values.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Thermoforming as a Method of Manufacturing Plastic Air Intake Manifolds

2000-03-06
2000-01-0045
Current plastic intake manifolds are manufactured using the injection molding process. In this paper, thermoforming is explored as an alternative to injection molding for making intake manifold shells, which can then be joined by one of the welding techniques used for thermoplastic materials. The investigation reported here includes press-forming experiments of a simple bowl shaped shell and subsequent welding experiments to join these shells.
Technical Paper

LS-DYNA3D Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming using Damage Based User Subroutine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1129
LS-DYNA3D has been widely used to perform computer simulation of sheet metal forming. In the material library of LS-DYNA3D there are a number of user defined material models. In order to take full advantage of the material subroutines, it is important for the users to be able to display user defined history variables in the post processing and to establish user-defined failure criterion. In this report, the development of a damage coupled plastic model is firstly described. The damage model is then programmed in a user defined material subroutine. This is followed by performing finite element simulation of sheet metal forming with the LS-DYNA3D that has incorporated the damage coupled plastic model. The way to display the user defined history variables and how to deal with the failure criterion during the postprocessing of ETA/DYNAFORM are described. History variable distributions at several time steps are displayed and discussed in this paper.
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