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Technical Paper

A Case Study in Remote Connectivity to Automotive Communication Networks

This paper describes a case study led by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) of Dayton, OH USA and Dearborn Group Inc. to prove the feasibility of employing Telematics technologies to the vehicle test and measurement industry. Many test functions can be automated through the use of secure wireless technologies. For example, vehicle data can be dynamically monitored on the vehicle and data meeting pre-determined criteria could be downloaded via the wireless communications center. Additionally, central, real-time wireless monitoring of vehicle fleets provides the vehicle fleet manager with the ability to manage multiple tests simultaneously, thus improving efficiencies and potentially reducing manpower costs and compressing test schedules.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Burn Characteristics and Exhaust Emissions from Off-Highway Engines Fueled by E0 and E85

Ethanol fuel has received renewed attention in recent years because of its oxygenate content and its potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from spark ignition engines. The economic impact on farm industry has been one of the drivers for its use in engines in the U.S. Although ethanol, in various blends, has been used in automotive engines for almost a decade the fuel has seldom been utilized in off-highway engines where the fuel systems are not well controlled. This investigation was conducted to evaluate exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of E85 fuel in an off-highway engine used in farm equipment. A single-cylinder, four-stroke, spark ignition engine equipped with a carburetor was used to investigate combustion and exhaust emissions produced by gasoline and blends of gasoline and ethanol fuels. The engine fuel system was modified to handle flow rates required by the engine. A variable size-metering orifice was used to control air-to-fuel ratios.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of High-Pressure Spray and Exhaust Emissions in a Single- Cylinder Di Diesel Engine

Regulations on exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty diesel engines have generated interest in high-pressure fuel injection systems. It has been recognized that high-pressure injection systems produce fuel sprays that may be more conductive to reducing exhaust emissions in direct-injection diesel engines. However, for such a system to be effective it must be matched carefully with the engine design and its operating parameters. A common-rail type of fuel injection system was investigated in the present study. The injection system utilizes an intensifier to generate injection pressures as high as 160 MPa. The fuel spray characteristics were evaluated on a test bench in a chamber containing pressurized nitrogen gas. The injection system was then incorporated in a single-cylinder diesel engine. The injection system parameters were adjusted to match engine specifications and its operating parameters.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Exhaust Emissions in a SI Engine using E85 and Cooled EGR

Gasoline-ethanol blends are being used or have been considered as a fuel for spark ignition engines. The motivation for using the blends varies in indifferent parts of the world and even in regions within a country. The increasing cost of gasoline, combined with regional tax incentives, is one of the reasons for increased interests in gasoline-ethanol blends in recent years in the U.S. Many vehicular engines are not designed to use a specific gasoline-ethanol blend. Rather, the engines have multi-blend capability, ranging from E0 to about E85. It is plausible that engine-out emissions will vary depending on the blend being used which may be further impacted by the level of EGR used with the blends. The present work was carried out to investigate engine out emissions when a vehicular spark-ignition engine was operated on E0 and E85 and different levels of EGR. A 4-cylinder, 2.5 liter, PFI engine was used in the experimental investigation.
Technical Paper

Combustion Variability in Natural Gas Fueled Engines

A study was conducted to investigate combustion variability and exhaust emissions from high-speed, natural gas fueled engines. Two types of fuel systems were used in the investigation: a mixer and a port fuel injection. The overall engine performances were not much different at stoichiometric fuel-air ratio. But as the equivalence ratio was reduced the engine with the mixer produced higher levels of hydrocarbons and larger coefficient of variations in imep. The same engine exhibited longer flame development angle and rapid burn duration in comparison to the fuel injected engine. The differences in burn durations increased as the equivalence ratio decreased and the mixer system produced larger variations in their values at these operating points. The investigation showed the performance of the engine was better with natural gas injection system than with the mixer, particularly at lean equivalence ratios.
Technical Paper

Development of Lightweight Hanger Rods for Vehicle Exhaust Applications

Recent stringent government regulations on emission control and fuel economy drive the vehicles and their associated components and systems to the direction of lighter weight. However, the achieved lightweight must not be obtained by sacrificing other important performance requirements such as manufacturability, strength, durability, reliability, safety, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Additionally, cost is always a dominating factor in the lightweight design of automotive products. Therefore, a successful lightweight design can only be accomplished by better understanding the performance requirements, the potentials and limitations of the designed products, and by balancing many conflicting design parameters. The combined knowledge-based design optimization procedures and, inevitably, some trial-and-error design iterations are the practical approaches that should be adopted in the lightweight design for the automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Their Control in Natural Gas Fueled Engines

An experimental study was undertaken to investigate emissions of hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane hydrocarbons emitted by natural gas fueled engines and the extent of their conversion in catalysts. Two engines were used in the study: a four cylinder, 1.6 liter, spark ignition engine and a modified version of the same engine with only one of the cylinders operating at 0.4 liter capacity. Two-way and three-way catalysts were used to treat exhaust gases leaving the engine. Natural gas was supplied through gas carburetors operated at regulated pressures and supplying air-fuel ratios in the desired range. The results of the investigation showed that oxides of nitrogen could not be reduced in a three-way catalyst to the levels found in gasoline fueled engines when the operating air-fuel ratio was stoichiometric.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effect of Two-Stage Turbocharger Configurations on the Perceived Vehicle Acceleration Using Numerical Simulation

Charge boosting strategy plays an essential role in improving the power density of diesel engines while meeting stringent emissions regulations. In downsized two-stage turbocharged engines, turbocharger matching is critical to achieve desired boost pressure while maintaining sufficiently fast transient response. A numerical simulation model is developed to evaluate the effect of two-stage turbocharger configurations on the perceived vehicle acceleration. The simulation model developed in GT-SUITE consists of engine, drivetrain, and vehicle dynamics sub-models. A model-based turbocharger control logic is developed in MATLAB using an analytical compressor model and a mean-value engine model. The components of the two-stage turbocharging system evaluated in this study include a variable geometry turbine in the high-pressure stage, a compressor bypass valve in the low-pressure stage and an electrically assisted turbocharger in the low-pressure stage.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen-Diesel Engine: Problems and Prospects of Improving the Working Process

The diesel engine with direct injection of hydrogen gas has clear advantages over the hydrogen engine with forced ignition of a hydrogen-air mixture. Despite of this, the concept of hydrogen-diesel engine has not investigated until now. In the paper, a detailed study of the working process of hydrogen-diesel engine carried out for the first time. Based on the results of the experimental studies and mathematical modeling, it has established that the behavior of thermo-physical processes in the combustion chamber of hydrogen-diesel engine, in a number of cases, differs fundamentally from the processes that take place in the conventional diesel engines. There have been identified the reasons for their difference and determined the values of the operating cycle parameters of hydrogen diesel engine, which provide the optimal correlation between the indicator values and the environmental performance.
Technical Paper

Lean Burn Natural Gas Fueled S.I.Engine and Exhaust Emissions

An experimental study was undertaken to study exhaust emission from a lean-burn natural gas spark ignition engine. The possibility that such an engine may help to reduce exhaust emissions substantially by taking advantage of natural gas fuel properties, such as its antiknock properties and extended lean flammability limit compared to gasoline, was the main motivation behind the investigation. A four cylinder, automotive type spark ignition engine was used in the investigation. The engine was converted to operate on natural gas by replacing its fuel system with a gaseous carburetion system. A 3-way metal metrix catalytic converter was used in the engine exhaust system to reduce emission levels. The engine operated satisfactorily at an equivalence ratio as lean as 0.6, at all speeds and loads. As a result NOx emissions were significantly reduced. However, hydrocarbon emissions were high, particularly at very lean conditions and light loads.
Technical Paper

Relationship Between the Corner Depth and Quality of Mixing in a Square Combustion Chamber Di Diesel Engine

This paper provides an insight into the design of a compound combustion chamber, with square and circular cavities, for use in a direct-injection diesel engine. Automotive diesel engines using square combustion chamber design have shown improvement in oxides of nitrogen and particulate exhaust emissions. In spite of this, neither the quality of mixture formation in such chambers nor the relationship between the engine performance and combustion chamber designs have been adequately addressed. Compound combustion chambers have potential to combine attributes of square and circular chambers to provide improved engine performance. An experimental study, based on liquid injection technique (LIT), was conducted to evaluate mixture formation in compound combustion chambers of different designs. These chambers have square geometry of depth "h" at the top and a curricular cavity at the bottom, with the total chamber depth being "H."
Technical Paper

Seat Comfort as a Function of Occupant Characteristics and Pressure Measurements at the Occupant-Seat Interface

Seat comfort is a highly subjective attribute and depends on a wide range of factors, but the successful prediction of seat comfort from a group of relevant variables can hold the promise of eliminating the need for time-consuming subjective evaluations during the early stages of seat cushion selection and development. This research presents the subjective seat comfort data of a group of 30 participants using a controlled range of seat foam samples, and attempts to correlate this attribute with a) the anthropometric and demographic characteristics of the participants, b) the objective pressure distribution at the body-seat interface and c) properties of the various foam samples that were used for the test.
Technical Paper

Spray Angle and Atomization in Diesel Sprays

In this investigation, cone angles of high pressure diesel sprays emerging through plain orifices were studied. The study was conducted at constant fuel pressures by using injection system in a single pulse mode. The results show cone angles to depend on orifice dimensions, background gas density as well as on injection pressure. Droplet sizes in the mixing region of the spray were also measured at a background gas density of one atmosphere. Sauter mean diameter was found to depend on orifice diameter and injection pressure. Based on the experimental results, a correlation is derived to predict mean diameter in the mixing region.
Technical Paper

Touch Feel and Appearance Characteristics of Automotive Door Armrest Materials

This paper presents results of a five phase study conducted to evaluate touch feel and appearance of door armrest materials. Seven different production door armrests with different material characteristics such as softness, smoothness, compressibility, texture, etc. were evaluated. In the first phase, the subjects seated in a vehicle buck in their preferred seating position with the armrests adjusted at their preferred heights, provided ratings on a number of touch feel and appearance of the door armrest materials using 5-point semantic differential scales. In the second phase, the armrests were presented to each subject in all possible pairs and they were asked to select preferred armrest material in each pair.