Alternative Fuel Technologies for Heavy Duty Vehicles: Performance, Emissions, Economics, Safety, and Development Status
This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art of various alternative fuel technologies for heavy-duty transit applications and compares them to conventional and “ clean” diesel engines. Alternative powerplants considered include compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied natural gas (LNG), methanol, ethanol, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hydrogen, and several electric technologies. The various technologies are ranked according to emissions, operating and capital costs, safety, development status, driveability, and long term fuel supply. A simple spreadsheet-based rating system is presented; it not only provides a versatile, semi-quantitative way to rank technologies using both quantitative and qualitative information, but also helps identify critical areas which limit implementation for a given application. An example is given for urban transit buses.