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Journal Article

Assessment of the Influence of GDI Injection System Parameters on Soot Emission and Combustion Stability through a Numerical and Experimental Approach

2015-09-06
2015-24-2422
The next steps of the current European and US legislation, EURO 6c and LEV III, and the incoming new test cycles will impose more severe restrictions on pollutant emissions for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines. In particular, soot emission limits will represent a challenge for the development of this kind of engine concept, if injection and after-treatment systems costs are to be minimized at the same time. The paper illustrates the results obtained by means of a numerical and experimental approach, in terms of soot emissions and combustion stability assessment and control, especially during catalyst-heating conditions, where the main soot quantity in the test cycle is produced. A number of injector configurations has been designed by means of a CAD geometrical analysis, considering the main effects of the spray target on wall impingement.
Technical Paper

Benchmark Comparison of Commercially Available Systems for Particle Number Measurement

2013-09-08
2013-24-0182
Measurement of particle number was introduced in the Euro 5/6 light duty vehicle emissions regulation. Due to the complex nature of combustion exhaust particles, and to transportation, transformation and deposition mechanisms, such type of measurement is particularly complex, and regression analysis is commonly used for the comparison of different measurement systems. This paper compares various commercial instruments, developing a correlation analysis focused on PN (Particle Number) measurement, and isolating the factors that mainly influence each measuring method. In particular, the experimental activity has been conducted to allow critical comparisons between measurement techniques that are imposed by current regulations and instruments that can be used also on the test cell. The paper presents the main results obtained by analyzing instruments based on different physical principles, and the effects of different sampling locations and different operating parameters.
Technical Paper

Development of a CFD Approach to Model Fuel-Air Mixing in Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2012-04-16
2012-01-0146
Direct-injection represents a consolidated technology to increase performance and efficiency in spark-ignition engines. It reduces the knock tendency and makes engine downsizing possible through the use of turbocharging. Better control of CO and HC emissions at cold-start is also ensured since there is no wall-impingement in the intake port. However, to take advantages of all the theoretical benefits derived from GDI technology, detailed investigations of both fuel-air mixing and combustion processes are necessary to extend the stratified charge operations in the engine map and to reduce soot emissions, that are now severely regulated by emission standards. In this work, the authors developed a CFD methodology to investigate and optimize the fuel-air mixing process in direct-injection, spark-ignition engines. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is used to model the evolution of the fuel spray emerging from a multi-hole injector.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Acoustic Emission Analysis for Combustion Control

2012-04-16
2012-01-1338
Future regulations on pollutant emissions will impose a drastic cut on Diesel engines out-emissions. For this reason, the development of closed-loop combustion control algorithms has become a key factor in modern Diesel engine management systems. Diesel engines out-emissions can be reduced through a highly premixed combustion portion in low and medium load operating conditions. Since low-temperature premixed combustions are very sensitive to in-cylinder thermal conditions, the first aspect to be considered in newly developed Diesel engine control strategies is the control of the center of combustion. In order to achieve the target center of combustion, conventional combustion control algorithms correct the measured value varying main injection timing. A further reduction in engine-out emissions can be obtained applying an appropriate injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Injection Pattern Investigation for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion Analysis

2019-09-09
2019-24-0112
Nowadays, compression-ignited engines are considered the most efficient and reliable technology for automotive applications. However, mainly due to the current emission regulations, that require increasingly stringent reductions of NOx and particulate matter, the use of diesel-like fuels is becoming a critical issue. For this reason, a large amount of research and experimentation is being carried out to investigate innovative combustion techniques suitable to simultaneously mitigate the production of NOx and soot, while improving engine efficiency. In this scenario, the combined use of compression-ignited engines and gasoline-like fuels proved to be very promising, especially in case the fuel is directly-injected in the combustion chamber at high pressure. The presented study analyzes the combustion process produced by the direct injection of small amounts of gasoline in a compression-ignited light-duty engine.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on Multiple Injection Strategies in DISI Engines for Particulate Emission Control

2012-04-16
2012-01-0400
In this work a numerical analysis of multiple-injection strategy in homogeneous operation in DISI engines is presented. Moving toward Euro 6 emission standards, one of the main challenges for GDI engines is the reduction of particulate emission in terms of mass and particle number. In fact, in stratified operation, the droplets injected during compression stroke may cause a significant amount of soot production, due to locally non-premixed combustion. Besides, in medium and high load, the liner and piston spray impingement is another possible reason of production of soot emission. In order to meet the required performance and emission targets, focusing on the reduction of particulate emission, a multiple injection strategy can be considered as an option to control both the mixture stratification and the wall impingement. In particular, in this work a multiple injection strategy during intake stroke in homogeneous condition is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Remote Combustion Sensing Methodology for PCCI and Dual-Fuel Combustion Control

2015-09-06
2015-24-2420
The increasing request for pollutant emissions reduction spawned a great deal of research in the field of innovative combustion methodologies, that allow obtaining a significant reduction both in particulate matter and NOx emissions. Unfortunately, due to their nature, these innovative combustion strategies are very sensitive to in-cylinder thermal conditions. Therefore, in order to obtain a stable combustion, a closed-loop combustion control methodology is needed. Prior research has demonstrated that a closed-loop combustion control strategy can be based on the real-time analysis of in-cylinder pressure trace, that provides important information about the combustion process, such as Start (SOC) and Center of combustion (CA50), pressure peak location and torque delivered by each cylinder. Nevertheless, cylinder pressure sensors on-board installation is still uncommon, due to problems related to unsatisfactory measurement long term reliability and cost.
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