Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

3D CFD Analysis of the Influence of Some Geometrical Engine Parameters on Small PFI Engine Performances - The Effects on Tumble Motion and Mean Turbulent Intensity Distribution

2012-10-23
2012-32-0096
In scooter/motorbike engines coherent and stable tumble motion generation is still considered an effective mean in order to both reduce engine emissions and promote higher levels of combustion efficiency. The scientific research also assessed that squish motion is an effective mean for speeding up the combustion in a combustion process already fast. In a previous technical paper the authors demonstrated that for an engine having a high C/D ratio the squish motion is not only not necessary but also detrimental for the stability of the tumble motion itself, because there is a strong interaction between these two motions with the consequent formation of secondary vortices, which in turn penalizes the tumble breakdown and the turbulent kinetic energy production.
Technical Paper

3D Large Scale Simulation of the High-Speed Liquid Jet Atomization

2007-04-16
2007-01-0244
In this paper three-dimensional Large Eddy Simulations (i.e., LES) by using a PLIC-VOF method have been adopted to investigate the atomization process of round liquid jets issuing from automotive multi-hole injector-like nozzles. LES method is used to compute directly the effect of the large flow structure, being the smallest one modelled. A mesh having a cell size of 4 μm was used in order to derive a statistics of the detached liquid structures, i.e. droplets and ligaments. The latter have been identified by using an algorithm coded by authors. Cavitation modeling has not been included in the present computations. Two different mean injection nozzle flow velocities of 50 m/s and 270 m/s, corresponding to two mean nozzle flow Reynolds numbers of 1600 and 8700, respectively, have been considered in the calculations as representative of laminar and turbulent nozzle flow conditions.
Journal Article

A 1d Model for the Prediction of Flash Atomization in Gdi Multi-Hole Injectors: Preliminary Results

2008-10-06
2008-01-2516
A flash evaporation model is being developed to capture the effects of bubble nucleation and growth inside multi-hole injector nozzles to investigate the flash evaporation in fuel injector sprays in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI). The 1D flash evaporation model is a key tool for providing the 3D Eulerian-Eulerian or Lagrangian spray simulation model with the right droplet size in order to properly predict the effect of degree of superheating on mixture formation. Super heating conditions are likely to be found under partial load conditions in GDI applications or they might be deliberately induced to enhance fuel atomization and vaporization. A quasi-1D nozzle flow model has been developed to help quantifying the effects of main physical and geometrical parameters in promoting fuel flash evaporation. This model is based on an weakly compressible homogenous two-phase mixture assumption. A non-equilibrium model is used to predict the vapour formation rate along the nozzle.
Technical Paper

A 3D User and Maintenance Manual for UAVs and Commercial Aircrafts Based on Augmented Reality

2015-09-15
2015-01-2473
Traditional User/Maintenance Manuals provide useful information when dealing with simple machines. However, when dealing with complex systems of systems and highly miniaturized technologies, like UAVs, or with machines with millions of parts, a commercial aircraft is a case in point, new technologies taking advantage of Augmented Reality can rapidly and effectively support the maintenance operations. This paper presents a User/Maintenance Manual based on Augmented Reality to help the operator in the detection of parts and in the sequence to be followed to assemble/disassemble systems and subsystems. The proposed system includes a handheld device and/or an head mounted display or special goggles, to be used by on-site operators, with software management providing data fusion and overlaying traditional 2D user/maintenance manual information with an augmented reality software and appropriate interface.
Technical Paper

A Chemical-Kinetic Approach to the Definition of the Laminar Flame Speed for the Simulation of the Combustion of Spark-Ignition Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0035
The laminar burning speed is an important intrinsic property of an air-fuel mixture determining key combustion characteristics such as turbulent flame propagation. It is a function of the mixture composition (mixture fraction and residual gas mass fraction) and of the thermodynamic conditions. Experimental measurements of Laminar Flame Speeds (LFS) are common in literature, but initial pressure and temperature are limited to low values due to the test conditions: typical pressure values for LFS detection are lower than 25 bar, and temperature rarely exceeds 550 K. Actual trends in spark ignition engines are to increase specific power output by downsizing and supercharging, thus the flame front involves even more higher pressure and temperature since the beginning of combustion.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Powertrain Model to Evaluate the Benefits of Electric Turbo Compound (ETC) in Reducing CO2 Emissions from Small Diesel Passenger Cars

2014-04-01
2014-01-1650
In the last years the automotive industry has been involved in the development and implementation of CO2 reducing concepts such as the engines downsizing, stop/start systems as well as more costly full hybrid solutions and, more recently, waste heat recovery technologies. These latter include ThermoElectric Generator (TEG), Rankine cycle and Electric Turbo Compound (ETC) that have been practically implemented on few heavy-duty application but have not been proved yet as effective and affordable solutions for the automotive industry. The paper deals with the analysis of opportunities and challenges of the Electric Turbo Compound for automotive light-duty engines. In the ETC concept the turbine-compressor shaft is connected to an electric machine, which can work either as generator or motor. In the former case the power can satisfy the vehicle electrical demand to drive the auxiliaries or stored in the batteries.
Journal Article

A Control-Oriented Knock Intensity Estimator

2017-09-04
2017-24-0055
The performance optimization of modern Spark Ignition engines is limited by knock occurrence: heavily downsized engines often are forced to work in the Knock-Limited Spark Advance (KLSA) range. Knock control systems monitor the combustion process, allowing to achieve a proper compromise between performance and reliability. Combustion monitoring is usually carried out by means of accelerometers or ion sensing systems, but recently the use of cylinder pressure sensors is also becoming frequent in motorsport applications. On the other hand, cylinder pressure signals are often available in the calibration stage, where SA feedback-control based on the pressure signal can be used to avoid damages to the engine during automatic calibration. A predictive real-time combustion model could help optimizing engine performance, without exceeding the allowed knock severity.
Technical Paper

A Mesh Based Approach for Unconventional Unmanned Airship Added Masses Computation

2013-09-17
2013-01-2191
Added masses computation is a crucial aspect to be considered when the density of a body moving in a fluid is comparable to the density of the fluid displaced: added mass can be defined as the inertia added to a system because an accelerating or decelerating body displaces some volume of neighboring fluid as it moves through it. The motion of vehicles like airships and ships can be addressed only by keeping into account the effect of added masses, while in case of aircrafts and helicopters this contribution is usually neglected. Lighter Than Air flight simulation, unmanned airships flight control system, airships flight dynamics are typical applications in which added masses are fundamental to achieve an effective and realistic modeling. A panel based method using the mesh of an airship external shape is developed to account for the added massed.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for In-Cylinder Flow Field Evaluation in a Low Stroke-to-Bore SI Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-1119
This paper presents a methodology for the 3D CFD simulation of the intake and compression processes of four stroke internal combustion engines.The main feature of this approach is to provide very accurate initial conditions by means of a cost-effective initialization step. Calculations are applied to a low stroke-to-bore SI engine, operated at full load and maximum engine speed. It is demonstrated that initial conditions for this kind of engines have an important influence on flow field development, particularly in terms of mean velocities close to the firing TDC. Simulation results are used to discuss the choice of a set of parameters for the flow field characterization of low stroke-to-bore engines, as well as to provide an insight into the flow patterns during the overlapping period.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Methodology for the Multi-Objective Optimization of an Automotive DI Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0019
Nowadays, an automotive DI Diesel engine is demanded to provide an adequate power output together with limit-complying NOx and soot emissions so that the development of a specific combustion concept is the result of a trade-off between conflicting objectives. In other words, the development of a low-emission DI diesel combustion concept could be mathematically represented as a multi-objective optimization problem. In recent years, genetic algorithm and CFD simulations were successfully applied to this kind of problem. However, combining GA optimization with actual CFD-3D combustion simulations can be too onerous since a large number of simulations is usually required, resulting in a high computational cost and, thus, limiting the suitability of this method for industrial processes.
Journal Article

A Numerical Model for Flash Boiling of Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Fuel Injector Nozzles

2011-09-11
2011-24-0003
Fuels are formulated by a variety of different components characterized by chemical and physical properties spanning a wide range of values. Changing the ratio between the mixture component molar fractions, it is possible to fulfill different requirements. One of the main properties that can be strongly affected by mixture composition is the volatility that represents the fuel tendency to vaporize. For example, changing the mixture ratio between alcohols and hydrocarbons, it is possible to vary the mixture saturation pressure, therefore the fuel vaporization ratio during the injection process. This paper presents a 1D numerical model to simulate the superheated injection process of a gasoline-ethanol mixture through real nozzle geometries. In order to test the influence of the mixture properties on flash atomization and flash evaporation, the simulation is repeated for different mixtures characterized by different gasoline-ethanol ratio.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study Towards Possible Improvements of Common Rail Injectors

2002-03-04
2002-01-0500
The aim of this work is to propose modifications to the managing of the 1st generation Common Rail injectors in order to reduce actuation time towards multiple injection strategies. The current Common Rail injector driven by 1st ECU generation is capable of operating under stable conditions with a minimum dwell between two consecutive injections of 1.8 ms. This limits the possibility in using proper and efficient injection strategies for emission control purposes. A previous numerical study, performed by the electro-fluid-mechanical model built up by Matlab-Simulink environment, highlighted different area where injector may be improved with particular emphasis on electronic driving circuit and components design. Experiments carried out at injector Bosch test-bench showed that a proper control of the solenoid valve allowed reducing drastically the standard deviation during the pilot pulses.
Technical Paper

A RANS CFD 3D Methodology for the Evaluation of the Effects of Cycle By Cycle Variation on Knock Tendency of a High Performance Spark Ignition Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1223
Knocking combustions heavily limits the efficiency of Spark Ignition engines. The compression ratio is limited in the design stage of the engine development, letting to Spark Advance control the task of reducing the odds of abnormal combustions. A detailed analysis of knocking events can help improving engine performance and diagnosis strategies. An effective way is to use advanced 3D CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation for the analysis and prediction of combustion performance. Standard 3D CFD approach is based on RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) equations and allows the analysis of the mean engine cycle. However knocking phenomenon is not deterministic and it is heavily affected by the cycle to cycle variation of engine combustions. A methodology for the evaluation of the effects of CCV (Cycle by Cycle Variability) on knocking combustions is here presented, based on both the use of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and experimental information.
Journal Article

Acoustic Emission Processing for Turbocharged GDI Engine Control Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1622
In the field of passenger car engines, recent research advances have proven the effectiveness of downsized, turbocharged and direct injection concepts, applied to gasoline combustion systems, to reduce the overall fuel consumption while respecting particularly stringent exhaust emissions limits. Knock and turbocharger control are two of the most critical factors that influence the achievement of maximum efficiency and satisfactory drivability, for this new generation of engines. The sound emitted from an engine encloses many information related to its operating condition. In particular, the turbocharger whistle and the knock clink are unmistakable sounds. This paper presents the development of real-time control functions, based on direct measurement of the engine acoustic emission, captured by an innovative and low cost acoustic sensor, implemented on a platform suitable for on-board application.
Technical Paper

Airship and Hot Air Balloon Real Time Envelope Shape Prediction through a Cloth Simulation Technique

2015-09-15
2015-01-2578
The flight simulation of airships and hot air balloons usually considers the envelope geometry as a fixed shape, whose volume is eventually reduced by ballonets. However, the dynamic pressure or helium leaks in airships, and the release of air to allow descent in hot air balloons can significantly change the shape of the envelope leading to potential dangerous situations. In fact, in case of semi-rigid and non-rigid airships a reduction in envelope internal pressure can reduce the envelope bending stiffness leading to the loss of the typical axial-symmetric shape. For hot air balloons thing goes even worse since the lost of internal pressure can lead to the collapsing of the balloon shape to a sort of vertically stretched geometry (similar to a torch) which is not able to sustain the attached basket and its payload.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Software Environment for UAV Missions Support

2013-09-17
2013-01-2189
This paper describes the design and development of a virtual environment conceived to support flight operations of an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) used for wind mapping in the proximity of existing or planned wind farms. The virtual environment can be used in pre-flight briefings aiming to define a trajectory from a list of waypoints, to change and eventually re-plan the mission in case of intersection with no fly zones, to simulate the mission, and to preview images/videos taken from the UAV on-board cameras. During flight, the tool can be used to compute the wind speed along the trajectory by analyzing the data streaming from the UAV. The integration of Augmented Reality (AR) techniques in the flight environment provides assistance in remotely piloted landings, and allows visualizing flight and environmental information that are critical to the mission.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Mixture Formation at Partial Load Operating Condition: The Effect of the Throttle Valve Rotational Direction

2015-09-06
2015-24-2410
In the next incoming future the necessity of reducing the raw emissions leads to the challenge of an increment of the thermal engine efficiency. In particular it is necessary to increase the engine efficiency not only at full load but also at partial load conditions. In the open literature very few technical papers are available on the partial load conditions analysis. In the present paper the analysis of the effect of the throttle valve rotational direction on the mixture formation is analyzed. The engine was a PFI 4-valves motorcycle engine. The throttle valve opening angle was 17.2°, which lays between the very partial load and the partial load condition. The CFD code adopted for the analysis was the FIRE AVL code v. 2013.2. The exhaust, intake and compression phases till TDC were simulated: inlet/outlet boundary conditions from 1D simulations were imposed.
Technical Paper

Application of Acoustic and Vibration-Based Knock Detection Techniques to a High Speed Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0786
Knock control systems based on engine block vibrations analysis are widely adopted in passenger car engines, but such approach shows its main limits at high engine speeds, since knock intensity measurement becomes less reliable due to the increased background mechanical noise. For small two wheelers engines, knock has not been historically considered a crucial issue, mainly due to small-sized combustion chambers and mixture enrichment. Due to more stringent emission regulations and in search of reduced CO2 emissions, an effective on-board knock controller acquires today greater importance also for motorcycle applications, since it could protect the engine when different fuel types are used, and it could significantly reduce fuel consumption (by avoiding lambda enrichment and/or allowing higher compression ratios to be adopted). These types of engines typically work at high rotational speeds and the reduced signal to noise ratio makes knock onset difficult to identify.
Technical Paper

Application of the CTC Model to Predict Combustion and Pollutant Emissions in a Common-Rail Diesel Engine Operating with Multiple Injections and High EGR

2012-04-16
2012-01-0154
Multiple injections and high EGR rates are now widely adopted for combustion and emissions control in passenger car diesel engines. In a wide range of operating conditions, fuel is provided through one to five separated injection events, and recirculated gas fractions between 0 to 30% are used. Within this context, fast and reliable multi-dimensional models are necessary to define suitable injection strategies for different operating points and reduce both the costs and time required for engine design and development. In this work, the authors have applied a modified version of the characteristic time-scale combustion model (CTC) to predict combustion and pollutant emissions in diesel engines using advanced injection strategies. The Shell auto-ignition model is used to predict auto-ignition, with a suitable set of coefficients that were tuned for diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Artificial Intelligence Methodologies for Oxygen Virtual Sensing at Diesel Engine Intake

2012-04-16
2012-01-1153
In the last decades, worldwide automotive regulations induced the industry to dramatically increase the application of electronics in the control of the engine and of the pollutant emissions reduction systems. Besides the need of engine control, suitable fault diagnosis tools had also to be developed, in order to fulfil OBD-II and E-OBD requirements. At present, one of the problems in the development of Diesel engines is represented by the achievement of an ever more sharp control on the systems used for the pollutant emission reduction. In particular, as far as NOx gas is concerned, EGR systems are mature and widely used, but an ever higher efficiency in terms of emissions abatement, requires to determine as better as possible the actual oxygen content in the charge at the engine intake manifold, also in dynamic conditions, i.e. in transient engine operation.
X