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Technical Paper

An Algorithm to Calculate Chest Deflection from 3D IR-TRACC

A three dimensional IR-TRACC (Infrared Telescope Rod for Assessment of Chest Compression) was designed for the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) in recent years to measure chest deflections. Due to the design intricateness, the deflection calculation from the measurements is sophisticated. An algorithm was developed in this paper to calculate the three dimensional deflections of the chest. The algorithm calculates the compression and also converts the results to the local spine coordinate system so that it can correlate with the Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) measurements for injury calculation. The method was also verified by a finite element calculation for accuracy, comparing the calculation from the corresponding model output and the direct point to point measurements. In addition, the IR-TRACC calibration methods are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Application of Damage Models in Bending and Hydroforming of Aluminum Alloy Tube

This paper examines the application of damage models in tube bending and subsequent hydroforming of AlMg3.5Mn aluminum alloy tubes. An in-house Gurson-based damage model, incorporated within LS-DYNA, has been used for the simulations. The applied damage model contains several void nucleation and growth parameters that must be determined for each material. A simpler straight tube hydroforming process was considered first to check the damage parameters and predicted ductility. Then the model was applied to a sequence of bending and hydroforming. The damage history from pre-bending was mapped to the hydroforming stage, to allow prediction of the overall ductility. The applied forming parameters in the simulation were based on data extracted during the experimental tests. Finally, the numerical results were compared to the experimental data.
Technical Paper

Coatings on Resistance Welding Electrodes to Extend Life

TiCP/Ni coating has been deposited onto the electrodes by electro-spark deposition to improve electrode life during resistance welding of Zn-coated steels. However, welding results revealed that molten Zn penetrates into coating through the cracks and then reacts with substrate copper alloy to form brasses. In the present work, laser treatment was performed on the TiCP/Ni coated electrodes to eliminate cracks formed in the as-deposited TiCP/Ni coating. In addition, a multi-electro-spark deposition of Ni, TiCP/Ni and Ni has also been carried out to improve coating quality. On the other hand, a TiB2 coating was also investigated. those coatings were characterized by electro-microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction and micro-hardness tests. The results showed that cracks within the as-deposited TiCP/Ni coating could be eliminated with the use of laser treatment or a multi-layer deposition process.
Technical Paper

Crack Initiation and Propagation Fatigue Life Prediction for an A36 Steel Welded Plate Specimen

Fatigue crack initiation and propagation models predict the fatigue life of welded "T" specimens tested by the Fatigue Design and Evaluation (FDE) Committee of SAE under constant and variable amplitude load histories. The crack propagation equations stipulated by British Standard BS-7910 have been incorporated in a material memory model for cyclic deformation. The simulations begin with the crack initiation model and show how it is used to account for cyclic mean stress relaxation and the effects of periodic overloads. After the cracks initiate the BS-7910 model is applied to predict the crack advance due to either constant or variable amplitude histories. Simulation results correspond to the experimental results with good accuracy.
Technical Paper

Damage Characterization and Damage Percolation Modelling in Aluminum Alloy Sheet

Tessellation methods have been applied to characterize second phase particle fields and the degree of clustering present in AA 5754 and 5182 automotive sheet alloys. A model of damage development within these materials has been developed using a damage percolation approach based on measured particle distributions. The model accepts tessellated particle fields in order to capture the spatial distributions of particles, as well as nearest neighbour and cluster parameter data. The model demonstrates how damage initiates and percolates within particle clusters in a stable fashion for the majority of the deformation history. Macro-cracking leading to final failure occurs as a chain reaction with catastrophic void linkage triggered once linkage beyond three or more clusters of voids takes place.
Technical Paper

Damage and Formability of AKDQ and High Strength DP600 Steel Tubes

Using standard tensile testing methods, the material properties of AKDQ and DP600 steels tubes along the axial direction were determined. A novel in-situ optical strain mapping system ARAMIS® was utilized to evaluate the strain distribution during tensile testing along the axial direction. Microstructural and damage characterization was carried out using microscopy and image analysis techniques to compare the damage evolution and formability of both materials. Failure in both steels was observed to occur via a ductile failure mode. AKDQ was found to be the more formable material as it can achieve higher strains, total elongations and thinning prior to failure than the higher strength DP600.
Technical Paper

Dent Resistance of Medium Scale Aluminum Structural Assemblies

This work outlines the evaluation of static and dynamic dent resistance of medium scale structural assemblies fabricated using AA6111 and AA5754. The assemblies fabricated attempt to mimic common automotive hood designs allowing for a parametric study of the support spacing, sheet thickness and panel curvature. Closure panels of AA6111, of two thicknesses (0.8, and 0.9mm), are bonded to re-usable inner panels fabricated using AA5754 to form the structural assemblies tested. While normal practice would use the same alloy for both the inner and the outer, in the current work, AA5754 was adopted for ease of welding. Numerical simulations were performed using LS DYNA. A comparison of experimental and numerically simulated results is presented. The study attempts to establish an understanding of the relationship between structural support conditions and resulting dent depths for both static and dynamic loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Edge Formability and Material Characterization of Hot-Rolled Multiphase Steels

New innovations in the field of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have led to the development of steels with improved stretch-flangeability known as hot-rolled multi-phase (HR) steels. To understand the performance of HR steels, hole expansion tests were conducted on five prototype HR steels and compared with their commercial dual-phase (DP) steel equivalent. A variety of hole edge conditions were considered to study the influence of the shear-affected-zone (SAZ), the surface roughness at the sheared edge and the shear burr orientation. The microstructure of each material was characterized and discussed in relation to its formability for the different edge conditions. It was observed that the bainitic-ferrite microstructure of the HR steels showed superior formability during sheared edge stretching compared to commercial dual-phase steels.
Technical Paper

Effect of Bead Finish Orientation on Friction and Galling in the Drawbead Test

This study was undertaken to examine the role of tool finish orientation on the drawing of zinc-coated steel sheets. Beads of average roughnesses of 0.1 μm and 0.2 μm, finished parallel to and perpendicular to sliding, were used in the drawbead test. Lubrication was provided by unblended base oils of 4.5, 30, and 285 mm2/s @ 40°C, used neat and with a boundary additive, 1% stearic acid. Three types of coated sheet (galvannealed, electrogalvanized, and hot-dip galvanized) were compared to bare AKDQ steel sheet. Results show that lubricant viscosity had the greatest effect on friction, while bead finish orientation and coating type influenced the nature of metal transfer and the galling of the strip. Mixed-film lubrication dominated with the medium and heavy lubricants, here contact area and friction were reduced with increasing lubricant viscosity.
Technical Paper

Effect of End-feed in Hydroforming of Straight and Pre-bent High Strength and Advanced High Strength Steel Tubes

One of the major concerns preventing wider utilization of high strength steels (HSS) and advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in hydroforming is their inherent lower formability, compared to conventional mild steels. The application of the axial forces on the tube ends during a hydroforming operation is often referred to as end-feed, and can facilitate deformation of the tube by postponing failure. This research examines the effect of end-feed on the formability of HSS and AHSS tubes during hydroforming. Through simulation, straight and pre-bent tubes are hydroformed at different levels of end-feed for three materials: DDQ, HSLA350 and DP600.
Technical Paper

Effect of Endfeed on the Strains and Thickness During Bending and on the Subsequent Hydroformability of Steel Tubes

This research examines the effect of endfeed on the thickness and strains during bending of steel tubes. The tubes were bent using an instrumented rotary draw tube bender and subsequently hydroformed into a diamond-profile outside corner fill die. DQAK tubes with an OD of 76.2 mm and a thickness of 1.55 mm were investigated. Endfeed during bending was found to have a significant effect on the thickness and strains within the tube after bending, and numerical models that were generated showed good agreement with the experimental data. It is shown how slight changes in thickness can cause localized failure during hydroforming, and how excessive die clearances can cause large strains in undesired areas.
Technical Paper

Effect of Stress Triaxiality on the Constitutive Response of Super Vacuum Die Cast AM60B Magnesium Alloy

The effect of stress triaxiality on failure strain in as-cast magnesium alloy AM60B is examined. Experiments using one uniaxial and two notched tensile geometries were used to study the effect of stress triaxiality on the quasi-static constitutive response of super vacuum die cast AM60B castings. For all tests, local strains, failure location and specimen elongation were tracked using two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) analysis. The uniaxial specimens were tested in two orthogonal directions to determine the anisotropy of the casting. Finite element models were developed to estimate effective plastic strain histories and stress state (triaxiality) as a function of notch severity. It was found that there is minimal, if any, anisotropy present in AM60B castings. Higher stress triaxiality levels caused increases in maximum stress and decreases in elongation and local effective plastic strain at failure.
Journal Article

Estimating the Strain-Based FLC of a Tube from Straight Tube Hydroforming Experiments and Numerical Models

The Extended Stress-Based Forming Limit Curve (XSFLC) failure criterion has been shown to provide good qualitative and quantitative predictions of failure (necking) in straight tube hydro forming when the on the level of end-feed (EF) used during hydro forming, the failure criterion has a tendency to over predict failure pressure at low Keeler-Brazier (K-B) approximation is used to define the XSFLC failure curve. Depending EF and under predict failure pressure for high EF. The over/under predictions suggest that the strain-space εFLC, which the XSFLC is based on, has too high of a plane-strain intercept (FLCo), when it is obtained using the K-B approximation (developed for sheet metal).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Automobile Fluid Ignition on Hot Surfaces

Automobile fires are a serious concern to manufacturers and consumers. However, understanding how the fires begin, in the confines of the engine compartment, is a difficult task. One known cause of fires is hot surface ignition (HSI) arising when engine fluids contact hot surfaces in the engine compartment or the exhaust train. In this study, the ignition of automotive gasoline on four hot surfaces: stainless and carbon steels from the heat shields, stainless steel from the exhaust manifold and cast iron cut from an intake manifold, was examined in a well-controlled, model study. Infra-red thermography and thermocouples were used to monitor surface temperatures prior to, during and after the fluid impacted the surface. This allowed evaluation and comparison of temperature evolution during fluid impact and the ignition event, resulting in an improved mechanistic understanding of the fluid/hot surface interaction.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Small Scale Formability Results on Large Scale Parts: Aluminum Alloy Tailor Welded Blanks

This paper investigates the application of standard formability testing results for aluminum alloy tailor welded blanks (TWB) to full size stampings. The limit strains obtained from formability testing are compared to measured strains in a larger scale part. The measured strains in the full scale part are also compared to predictions from finite element simulation.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction for Variable Amplitude Strain Histories

This paper presents a model for fatigue life prediction for metals subjected to variable amplitude service loading. The model, which is based on crack growth and crack closure mechanisms for short fatigue cracks, incorporates a strain-based damage parameter, EΔε*, determined from the effective or open part of a strain cycle along with a fatigue resistance curve that takes the form: EΔε* = A(Nf)b, where E is the elastic modulus, Nf is the number of cycles to failure, and A and b are experimentally determined material constants. The fatigue resistance curve is generated for a SAE 1045 steel and the model is used successfully to predict the fatigue lives of smooth axial specimens subjected to two variable amplitude strain histories. The model is also used to predict the magnitude of non-damaging cycles that can be omitted from the strain histories to accelerate fatigue testing.
Technical Paper

Hybrid III Response in a SAE Baja Vehicle under Frontal Impacts

Vehicles designed for the Baja SAE competition operate on challenging off-road terrain and may be required to withstand accidental impacts with other vehicles and obstacles. Although significant injuries are not commonly observed in this competition, it is important to understand the performance of these vehicles in crash scenarios to optimize frame design and vehicle performance. A finite element model comprising the vehicle chassis and associated subsystem weights, a Hybrid III occupant, and safety systems was developed to evaluate vehicle impact performance in frontal crash. Impacts velocities up to 36 kph were considered, and no significant risk of head, neck or thoracic injury was predicted. Neck injury (as predicted by Nij) and chest acceleration were found to be the most critical, reaching 66% and 75% of their threshold values, respectively, in the most severe crashes considered.
Journal Article

Impact Testing of a Hot-Formed B-Pillar with Tailored Properties - Experiments and Simulation

This paper presents the numerical validation of the impact response of a hot formed B-pillar component with tailored properties. A laboratory-scale B-pillar tool is considered with integral heating and cooling sections in an effort to locally control the cooling rate of an austenitized blank, thereby producing a part with tailored microstructures to potentially improve the impact response of these components. An instrumented falling-weight drop tower was used to impact the lab-scale B-pillars in a modified 3-point bend configuration to assess the difference between a component in the fully hardened (martensitic) state and a component with a tailored region (consisting of bainite and ferrite). Numerical models were developed using LS-DYNA to simulate the forming and thermal history of the part to estimate the final thickness and strain distributions as well as the predicted microstructures.
Technical Paper

Improving Stability of a Narrow Track Personal Vehicle using an Active Tilting System

A compact sized vehicle that has a narrow track could solve problems caused by vehicle congestion and limited parking spaces in a mega city. Having a smaller footprint reduces the vehicle's total weight which would decrease overall vehicle power consumption. Also a smaller and narrower vehicle could travel easily through tight and congested roads that would speed up the traffic flow and hence decrease the overall traffic volume in urban areas. As an additional benefit of having a narrow track length, a driver can experience similar motorcycle riding experience without worrying about bad weather conditions since a driver sits in a weather protected cabin. However, reducing the vehicle's track causes instability in vehicle dynamics, which leads to higher possibility of rollovers if the vehicle is not controlled properly. A three wheel personal vehicle with an active tilting system is designed in MapleSim.
Technical Paper

Monitoring the Effect of RSW Pulsing on AHSS using FEA (SORPAS) Software

In this study, a finite element software application (SORPAS®) is used to simulate the effect of pulsing on the expected weld thermal cycle during resistance spot welding (RSW). The predicted local cooling rates are used in combination with experimental observation to study the effect pulsing has on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Zn-coated DP600 AHSS (1.2mm thick) spot welds. Experimental observation of the weld microstructure was obtained by metallographic procedures and mechanical properties were determined by tensile shear testing. Microstructural changes in the weld metal and heat affect zone (HAZ) were characterized with respect to process parameters.