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Technical Paper

A Feasibility Study of Using DI Butanol as an Ignition Source for Dual-Fuel Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0770
The combustion of dual-fuel engines usually uses a pilot flame to burn out a background fuel inside a cylinder under high compression. The background fuel can be either a gaseous fuel or a volatile liquid fuel, commonly with low reactivity to prevent premature combustion and engine knocking; whereas the pilot flame is normally set off with the direct injection of a liquid fuel with adequate reactivity that is suitable for deterministic auto-ignition with a high compression ratio. In this work, directly injected butanol is used to generate the pilot flame, while intake port injected ethanol or butanol is employed as the background fuel. Compared with the conventional diesel-only combustion, dual-fuel operations not only broaden the fuel applicability, but also enhance the potential for clean combustion, in high efficiency engines. The amount of background fuel and the scheduling of pilot flame are investigated through extensive laboratory experiments.
Technical Paper

A Fuel Sensitive Ignition Delay Model for Direct Injection Diesel Engine Operating under EGR Diluted Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0231
This empirical work investigates the impacts of thermodynamic parameters, such as pressure and temperature, and fuel properties, such as fuel Cetane number and aromatic contents on ignition delay in diesel engines. Systematic tests are conducted on a single-cylinder research engine to evaluate the ignition delay changes due to the fuel property differences at low, medium and high engine loads under different EGR dilution ratios. The test fuels offer a range of Cetane numbers from 28 to 54.2 and aromatic contents volume ratios from 19.4% to 46.6%. The experimental results of ignition delays are used to derive an ignition delay model modified from Arrhenius’ expression. Following the same format of Arrhenius’ equation, the model incorporates the pressure and temperature effects, and further includes the impacts of intake oxygen concentration, fuel Cetane number and aromatic contents volume ratio on the ignition delay.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Burning Velocity of a Spherical, Premixed Methane-Air Flame

2005-04-11
2005-01-1124
As a first step toward better understanding of the effects of flame stretch on combustion rate in SI engines, the burning velocity of a premixed, spherical, laminar methane-air flame propagating freely at standard temperature and pressure was investigated. The underlying un-stretched burning velocity was computed using CHEMKIN 3.7 with GRI mechanism, while the Lewis number and subsequently the Markstein length were deduced theoretically. The burning velocity of the freely growing flame ball was calculated from the un-stretched burning velocity with curvature and stretch effects accounted via the theoretically deduced Markstein length. For the positive Markstein length methane-air flame, flame stretching reduces the burning velocity. Therefore, the burning velocity of a spark-ignited flame starts with a value lower than, and increases asymptotically to, the underlying un-stretched burning velocity as the flame grows.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of the Discharge Current and Spark Energy for the Multi-Coil Offset Strategy

2019-04-02
2019-01-0725
To overcome the unfavorable operation conditions caused by lean/diluted charges in modern Spark Ignited (SI) engines, various advanced ignition systems have been proposed in the past. Among them, the dual-coil and multi-coil Transistor Coil Ignition (TCI) systems with offset discharge strategy caused significant attention in literature because they can generate a continuous spark with high spark energy being delivered into the cylinder. Comparing with the dual-coil system, a multi-coil system is capable to apply more flexible control strategies and generate a higher discharge current. However, the spark energy and transfer efficiency of the multi-coil system are still worthy to investigate as they are important performance indicators for a TCI system. In this paper, the discharge characteristics of the dual-coil and triple-coil strategies under both quiescent and flow conditions were studied firstly by experimental methods.
Technical Paper

A Semi-Empirical Model of Spark-Ignited Turbulent Flame Growth

2000-03-06
2000-01-0201
A semi-empirical turbulent flame growth model has been developed based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and experiments in a 125-mm cubical combustion chamber. It covers the main flame growth period from spark kernel formation until flame wall contact, including the effects of laminar flame speed, root mean square turbulence intensity, turbulent eddy size, and flame size. As expected, the combustion rate increases with increasing laminar flame speed and/or turbulence intensity. The effect of turbulent eddy scale is less obvious. For a given turbulence intensity, smaller scales produce higher instantaneous flame speed. However, turbulence of a smaller scale also decays more rapidly. Thus, for a given laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity at the time of ignition, there is an optimum turbulent eddy size which leads to the fastest combustion rate over the period considered.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Circuit Model for the Emulation of Glow Phase during Spark Discharge

2018-04-03
2018-01-0092
The ever-growing demand to meet the stringent exhaust emission regulations have driven the development of modern gasoline engines towards lean combustion strategies and downsizing to achieve the reduction of exhaust emission and fuel consumption. Currently, the inductive ignition system is still the dominant ignition system applied in Spark Ignited (SI) engines. It is popular due to its simple design, low cost and robust performance. The new development in spark ignition engines demands higher spark energy to be delivered by the inductive ignition system to overcome the unfavorable ignition conditions caused by the increased and diluted in-cylinder charge. To meet this challenge, better understanding of the inductive ignition system is required. The development of a first principle model for simulation can help in understanding the working mechanism of the system in a better way.
Technical Paper

A Thermal Analysis of Active-flow Control on Diesel Engine Aftertreatment

2004-10-25
2004-01-3020
One-dimensional transient modeling techniques are adapted to analyze the thermal behavior of lean-burn after-treatment systems when active flow control schemes are applied. The active control schemes include parallel alternating flow, partial restricting flow, and periodic flow reversal (FR) that are found to be especially effective to treat engine exhausts that are difficult to cope with conventional passive flow converters. To diesel particulate filters (DPF), lean NOx traps (LNT), and oxidation converters (OC), the combined use of active flow control schemes are identified to be capable of shifting the exhaust gas temperature, flow rate, and oxygen concentration to more favorable windows for the filtration, conversion, and regeneration processes. Comparison analyses are made between active flow control and passive flow control schemes in investigating the influences of gas flow, heat transfer, chemical reaction, oxygen concentration, and converter properties.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Fuel Injection Tests to Extend EGR Limits on Diesel Engines

2006-10-16
2006-01-3426
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engines. However, when excessive EGR is applied, the engine operation reaches zones with higher combustion instability, carbonaceous emissions, and power losses. In order to improve the engine combustion process with the use of heavy EGR, the influences of boost pressure, intake temperature, and fuel injection timing are evaluated. An adaptive fuel injection strategy is applied as the EGR level is progressively elevated towards the limiting conditions. Additionally, characterization tests are performed to improve the control of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) type of engine cycles, especially when heavy EGR levels are applied to increase the load level of HCCI operations. This paper constitutes the preparation work for a variety of algorithms currently being investigated at the authors' laboratory as a part of the model-based NOx control research.
Journal Article

An Empirical Study to Extend Engine Load in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion

2011-08-30
2011-01-1814
In this work, engine tests were performed to realize EGR-enabled LTC on a single-cylinder common-rail diesel engine with three different compression ratios (17.5, 15 and 13:1). The engine performance was first investigated at 17.5:1 compression ratio to provide baseline results, against which all further testing was referenced. The intake boost and injection pressure were progressively increased to ascertain the limiting load conditions for the compression ratio. To extend the engine load range, the compression ratio was then lowered and EGR sweep tests were again carried out. The strength and homogeneity of the cylinder charge were enhanced by using intake boost up to 3 bar absolute and injection pressure up to 180 MPa. The combustion phasing was locked in a narrow crank angle window (5~10° ATDC), during all the tests.
Journal Article

An Enabling Study of Diesel Low Temperature Combustion via Adaptive Control

2009-04-20
2009-01-0730
Low temperature combustion (LTC), though effective to reduce soot and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) simultaneously from diesel engines, operates in narrowly close to unstable regions. Adaptive control strategies are developed to expand the stable operations and to improve the fuel efficiency that was commonly compromised by LTC. Engine cycle simulations were performed to better design the combustion control models. The research platform consists of an advanced common-rail diesel engine modified for the intensified single cylinder research and a set of embedded real-time (RT) controllers, field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, and a synchronized personal computer (PC) control and measurement system.
Technical Paper

An Enabling Study of Neat n-Butanol HCCI Combustion on a High Compression-ratio Diesel Engine

2015-03-10
2015-01-0001
This work investigates the benefits and challenges of enabling neat n-butanol HCCI combustion on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) diesel engine. Minor engine modifications are made to implement n-butanol port injection while other engine components are kept intact. The impacts of the fuel change, from diesel to n-butanol, are examined through steady-state engine tests with independent control of the intake boost and exhaust gas recirculation. As demonstrated by the test results, the HCCI combustion of a thoroughly premixed n-butanol/air lean mixture offers near-zero smoke and ultralow NOx emissions even without the use of exhaust gas recirculation and produces comparable engine efficiencies to those of conventional diesel high temperature combustion. The test results also manifest the control challenges of running a neat alcohol fuel in the HCCI combustion mode.
Technical Paper

An HCCI Engine Fuelled with Iso-octane and Ethanol

2006-10-16
2006-01-3246
This paper investigates Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion on an engine that is fuelled with ethanol, iso-octane, and ethanol/iso-octane. The engine is a four-stroke three cylinder indirect injection type diesel engine converted to a single cylinder HCCI operation. In order to clarify the effects of fuel chemistry on HCCI combustion, the trials were done at a constant engine speed, a fixed initial charge temperature and engine coolant temperature. The HCCI engine was fuelled with a lean mixture of air and fuel (ethanol, iso-octane or mixture of ethanol/iso-octane). The engine performance parameters studied here include indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and thermal efficiency. Heat-release rate (HRR) analysis was done to determine the effect of fuels on combustion on-set. The experimental results demonstrate that the addition of iso-octane to ethanol retards the on-set of combustion and subsequently leads to a reduction of the IMEP and thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

An Improvement on Low Temperature Combustion in Neat Biodiesel Engine Cycles

2008-06-23
2008-01-1670
Extensive empirical work indicates that the exhaust emission and fuel efficiency of modern common-rail diesel engines characterise strong resilience to biodiesel fuels when the engines are operating in conventional high temperature combustion cycles. However, as the engine cycles approach the low temperature combustion (LTC) mode, which could be implemented by the heavy use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) type of combustion, the engine performance start to differ between the use of conventional and biodiesel fuels. Therefore, a set of fuel injection strategies were compared empirically under independently controlled EGR, intake boost, and exhaust backpressure in order to improve the neat biodiesel engine cycles.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Near-Spark-Plug Flow Field and Its Effect on Spark Behavior

2019-04-02
2019-01-0718
In the recent decades, the emission and fuel efficiency regulations put forth by the emission regulation agencies have become increasingly stringent and this trend is expected to continue in future. The advanced spark ignition (SI) engines can operate under lean conditions to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Under such lean conditions, the ignition and complete combustion of the charge mixture is a challenge because of the reduced charge reactivity. Enhancement of the in-cylinder charge motion and turbulence to increase the flame velocity, and consequently reduce the combustion duration is one possible way to improve lean combustion. The role of air motion in better air-fuel mixing and increasing the flame velocity, by enhancing turbulence has been researched extensively. However, during the ignition process, the charge motion can influence the initial spark discharge, resulting flame kernel formation, and flame propagation.
Technical Paper

An Investigation on the Regeneration of Lean NOx Trap Using Ethanol and n-Butanol

2019-04-02
2019-01-0737
Reduction of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in lean burn and diesel fueled Compression Ignition (CI) engines is one of the major challenges faced by automotive manufacturers. Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and urea-based Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) exhaust after-treatment systems are well established technologies to reduce NOx emissions. However, each of these technologies has associated advantages and disadvantages for use over a wide range of engine operating conditions. In order to meet future ultra-low NOx emission norms, the use of both alternative fuels and advanced after-treatment technology may be required. The use of an alcohol fuel such as n-butanol or ethanol in a CI engine can reduce the engine-out NOx and soot emissions. In CI engines using LNTs for NOx reduction, the fuel such as diesel is utilized as a reductant for LNT regeneration.
Technical Paper

An Open Cycle Simulation of DI Diesel Engine Flow Field Effect on Spray Processes

2012-04-16
2012-01-0696
Clean diesel engines are one of the fuel efficient and low emission engines of interest in the automotive industry. The combustion chamber flow field and its effect on fuel spray characteristics plays an important role in improving the efficiency and reducing the pollutant emission in a direct injection diesel engine, in terms of influencing processes of breakup, evaporation mixture formation, ignition, combustion and pollutant formation. Ultra-high injection pressure fuel sprays have benefits in jet atomization, penetration and air entrainment, which promote better fuel-air mixture and combustion. CFD modeling is a valuable tool to acquire detailed information about these important processes. In this research, the characteristics of ultra-high injection pressure diesel fuel sprays are simulated and validated in a quiescent constant volume chamber. A profile function is utilized in order to apply variable velocity and mass flow rate at the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper

Boosted Current Spark Strategy for Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1133
Spark ignition systems with the capability of providing spark event with either higher current level or longer discharge duration has been developed in recent years to help IC engines towards clean combustion with higher efficiency under lean/diluted intake charge. In this research, a boosted current spark strategy was proposed to investigate the effect of spark discharge current level and discharge duration on the combustion process. Firstly, the discharge characteristics of a boosted current spark system were tested with a traditional spark plug under crossflow conditions, and results showed that the spark channel was more stable, and was stretched much longer when the discharge current was boosted. Then the boosted current strategy was used in a spark ignition engine operating under lean conditions. Boosted current was added to the spark channel with different timing, duration, and current levels.
Technical Paper

Boundary Layer Enhanced Thermal Recuperation for Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration under a Periodic Flow Reversal Operation

2005-04-11
2005-01-0951
Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) are viable to reduce smoke from diesel engines. An oxidation process is usually required to remove the Particulate Matter (PM) loading from the DPF substrates. In cases when the engine exhaust temperature is insufficient to initiate a thermal regeneration, supplemental energy is commonly applied to raise the exhaust gas and/or the DPF substrate temperatures. A flow reversal (FR) mechanism that traps a high temperature region in the DPF substrate by periodically altering the gas flow directions has been identified to be capable of reducing the supplemental energy and thus to improve the overall thermal efficiency of the engine. However, extended operations with low exhaust temperature lowers the DPF boundary temperatures that defers the regeneration processes. Furthermore, the temperature fluctuations caused by the periodic FR operation also increase the thermal stress in the DPF.
Technical Paper

Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine Using Direct Injection of Neat n-Butanol

2014-04-01
2014-01-1298
The study investigated the characteristics of the combustion, the emissions and the thermal efficiency of a direct injection diesel engine fuelled with neat n-butanol. Engine tests were conducted on a single cylinder four-stroke direct injection diesel engine. The engine ran at 6.5 bar IMEP and 1500 rpm engine speed. The intake pressure was boosted to 1.0 bar (gauge), and the injection pressure was controlled at 60 or 90 MPa. The injection timing and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate were adjusted to investigate the engine performance. The effect of the engine load on the engine performance was also investigated. The test results showed that the n-butanol fuel had significantly longer ignition delay than that of diesel fuel. n-Butanol generally led to a rapid heat release pattern in a short period, which resulted in an excessively high pressure rise rate. The pressure rise rate could be moderated by retarding the injection timing and lowering the injection pressure.
Journal Article

Combustion Simulation of Dual Fuel CNG Engine Using Direct Injection of Natural Gas and Diesel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0851
The increased availability of natural gas (NG) in the U.S. has renewed interest in the application to heavy-duty (HD) diesel engines in order to realize fuel cost savings and reduce pollutant emissions, while increasing fuel economy. Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion employs two fuels with a large difference in auto-ignition properties to generate a spatial gradient of fuel-air mixtures and reactivity. Typically, a high octane fuel is premixed by means of port-injection, followed by direct injection of a high cetane fuel late in the compression stroke. Previous work by the authors has shown that NG and diesel RCCI offers improved fuel efficiency and lower oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and soot emissions when compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. The work concluded that NG and diesel RCCI engines are load limited by high rates of pressure rise (RoPR) (>15 bar/deg) and high peak cylinder pressure (PCP) (>200 bar).
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