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Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Mechanical Performance of AA6061-T6 Extrusions Subjected to Axial Crushing and Axial Cutting

2019-04-02
2019-01-1094
Conventional axially loaded energy absorbers dissipate kinetic energy through progressive folding. The significant fluctuations in load and high risk of transition to global bending are drawbacks that engineers have attempted to mitigate through several methods. A novel energy dissipation mechanism, referred to as axial cutting, utilizes thin-walled extrusions and a strengthened cutting tool to absorb energy in an axial impact. Compared to progressive folding, this can be achieved with minimal fluctuations in load during the deformation process. Based upon estimates from finite element models, a series of test cases were postulated where, for 8 and 10-bladed cutting scenarios, greater total energy absorption could be achieved through axial cutting than with progressive folding of geometrically similar extrusions. The specimens were AA6061 extrusions having T6 temper conditions that possessed 63.5 mm outer diameters and 1.5 mm wall thicknesses.
Journal Article

A Framework for Collaborative Robot (CoBot) Integration in Advanced Manufacturing Systems

2016-04-05
2016-01-0337
Contemporary manufacturing systems are still evolving. The system elements, layouts, and integration methods are changing continuously, and ‘collaborative robots’ (CoBots) are now being considered as practical industrial solutions. CoBots, unlike traditional CoBots, are safe and flexible enough to work with humans. Although CoBots have the potential to become standard in production systems, there is no strong foundation for systems design and development. The focus of this research is to provide a foundation and four tier framework to facilitate the design, development and integration of CoBots. The framework consists of the system level, work-cell level, machine level, and worker level. Sixty-five percent of traditional robots are installed in the automobile industry and it takes 200 hours to program (and reprogram) them.
Technical Paper

A Hardness Study on Laser Cladded Surfaces for a Selected Bead Overlap Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0285
Laser cladding is used to coat a surface of a metal to enhance the metallurgical properties at the surface level of a substrate. For surface cladding operations, overlapping bead geometry is required. Single bead analyses do not provide a complete representation of essential properties; hence, this research focuses on overlapping conditions. The research scope targets the coaxial laser cladding process specifically for P420 stainless steel clad powder using a fiber optic laser with a 4.3 mm spot size on a low/medium carbon structural steel plate (AISI 1018). Many process parameters influence the bead geometrical shape, and it is assumed that the complex temperature distributions within the process could cause subsequent large variations in hardness values. The bead overlap configurations experiments are performed with 40%, 50% and 60% bead overlaps for a three-pass bead formation.
Journal Article

A Linkage Based Solution Approach for Determining 6 Axis Serial Robotic Travel Path Feasibility

2016-04-05
2016-01-0336
When performing trajectory planning for robotic applications, there are many aspects to consider, such as the reach conditions, joint and end-effector velocities, accelerations and jerk conditions, etc. The reach conditions are dependent on the end-effector orientations and the robot kinematic structure. The reach condition feasibility is the first consideration to be addressed prior to optimizing a solution. The ‘functional’ work space or work window represents a region of feasible reach conditions, and is a sub-set of the work envelope. It is not intuitive to define. Consequently, 2D solution approaches are proposed. The 3D travel paths are decomposed to a 2D representation via radial projections. Forward kinematic representations are employed to define a 2D boundary curve for each desired end effector orientation.
Journal Article

A Methodology for Investigating and Modelling Laser Clad Bead Geometry and Process Parameter Relationships

2014-04-01
2014-01-0737
Laser cladding is a method of material deposition through which a powdered or wire feedstock material is melted and consolidated by use of a laser to coat part of a substrate. Determining the parameters to fabricate the desired clad bead geometry for various configurations is problematic as it involves a significant investment of raw materials and time resources, and is challenging to develop a predictive model. The goal of this research is to develop an experimental methodology that minimizes the amount of data to be collected, and to develop a predictive model that is accurate, adaptable, and expandable. To develop the predictive model of the clad bead geometry, an integrated five-step approach is presented. From the experimental data, an artificial neural network model is developed along with multiple regression equations.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on the Burning Velocity of a Spherical, Premixed Methane-Air Flame

2005-04-11
2005-01-1124
As a first step toward better understanding of the effects of flame stretch on combustion rate in SI engines, the burning velocity of a premixed, spherical, laminar methane-air flame propagating freely at standard temperature and pressure was investigated. The underlying un-stretched burning velocity was computed using CHEMKIN 3.7 with GRI mechanism, while the Lewis number and subsequently the Markstein length were deduced theoretically. The burning velocity of the freely growing flame ball was calculated from the un-stretched burning velocity with curvature and stretch effects accounted via the theoretically deduced Markstein length. For the positive Markstein length methane-air flame, flame stretching reduces the burning velocity. Therefore, the burning velocity of a spark-ignited flame starts with a value lower than, and increases asymptotically to, the underlying un-stretched burning velocity as the flame grows.
Technical Paper

A Review of Human Physiological, Psychological & Human Biomechanical Factors on Perceived Thermal Comfort of Automotive Seats.

2017-03-28
2017-01-1388
Thermal comfort in automotive seating has been studied and discussed for a long time. The available research, because it is focused on the components, has not produced a model that provides insight into the human-seat system interaction. This work, which represents the beginning of an extensive research program, aims to establish the foundation for such a model. This paper will discuss the key physiological, psychological, and biomechanical factors related to perceptions of thermal comfort in automotive seats. The methodology to establish perceived thermal comfort requirements will also be presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

A Semi-Empirical Model of Spark-Ignited Turbulent Flame Growth

2000-03-06
2000-01-0201
A semi-empirical turbulent flame growth model has been developed based on thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and experiments in a 125-mm cubical combustion chamber. It covers the main flame growth period from spark kernel formation until flame wall contact, including the effects of laminar flame speed, root mean square turbulence intensity, turbulent eddy size, and flame size. As expected, the combustion rate increases with increasing laminar flame speed and/or turbulence intensity. The effect of turbulent eddy scale is less obvious. For a given turbulence intensity, smaller scales produce higher instantaneous flame speed. However, turbulence of a smaller scale also decays more rapidly. Thus, for a given laminar flame speed and turbulence intensity at the time of ignition, there is an optimum turbulent eddy size which leads to the fastest combustion rate over the period considered.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Circuit Model for the Emulation of Glow Phase during Spark Discharge

2018-04-03
2018-01-0092
The ever-growing demand to meet the stringent exhaust emission regulations have driven the development of modern gasoline engines towards lean combustion strategies and downsizing to achieve the reduction of exhaust emission and fuel consumption. Currently, the inductive ignition system is still the dominant ignition system applied in Spark Ignited (SI) engines. It is popular due to its simple design, low cost and robust performance. The new development in spark ignition engines demands higher spark energy to be delivered by the inductive ignition system to overcome the unfavorable ignition conditions caused by the increased and diluted in-cylinder charge. To meet this challenge, better understanding of the inductive ignition system is required. The development of a first principle model for simulation can help in understanding the working mechanism of the system in a better way.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Method to Study the Sensitivity of Transmission Laser Welding of Plastic Parts to Interfacial Gaps

2009-04-20
2009-01-1298
Hollow polymer-based automotive components cannot, in general, be directly injection molded because they cannot be ejected from the mold. The common practice is to injection mold two or more parts, and then join these together with a welding process. Of the many joining process available, laser welding has an advantage in geometric design freedom. The laser weld joints are also generally stronger than those of vibration welds because the weld joints are located in the walls rather than on external flanges. Eliminating the external flanges also makes the part more compact. In transmission laser welding processes, the laser beam passes through a transparent part to its interface with an opaque part. The beam energy is absorbed near the interface in the opaque part, and heat flows back across to the transparent half to make the weld pool. So successful laser welds are possible only when there is a continuous interfacial fit between the parts.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Near-Spark-Plug Flow Field and Its Effect on Spark Behavior

2019-04-02
2019-01-0718
In the recent decades, the emission and fuel efficiency regulations put forth by the emission regulation agencies have become increasingly stringent and this trend is expected to continue in future. The advanced spark ignition (SI) engines can operate under lean conditions to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Under such lean conditions, the ignition and complete combustion of the charge mixture is a challenge because of the reduced charge reactivity. Enhancement of the in-cylinder charge motion and turbulence to increase the flame velocity, and consequently reduce the combustion duration is one possible way to improve lean combustion. The role of air motion in better air-fuel mixing and increasing the flame velocity, by enhancing turbulence has been researched extensively. However, during the ignition process, the charge motion can influence the initial spark discharge, resulting flame kernel formation, and flame propagation.
Technical Paper

Boosted Current Spark Strategy for Lean Burn Spark Ignition Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-1133
Spark ignition systems with the capability of providing spark event with either higher current level or longer discharge duration has been developed in recent years to help IC engines towards clean combustion with higher efficiency under lean/diluted intake charge. In this research, a boosted current spark strategy was proposed to investigate the effect of spark discharge current level and discharge duration on the combustion process. Firstly, the discharge characteristics of a boosted current spark system were tested with a traditional spark plug under crossflow conditions, and results showed that the spark channel was more stable, and was stretched much longer when the discharge current was boosted. Then the boosted current strategy was used in a spark ignition engine operating under lean conditions. Boosted current was added to the spark channel with different timing, duration, and current levels.
Technical Paper

Constructing a Gate-to-gate Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) of End-of-Life Vehicle (ELV) Dismantling and Shredding Processes

2008-04-14
2008-01-1283
End-of-life is the least studied phase of the vehicle life-cycle. Dismantling and shredding are the principal processes used for vehicle end-of-life (VEOL) management in Canada and the U.S. and are typically perceived as distinct processes, each one having its own unique challenges. Dismantling typically precedes shredding, with vehicle parts and materials removed for direct reuse, for remanufacturing and reuse, or for recycling. Dismantling may be perceived as a non-preferred alternative, compared to shredding, because it is principally a manual process which can be cost prohibitive in the North America/western labour market. However, there has been no exhaustive assessment of the dismantling process. Because of the complexity in automobiles, significantly more needs to be known about dismantling, its benefits and impacts, its efficiencies and inefficiencies, and its relation to other ELV management processes.
Technical Paper

Defect Classification of Adhesively Bonded Joints Using Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Testing in Automotive Industries

2015-04-14
2015-01-0592
Amid all nondestructive testing (NDT) methods Ultrasound is considered the most practically feasible modality for quality assessment and detection of defects in automobile industry. Pattern recognition of the ultrasonic signals gives us important information about the interrogated object. This information includes size, geometric shape and location of the defect zone. However, this would not be straightforward to extract this information from the backscattered echoes due to the overlapping signals and also the presence of noise. Here in this study, we suggest a new method for classification of different defects in inspection of adhesively bonded joint. At the first step of this method, the problem of parameter estimation of the reflected echoes is defined in a Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) framework. Then a space alternating generalized Expectation Maximization (SAGE) algorithm is implemented to solve the MLE problem.
Journal Article

Development of an Advanced Driver Model and Simulation Environment for Automotive Racing

2009-04-20
2009-01-0434
The paper describes a closed-loop vehicle simulation environment developed to support a virtual vehicle design and testing methodology, proposed for the University of Windsor Formula SAE team. Virtual prototyping and testing were achieved through co-simulation of Matlab/Simulink® and Carsim®. The development of the required hybrid-control driver and vehicle models are described. The proposed models were validated with in vehicle test data. The proposed methods have shown to be effective and robust in predicting driver response, while controlling the vehicle within the developed simulation environment.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cooling Rates on the Microstructure Evolution and Eutectic Formation of As-cast Mg-Al-Ca Alloys

2009-04-20
2009-01-0789
A Mg-5.0wt.%Al-2.0wt.%Ca alloy (AC52) was cast at different cooling rates varying from 0.5 to 65 °C/s. The dendrites was characterized by determining the secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) and the volume fraction of secondary eutectic phases with the linear intercept and point counting methods, respectively. The SDAS decreases significantly with increasing cooling rates, while the volume fraction of the eutectic phase increases from 10.8 ± 1.44 vol.% at 0.5 °C/s to 20.4 ± 1.52 vol.% at 20 °C/s. However, a further increase in cooling rate beyond 20 °C/s has limited influence on the volume fraction of eutectic phases. A large number of dispersed eutectic phases were observed in the primary α-Mg of the alloys cast at low cooling rates. Although, at the microscale, there were no dispersed eutectic phases in alloys cast at a high cooling rate of 30 °C/s, nanoscale eutectic phases were found by TEM observation.
Technical Paper

Emission Analysis of HCCI Combustion in a Diesel Engine Fueled by Butanol

2016-04-05
2016-01-0749
Advances in engine technology in recent years have led to significant reductions in the emission of pollutants and gains in efficiency. As a facet of investigations into clean, efficient combustion, the homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode of combustion can improve upon the thermal efficiency and nitrogen oxides emission of conventional spark ignition engines. With respect to conventional diesel engines, the low nitrogen oxides and particulate matter emissions reduce the requirements on the aftertreatment system to meet emission regulations. In this paper, n-butanol, an alcohol fuel with the potential to be derived from renewable sources, was used in a light-duty diesel research engine in the HCCI mode of combustion. Control of the combustion was implemented using the intake pressure and external exhaust gas recirculation. The moderate reactivity of butanol required the assistance of increased intake pressure for ignition at the lower engine load range.
Technical Paper

Engine Fault Detection Using Vibration Signal Reconstruction in the Crank-Angle Domain

2011-05-17
2011-01-1660
Advanced engine test methods incorporate several different sensing and signal processing techniques for identifying and locating manufacturing or assembly defects of an engine. A successful engine test method therefore, requires advanced signal processing techniques. This paper introduces a novel signal processing technique to successfully detect a faulty internal combustion engine in a quantitative manner. Accelerometers are mounted on the cylinder head and lug surfaces while vibration signals are recorded during engine operation. Using the engine's cam angular position, the vibration signals are transformed from the time domain to the crank-angle domain. At the heart of the transformation lies interpolation. In this paper, linear, cubic spline and sinc interpolation methods are demonstrated for reconstructing vibration signals in the crank-angle domain.
Technical Paper

Ignition Improvement of Premixed Methane-Air Mixtures by Distributed Spark Discharge

2015-09-01
2015-01-1889
In order to improve the fuel economy for future high-efficiency spark ignition engines, the use of advanced combustion strategies with an overall lean and/or exhaust gas recirculation diluted cylinder charge is deemed to be beneficial, provided a reliable ignition process available. In this paper, experimental results of igniting methane-air mixture by means of capacitive coupled ignition and multi-coil distributed spark ignition are presented. It is found that with a conventional spark plug electrode configuration, increase of spark energy does not proportionally enhance the ignition flame kernel development. The use of capacitive coupled ignition to enhance the initial transient power resulted in faster kernel growth compared to the conventional system. The distribution of the spark energy across a number of spark gaps shows considerable benefit.
Journal Article

Methods for Evaluating the Functional Work Space for Machine Tools and 6 Axis Serial Robots

2016-04-05
2016-01-0338
The ‘boundary of space’ model representing all possible positions which may be occupied by a mechanism during its normal range of motion (for all positions and orientations) is called the work envelope. In the robotic domain, it is also known as the robot operating envelope or workspace. Several researchers have investigated workspace boundaries for different degrees of freedom (DOF), joint types and kinematic structures utilizing many approaches. The work envelope provides essential boundary information, which is critical for safety and layout concerns, but the work envelope information does not by itself determine the reach feasibility of a desired configuration. The effect of orientation is not captured as well as the coupling related to operational parameters. Included in this are spatial occupancy concerns due to linking multiple kinematic chains, which is an issue with multi-tasking machine tools, and manufacturing cells.
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