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Technical Paper

A Comparison Between CFD Predictions and Measurements of Inlet Port Discharge Coefficient and Flow Characteristics

Predictions of the volume flow rate through an inlet port were produced by four different commercially available CFD programs suitable for use in a steady flow simulation. These predictions were compared with experimental measurements of an inlet port's discharge coefficients. The experiment performed was a typical steady state flow bench test for an inlet port. Volume flow rates were measured at five different valve lifts. The largest valve lift tested (12.24mm) was the maximum value of lift under actual operation. The smallest valve lift was typical of early valve opening. The tests were performed at two different pressure differences across the inlet port and valve at each of the five different valve lifts. All predictions were made using an RNG k-ε turbulence model. Standard wall functions were used to predict wall friction effects and the energy equation was included to account for compressibility effects.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation into the Effects of Spray Targeting, Bowl Geometry and Swirl Ratio for Low-Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

A computational study was performed to evaluate the effects of bowl geometry, fuel spray targeting and swirl ratio under highly diluted, low-temperature combustion conditions in a heavy-duty diesel engine. This study is used to examine aspects of low-temperature combustion that are affected by mixing processes and offers insight into the effect these processes have on emissions formation and oxidation. The foundation for this exploratory study stems from a large data set which was generated using a genetic algorithm optimization methodology. The main results suggest that an optimal combination of spray targeting, swirl ratio and bowl geometry exist to simultaneously minimize emissions formation and improve soot and CO oxidation rates. Spray targeting was found to have a significant impact on the emissions and fuel consumption performance, and was furthermore found to be the most influential design parameter explored in this study.
Technical Paper

A Visual Investigation of CFD-Predicted In-Cylinder Mechanisms That Control First- and Second-Stage Ignition in Diesel Jets

The long-term goal of this work is to develop a conceptual model for multiple injections of diesel jets. The current work contributes to that effort by performing a detailed modeling investigation into mechanisms that are predicted to control 1st and 2nd stage ignition in single-pulse diesel (n-dodecane) jets under different conditions. One condition produces a jet with negative ignition dwell that is dominated by mixing-controlled heat release, and the other, a jet with positive ignition dwell and dominated by premixed heat release. During 1st stage ignition, fuel is predicted to burn similarly under both conditions; far upstream, gases at the radial-edge of the jet, where gas temperatures are hotter, partially react and reactions continue as gases flow downstream. Once beyond the point of complete fuel evaporation, near-axis gases are no longer cooled by the evaporation process and 1st stage ignition transitions to 2nd stage ignition.
Technical Paper

CFD Analysis of Flow Field and Pressure Losses in Carburetor Venturi

A commercial CFD package was used to develop a three-dimensional, fully turbulent model of the compressible flow across a complex-geometry venturi, such as those typically found in small engine carburetors. The results of the CFD simulations were used to understand the effect of the different obstacles in the flow on the overall discharge coefficient and the static pressure at the tip of the fuel tube. It was found that the obstacles located at the converging nozzle of the venturi do not cause significant pressure losses, while those obstacles that create wakes in the flow, such as the fuel tube and throttle plate, are responsible for most of the pressure losses. This result indicated that an overall discharge coefficient can be used to correct the mass flow rate, while a localized correction factor can be determined from three-dimensional CFD simulations in order to calculate the static pressure at locations of interest within the venturi.
Technical Paper

Carburetor Exit Flow Characteristics

Three different carburetor types have been tested to observe differences in the characteristics of the fuel/air mixtures produced. To characterize the fuel/air mixtures, two diagnostics have been applied: 1) High speed movies and subsequent analysis of the exit flow, and 2) measurement of the A/F ratio found in different positions within the intake manifold. The three different carburetor types that have been studied include a fixed-venturi, fixed-jet butterfly carburetor, a slide-valve carburetor, and a constant-velocity carburetor. Each carburetor type produced a unique set of exit flow characteristics, with differences in the optical density of fuel exiting the carburetor, and differences in the apparent amount of fuel on the intake manifold wall, entrained in the air flow, and in vapor phase.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Numerical Results and Experimental Data on Emission Production Processes in a Diesel Engine

Simulations of DI Diesel engine combustion have been performed using a modified KIVA-II package with a recently developed phenomenological soot model. The phenomenological soot model includes generic description of fuel pyrolysis, soot particle inception, coagulation, and surface growth and oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a Cummins N14 single cylinder test engine. Results of the simulations show acceptable agreement with experimental data in terms of cylinder pressure, rate of heat release, and engine-out NOx and soot emissions for a range of fuel injection timings considered. The numerical results are also post-processed to obtain time-resolved soot radiation intensity and compared with the experimental data analyzed using two-color optical pyrometry. The temperature magnitude and KL trends show favorable agreement.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Parameters on near Stoichiometric Diesel Combustion Characteristics

Stoichiometric combustion could enable a three-way catalyst to be used for treating NOx emissions of diesel engines, which is one of the most difficult species for diesel engines to meet future emission regulations. Previous study by Lee et al. [1] showed that diesel engines can operate with stoichiometric combustion successfully with only a minor impact on fuel consumption. Low NOx emission levels were another advantage of stoichiometric operation according to that study. In this study, the characteristics of stoichiometric diesel combustion were evaluated experimentally to improve fuel economy as well as exhaust emissions The effects of fuel injection pressure, boost pressure, swirl, intake air temperature, combustion regime (injection timing), and engine load (fuel mass injected) were assessed under stoichiometric conditions.
Journal Article

Effects of Piston Bowl Geometry on Mixture Development and Late-Injection Low-Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for diesel engines are of increasing interest because of their potential to significantly reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. LTC with late fuel injection further offers the benefit of combustion phasing control because ignition is closely coupled to the fuel injection event. But with a short ignition-delay, fuel jet mixing processes must be rapid to achieve adequate premixing before ignition. In the current study, mixing and pollutant formation of late-injection LTC are studied in a single-cylinder, direct-injection, optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine using three laser-based imaging diagnostics. Simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and combined formaldehyde (H2CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are compared with vapor-fuel concentration measurements from a non-combusting condition.
Journal Article

Experiments and Modeling of Dual-Fuel HCCI and PCCI Combustion Using In-Cylinder Fuel Blending

This study investigates the potential of controlling premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI and HCCI) combustion strategies by varying fuel reactivity. In-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel injection of gasoline and early cycle direct injection of diesel fuel was used for combustion phasing control at both high and low engine loads and was also effective to control the rate of pressure rise. The first part of the study used the KIVA-CHEMKIN code and a reduced primary reference fuel (PRF) mechanism to suggest optimized fuel blends and EGR combinations for HCCI operation at two engine loads (6 and 11 bar net IMEP). It was found that the minimum fuel consumption could not be achieved using either neat diesel fuel or neat gasoline alone, and that the optimal fuel reactivity required decreased with increasing load. For example, at 11 bar net IMEP, the optimum fuel blend and EGR rate for HCCI operation was found to be PRF 80 and 50%, respectively.
Technical Paper

Fuel Injection and Mean Swirl Effects on Combustion and Soot Formation in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

High-speed video imaging in a swirl-supported (Rs = 1.7), direct-injection heavy-duty diesel engine operated with moderate-to-high EGR rates reveals a distinct correlation between the spatial distribution of luminous soot and mean flow vorticity in the horizontal plane. The temporal behavior of the experimental images, as well as the results of multi-dimensional numerical simulations, show that this soot-vorticity correlation is caused by the presence of a greater amount of soot on the windward side of the jet. The simulations indicate that while flow swirl can influence pre-ignition mixing processes as well as post-combustion soot oxidation processes, interactions between the swirl and the heat release can also influence mixing processes. Without swirl, combustion-generated gas flows influence mixing on both sides of the jet equally. In the presence of swirl, the heat release occurs on the leeward side of the fuel sprays.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Theoretical Carburetor Model in One-Dimensional Engine Simulation Software

The main circuits of a small engine carburetor can be represented as a complex, dynamic, two-phase flow fluid network. This paper presents the theoretical characterization of a dynamic one-dimensional model of fuel and air flow in small engine carburetors and its implementation into a one-dimensional engine simulation software package. This implementation allows for studying the effect of changes in individual carburetor parts on engine performance. The characterization of the model indicated that the dynamic behavior of the entire flow network can be captured by the solution of the instantaneous momentum balance equation on the single-phase liquid elements of the network, simplifying the dynamic model considerably. The second part of this work discusses the implementation into the one-dimensional engine simulation package, and shows examples of the studies that the coupled implementation allow for.
Technical Paper

Intake Flow Simulation and Comparison with PTV Measurements

Intake flow simulations were carried out for a prototype DISI engine using the standard k-ε model and the RNG k-ε model. The results were compared with PTV (transient water analog) measurements. The study was focused on low load operations with engine speed at 400 rev/min. Two cases were studied, a single intake case in which one intake port was blocked and a dual intake port case. In the computations, the results show that the standard k-ε model tends to produce higher turbulence levels when turbulence is generated and decays faster when turbulence dissipates. Different turbulence models predict almost the same flow structures. However, the effects of the turbulence model on the predicted tumble and swirl ratios are significant. The TKE distributions at BDC predicted by the two models are also different. The standard k-ε model seems to be more diffusive. Good agreements with PTV data were obtained in the single valve case with the RNG k-ε model.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Bulk In-Cylinder Stratification with Split Intake Runners

The mixing between the flows introduced through different intake valves of a four-valve engine was investigated optically. Each valve was fed from a different intake system, and the relative sensitivity to different flow parameters (manipulated with the goal of enhancing the bulk in-cylinder stratification) was investigated. Flow manipulation was achieved in three primary ways: modifying the intake runner geometry upstream of the head, introducing flow-directing baffles into the intake port, and attaching flow break-down screens to the intake valves. The relative merits of each flow manipulation method was evaluated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of 3-pentanone, which was introduced to the engine through only one intake valve. Images were acquired from 315° bTDC through 45° bTDC, and the level of in-cylinder stratification was evaluated on an ensemble and cycle-to-cycle basis using a novel column-based probability distribution function (PDF) contour plot.
Technical Paper

Modeling Early Injection Processes in HSDI Diesel Engines

Numerical simulations were performed to investigate the combustion process in the Premixed Compression Ignition (PCI) regime in a light-duty diesel engine. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into an updated KIVA-3V release 2 code to simulate combustion and emission characteristics using reduced chemistry. The test engine used for validation data was a single cylinder version of a production 1.9L four-cylinder HSDI diesel engine. The engine operating condition considered was 2,000 rev/min and 5 bar BMEP load. Because high EGR levels are required for combustion retardation to make PCI combustion possible, the EGR rate was set at a relatively high level (40%) and injection timing sweeps were considered. Since injection timings were very advanced, impingement of the fuel spray on the piston bowl wall was unavoidable. To model the effects of fuel films on exhaust emissions, a drop and wall interaction model was implemented in the present code.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Study of Fuel and Air Flow in Carburetors for Small Engines

This work presents a complete model of the carburetor for small engines. It extends the previously published models by incorporating a detailed review of two-phase flow pressure drop, the effect of the fuel well on the control of airbleed flow, and unsteady flow. The homogenous two-phase flow model, which is commonly used in carburetor modeling, was compared with an empirical correlation derived from experiments in small pipes and found to be in poor agreement. In order to assess unsteady flow conditions, the model was extended by solving instantaneous one-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in single-phase pipes. This strategy proved successful in explaining the mixture enrichment seen under pulsating flow conditions. The model was also used to derive a sensitivity analysis of geometries and physical properties of air and fuel.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Theoretical Fuel Flow Analysis of Small Engine Carburetor Idle Circuits

This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the fuel and air flows within the idle circuit found in simple carburetors. The idle circuit is modeled numerically using a dynamic model that considers the resistances of the flow paths as well as the inertia of the fuel. The modeling methodology is flexible, in that the organization and techniques can be applied to any configuration and geometry. The numerical model calculates the fuel flow response of carburetor idle/transition circuits to pressure variations associated with air flow through the venturi and around the throttle plate. The model is implemented for a typical small engine carburetor and the nominal results are presented for this specific design.
Technical Paper

Six-Mode Cycle Evaluation of the Effect of EGR and Multiple Injections on Particulate and NOx Emissions from a D.I. Diesel Engine

An emissions and performance study was conducted to explore the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and multiple injections on the emission of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate emissions, and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) over a wide range of engine operating conditions. The tests were conducted on an instrumented single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3400 series heavy duty Diesel engine. Data was taken at 1600 rev/min, and 75% load, and also at operating conditions taken from a 6-mode simulation of the federal transient test procedure (FTP). The fuel system used was an electronically controlled, common rail injector and supporting hardware. The fuel system was capable of as many as four independent injections per combustion event at pressures from 20 to 120MPa.