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Technical Paper

A New Approach to System Level Soot Modeling

2005-04-11
2005-01-1122
A procedure has been developed to build system level predictive models that incorporate physical laws as well as information derived from experimental data. In particular a soot model was developed, trained and tested using experimental data. It was seen that the model could fit available experimental data given sufficient training time. Future accuracy on data points not encountered during training was estimated and seen to be good. The approach relies on the physical phenomena predicted by an existing system level phenomenological soot model coupled with ‘weights’ which use experimental data to adjust the predicted physical sub-model parameters to fit the data. This approach has developed from attempts at incorporating physical phenomena into neural networks for predicting emissions. Model training uses neural network training concepts.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of Fuel Viscosity and Nozzle Geometry on High Injection Pressure Diesel Spray Characteristics

1997-02-24
970353
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fuel viscosity and the effects of nozzle inlet configuration on the characteristics of high injection pressure sprays. Three different viscosity fuels were used to reveal the effects of viscosity on the spray characteristics. The effects of nozzle inlet configuration on spray characteristics were studied using two mini-sac six-hole nozzles with different inlet configurations. A common rail injection system was used to introduce the spray at 90 MPa injection pressure into a constant volume chamber pressurized with argon gas. The information on high pressure transient sprays was captured by a high speed movie camera synchronized with a pulsed copper vapor laser. The images were analyzed to obtain the spray characteristics which include spray tip penetration, spray cone angle at two different regions, and overall spray Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD).
Technical Paper

Air Entrainment in a High Pressure Diesel Spray

1997-05-01
971620
This paper presents some experimental results of air velocity measurements near high pressure diesel sprays. The measurements were made using a moderately high pressure (90 MPa) common rail injector in a pressurized spray chamber. The chamber was operated at ambient temperature (25°C) and was pressurized with Argon to produce a chamber gas density of about 27 kg/m3, similar to densities found in a large turbocharged diesel near TDC. The gas phase was tagged using water droplets doped with Stilbene 420, with an estimated droplet size of 18 μm. The atomized water-Stilbene droplets were illuminated with the third harmonic of a pair of Nd:YAG lasers which caused the Stilbene to fluoresce at about 420 nm. To reduce the competing fluorescence from the injected fuel, the injector was fueled with Jet-A fuel. Using the two lasers, double exposures of the small droplets were recorded on film. The laser pulse lengths were about 6 ns, and typical times between pulses were 100 μs.
Technical Paper

Air Flow Characteristics Surrounding Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2002-03-04
2002-01-0499
Airflow characteristics surrounding evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber under temperatures around 1100 K were investigated using a 6-hole injector and a single-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The normal velocities crossing the control surface toward the spray plume for single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. The velocities tangential to the control surface toward the injector tip for the single-hole injection sprays were lower than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in tangential velocities near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas was accelerated by the spray wall impingement, both for non-evaporating and evaporating sprays.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Vehicles in the Cyberspace: Accelerating Testing via Computer Simulation

2018-04-03
2018-01-1078
We present an approach in which an open-source software infrastructure is used for testing the behavior of autonomous vehicles through computer simulation. This software infrastructure is called CAVE, from Connected Autonomous Vehicle Emulator. As a software platform that allows rapid, low-cost and risk-free testing of novel designs, methods and software components, CAVE accelerates and democratizes research and development activities in the field of autonomous navigation.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2000-10-16
2000-01-2789
Airflow characteristics surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A hydraulically actuated, electronically controlled unit injector (HEUI) system was used to supply the fuel into a pressurized constant volume chamber at room temperature. The chamber gas densities in this study were 10 kg/m3, 20 kg/m3 and 30 kg/m3. The injection pressure was 96.5 MPa. Two frequency doubled (532 nm) Nd:YAG lasers were used to create coincident laser sheets to illuminate the test section at two instances after start of injection (ASI). The double exposed images of sprays and Al2O3 seed particles were developed and velocity vectors of the gas surrounding the transient diesel sprays were obtained using a numerical autocorrelation PIV method.
Technical Paper

Control and Monitoring of Environmental Parameters in the ASTROCULTURE™ Flight Experiment

1995-07-01
951627
The ASTROCULTURE™ (ASC) middeck flight experiment series was developed to test and integrate subsystems required to grow plants in reduced gravity, with the goal of developing a plant growth unit suitable for conducting quality biological research in microgravity. Flights on the Space Shuttle have demonstrated control of water movement through a particulate rooting material, growth chamber temperature and humidity control, LED lighting systems and control, recycling of recovered condensate, ethylene scrubbing, and carbon dioxide control. A complete plant growth unit was tested on STS-63 in February 1995, the first ASC flight in which plant biology experiments were conducted in microgravity. The methods and objectives used for control of environmental conditions in the ASC unit are described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Control of Grasping Force in Teleoperation Using Model Reference Adaptive Approach

1994-06-01
941440
The adaptation to changes in human operator dynamics and changes in working environment dynamics can be an important issue in designing high performance telerobotic systems. This paper describes an approach to force control in telerobotic hand systems in which model reference adaptive control techniques are used to adapt to changes in human operator and working environment dynamics. The techniques have been applied to force-reflective control of a single degree-of-freedom telerobotic gripper system at Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR). This adaptive gripping system is described in the paper along with results of experiments with human subjects in which the performance of the adaptive system was analysed and compared to the performance of a conventional non-adaptive system. These experiments emphasized adaptation to changes in compliance of gripped objects and adaptation to the on-set of human operator fatigue.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Hybrid-Electric Split-Parallel Crossover Sports Utility Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-1068
The University of Wisconsin - Madison Hybrid Vehicle Team has designed, fabricated, tested and optimized a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, split-parallel hybrid-electric crossover vehicle for entry into the 2006 Challenge X competition. This multi-year project is based on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox platform. Trade-offs in fuel economy, greenhouse gas impact (GHGI), acceleration, component packaging and consumer acceptability were weighed to establish Wisconsin's Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Wisconsin's Equinox, nicknamed the Moovada, utilizes a General Motors (GM) 110 kW 1.9 L CIDI engine coupled to GM's 6-speed F40 transmission. The rear axle is powered by a 65 kW Ballard induction motor/gearbox powered from a 44-module (317 volts nominal) Johnson Controls Inc., nickel-metal hydride hybrid battery pack. It includes a newly developed proprietary battery management algorithm which broadcasts the battery's state of charge onto the CAN network.
Technical Paper

Determination of Diesel Injector Nozzle Characteristics Using Two-Color Optical Pyrometry

2002-03-04
2002-01-0746
An investigation of several diesel injector nozzles that produced different engine emissions performance was performed. The nozzle styles used were two VCO type nozzles that were manufactured using two different techniques, and two mini-sac nozzles that provided comparison. Fired experiments were conducted on a Detroit Diesel Series 50 engine. Optical access was obtained by substituting a sapphire window for one exhaust valve. Under high speed, high load, retarded injection timing conditions, it was discovered that each nozzle produced different specific soot and NOx emissions. High-speed film images were obtained. It was discovered that the temperature and KL factor results from the 2-color optical pyrometry showed significant differences between the nozzles. The authors propose the possibility that differences in air entrainment, caused by potential differences in CD due to surface finish, may contribute to the variance in emissions performance.
Technical Paper

Determination of Flame-Front Equivalence Ratio During Stratified Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-0069
Combustion under stratified operating conditions in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was investigated using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of the fuel distribution (via 3-pentanone doped into the fuel) and the combustion products (via OH, which occurs naturally). The simultaneous images allow direct determination of the flame front location under highly stratified conditions where the flame, or product, location is not uniquely identified by the absence of fuel. The 3-pentanone images were quantified, and an edge detection algorithm was developed and applied to the OH data to identify the flame front position. The result was the compilation of local flame-front equivalence ratio probability density functions (PDFs) for engine operating conditions at 600 and 1200 rpm and engine loads varying from equivalence ratios of 0.89 to 0.32 with an unthrottled intake. Homogeneous conditions were used to verify the integrity of the method.
Technical Paper

Development of Micro-Diesel Injector Nozzles via MEMS Technology and Effects on Spray Characteristics

2001-03-05
2001-01-0528
Micro-machined planar orifice nozzles have been developed and used with commercially produced diesel injection systems. Such a system may have the capability to improve the spray characteristics in DI diesel engines. The availability of a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) processing sequence supported the construction of micro-planar orifice nozzles, and micro-systems technology was also employed in our macro-instrumentation. To demonstrate this process, fourteen MEMS nozzles were fabricated with deep X-ray lithography and electroplating technology. The circular orifice diameters were varied from 40 to 260 microns and the number of orifices varied from one to 169. Three plates with non-circular orifices were also fabricated to examine the effect of orifice shape on spray characteristics. These nozzles were then attached to commercial injectors and the associated injection systems were used for the spray experiments.
Technical Paper

Development of Micro-Diesel Injector Nozzles via MEMS Technology and Initial Results for Diesel Sprays

1999-10-25
1999-01-3645
We have developed and used micro-machined injector nozzles with commercially produced diesel injection systems that have the capability to improve the spray characteristics in DI diesel engines. The availability of a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) processing sequence supported the construction of micro-diesel injector nozzles, and micro-systems technology was also employed in our macro-instrumentation. Fourteen different circular plates (nickel-iron alloy) were fabricated with deep X-ray lithography and electroplating technology. Five plates that have a single orifice were fabricated to investigate the effect of orifice diameter on spray characteristics; i.e., 40 to 260 microns. The spacing between multiple orifices was also varied; e.g., two plates that each had 41 orifices and 169 orifices, respectively, with a diameter of 40 microns. Finally, three plates with non-circular orifices were also made to examine the effect of orifice shape on spray characteristics.
Technical Paper

Effect of Gas Density and the Number of Injector Holes on the Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2001-03-05
2001-01-0532
The effect of ambient gas density and the number of injector holes on the characteristics of airflow surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The positive normal velocities across the control surface of single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in velocities tangential to the control surface near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas is accelerated by spray wall impingement.
Technical Paper

Engine Control Strategy for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle Incorporating Load-Leveling and Computer Controlled Energy Management

1996-02-01
960230
This paper identifies important engine, alternator and battery characteristics needed for determining an appropriate engine control strategy for a series hybrid electric vehicle Examination of these characteristics indicates that a load-leveling strategy applied to the small engine will provide better fuel economy than a power-tracking scheme An automatic energy management strategy is devised whereby a computer controller determines the engine-alternator turn-on and turn-off conditions and controls the engine-alternator autonomously Battery state of charge is determined from battery voltage and current measurements Experimental results of the system's performance in a test vehicle during city driving are presented
Technical Paper

Evaporating Spray Concentration Measurementsfrom Small and Medium Bore Diesel Injectors

2002-03-04
2002-01-0219
Vapor concentration measurements were performed for two unit injectors typically found in small- and medium-bore applications under evaporating conditions similar to those experienced in Diesel engines. Ambient gas temperatures of 800 and 1000 K and an ambient density of 15 kg/m3 were investigated using a constant volume combustion-type spray chamber. The exciplex laserinduced fluorescence technique with TMPD/naphthalene doped into the fuel was used to quantitatively determine the vapor-phase concentration and liquid-phase extent. The vapor-phase concentration was quantified using a previously developed method that includes corrections for the temperature dependence of the TMPD fluorescence, laser sheet absorption, and the laser sheet intensity profile. The effect of increasing ambient temperature (1000 vs. 800 K) was significant on intact liquid length, and on the spray-spreading angle in the early portion of the injection period.
Technical Paper

Fuel Film Temperature and Thickness Measurements on the Piston Crown of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0649
Fuel film temperature and thickness were measured on the piston crown of a DISI engine under both motored and fired conditions using the fiber-based laser-induced fluorescence method wherein a single fiber delivers the excitation light and collects the fluorescence. The fibers were installed in the piston crown of a Bowditch-type optical engine and exited via the mirror passage. The fuel used for the fuel film temperature measurement was a 2×10-6 M solution of BTBP in isooctane. The ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 515 to that at 532 nm was found to be directly, but not linearly, related to temperature when excited at 488 nm. Effects related to the solvent, solution aging and bleaching were investigated. The measured fuel film temperature was found to closely follow the piston crown metal temperature, which was measured with a thermocouple.
Technical Paper

Future Developments in Forage Harvesting Machinery and Processing

1988-09-01
881289
Forage harvesting, processing and handling equipment research is currently underway which will improve commodity quality, produce “value -added” products from forages, reduce energy and labor requirements of the equipment and improve forage marketability. Technologies are described which could increase forage quality and value by removing it from the field sooner after it is mowed to minimize the risk of weather damage. Mechanisms and management strategies for reducing the labor and energy required for field processing and for improving the marketability of forages are also described.
Technical Paper

Global Optimization of a Two-Pulse Fuel Injection Strategy for a Diesel Engine Using Interpolation and a Gradient-Based Method

2007-04-16
2007-01-0248
A global optimization method has been developed for an engine simulation code and utilized in the search of optimal fuel injection strategies. This method uses a Lagrange interpolation function which interpolates engine output data generated at the vertices and the intermediate points of the input parameters. This interpolation function is then used to find a global minimum over the entire parameter set, which in turn becomes the starting point of a CFD-based optimization. The CFD optimization is based on a steepest descent method with an adaptive cost function, where the line searches are performed with a fast-converging backtracking algorithm. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space.
Technical Paper

Hardware Implementation Details and Test Results for a High-Bandwith, Hydrostatic Transient Engine Dynamometer System

1997-02-24
970025
Transient operation of automobile engines is known to contribute significantly to regulated exhaust emissions, and is also an area of drivability concerns. Furthermore, many on-board diagnostic algorithms do not perform well during transient operation and are often temporarily disabled to avoid problems. The inability to quickly and repeatedly test engines during transient conditions in a laboratory setting limits researchers and development engineers ability to produce more effective and robust algorithms to lower vehicle emissions. To meet this need, members of the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have developed a high-bandwidth, hydrostatic dynamometer system that will enable researchers to explore transient characteristics of engines and powertrains in the laboratory.
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