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Technical Paper

1-D Modeling of Transient Engine Operations Using Data Generated by a CFD Code

Transient engine operations are modeled and simulated with a 1-D code (GT Power) using heat release and emission data computed by a 3-D CFD code (Kiva3). During each iteration step of a transient engine simulation, the 1-D code utilizes the 3-D data to interpolate the values for heat release and emissions. The 3-D CFD computations were performed for the compression and combustion stroke of strategically chosen engine operating points considering engine speed, torque and excess air. The 3-D inlet conditions were obtained from the 1-D code, which utilized 3-D heat release data from the previous 1-D unsteady computations. In most cases, only two different sets of 3-D input data are needed to interpolate the transient phase between two engine operating points. This keeps the computation time at a reasonable level. The results are demonstrated on the load response of a generator which is driven by a medium-speed diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A Matrix-Based Porous Tube Water and Nutrient Delivery System

A system was developed which provides nutrients and water to plants while maintaining good aeration at the roots and preventing water from escaping in reduced gravity. The nutrient solution is circulated through porous tubes under negative pressure and moves through the tube wall via capillary forces into the rooting matrix, establishing a non-saturated condition in the root zone. Tests using prototypes of the porous tube water and nutrient delivery system indicate that plant productivity in this system is equivalent to standard soil and solution culture growing procedures. The system has functioned successfully in short-term microgravity during parabolic flight tests and will be flown on the space shuttle. Plants are one of the components of a bioregenerative life support system required for long duration space missions.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Vehicles in the Cyberspace: Accelerating Testing via Computer Simulation

We present an approach in which an open-source software infrastructure is used for testing the behavior of autonomous vehicles through computer simulation. This software infrastructure is called CAVE, from Connected Autonomous Vehicle Emulator. As a software platform that allows rapid, low-cost and risk-free testing of novel designs, methods and software components, CAVE accelerates and democratizes research and development activities in the field of autonomous navigation.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between Air-Assisted and Single-Fluid Pressure Atomizers for Direct-Injection SI Engines Via Spatial and Temporal Mass Flux Measurements

Two distinct atomization strategies are contrasted through the measurement of time and spatially dependent mass flux. The two systems investigated include a pressure atomizer (6.9 MPa opening pressure) and an air-assist atomizer. Both systems have potential for use in direct injection spark ignition engines. The mass flux data presented were obtained using a spray patternator that was developed to allow phased sampling of the spray. The temporal mass related history of the spray was reconstructed as volume versus time plots and interpolated mass flux contour plots. Results indicate substantial differences in the distribution of both mass and mass flux in space and time for the two injection systems. For example, the pressure atomizer at high mass delivery rates produced a spray that collapsed into a dispersed cylindrical shape while at low rates, generated a hollow cone structure.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Unburned Fuel and Aldehyde Emissions from a Methanol-Fueled Stratified Charge and Homogeneous Charge Engine

This paper presents the results of an experimental program in which a Texaco L-163S engine was fueled with methanol and operated in its traditional stratified charge mode and then modified to run as a homogeneous charge spark ignited engine. The primary data taken were the aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions (UBF). These data were taken using a continuous time-averaging sampling probe at the exhaust tank and at the exhaust port and with a rotary time-resolving sampling valve located at the exhaust port. The data are for two loads, 138.1 kPa (20 psi) and 207.1 kPa (30 psi) BMEP and three speeds, 1000, 1400 and 1800 rpm. The data indicate that for both the stratified charge and the homogeneous charge modes of operation formaldehyde was the only aldehyde detected in the exhaust and it primarily originated in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility Vehicle

The University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureTruck Team has designed and built a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2002 competition. This is a two-year project with tiered goals; the base vehicle for both years is a 2002 Ford Explorer. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs approximately 2050 kg. The vehicle uses a high efficiency, 2.5 liter, turbo-charged, compression ignition common rail, direct-injection engine supplying approximately 100 kW of peak power and a AC induction motor that provides an additional 33 kW of peak power. This hybrid drivetrain is an attractive alternative to the large displacement V6 drivetrain, as it provides comparable performance with similar emissions and drastically reduced fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of the University of Wisconsin's Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility Vehicle

The University of Wisconsin - Madison FutureTruck Team has designed and built a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2001 competition. The base vehicle is a 2000 Chevrolet Suburban. Our FutureTruck is nicknamed the “Moollennium” and weighs approximately 2427 kg. The vehicle uses a high efficiency, 2.5 liter, turbo-charged, compression ignition common rail, direct-injection engine supplying approximately 104 kW of peak power and a three phase AC induction motor that provides an additional 68.5 kW of peak power. This hybrid drivetrain is an attractive alternative to the large displacement V8 drivetrain, as it provides comparable performance with lower emissions and fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) urban driving cycle fuel economy of 11.24 km/L (26.43 mpg) with California Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) emissions levels.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Hybrid-Electric Split-Parallel Crossover Sports Utility Vehicle

The University of Wisconsin - Madison Hybrid Vehicle Team has designed, fabricated, tested and optimized a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, split-parallel hybrid-electric crossover vehicle for entry into the 2006 Challenge X competition. This multi-year project is based on a 2005 Chevrolet Equinox platform. Trade-offs in fuel economy, greenhouse gas impact (GHGI), acceleration, component packaging and consumer acceptability were weighed to establish Wisconsin's Vehicle Technical Specifications (VTS). Wisconsin's Equinox, nicknamed the Moovada, utilizes a General Motors (GM) 110 kW 1.9 L CIDI engine coupled to GM's 6-speed F40 transmission. The rear axle is powered by a 65 kW Ballard induction motor/gearbox powered from a 44-module (317 volts nominal) Johnson Controls Inc., nickel-metal hydride hybrid battery pack. It includes a newly developed proprietary battery management algorithm which broadcasts the battery's state of charge onto the CAN network.
Technical Paper

Design and Testing of a Prototype Midsize Parallel Hybrid-Electric Sport Utility

The University of Wisconsin - Madison hybrid vehicle team has designed and constructed a four-wheel drive, charge sustaining, parallel hybrid-electric sport utility vehicle for entry into the FutureTruck 2003 competition. This is a multi-year project utilizing a 2002 4.0 liter Ford Explorer as the base vehicle. Wisconsin's FutureTruck, nicknamed the ‘Moolander’, weighs 2000 kg and includes a prototype aluminum frame. The Moolander uses a high efficiency, 1.8 liter, common rail, turbo-charged, compression ignition direct injection (CIDI) engine supplying 85 kW of peak power and an AC induction motor that provides an additional 60 kW of peak power. The 145 kW hybrid drivetrain will out-accelerate the stock V6 powertrain while producing similar emissions and drastically reducing fuel consumption. The PNGV Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model predicts a Federal Testing Procedure (FTP) combined driving cycle fuel economy of 16.05 km/L (37.8 mpg).
Technical Paper

Design of a Charge Regulating, Parallel Hybrid Electric FutureCar

Students, as members of Team Paradigm, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have designed a charge regulating, parallel hybrid electric Dodge Intrepid for the 1997 FutureCar Challenge (FCC97). The goals for the Wisconsin “FutureCow” are to achieve an equivalent fuel consumption of 26 km/L (62 mpg) and Tier 2 Federal Emissions levels while maintaining the full passenger/cargo room, appearance, and feel of a stock Intrepid. These goals are realized through drivetrain simulations, a refined vehicle control strategy, decreased engine emissions, and aggressive weight reduction. The vehicle development has been coupled with 8,000 km of reliability and performance testing to ensure Wisconsin will be a strong competitor at the FCC97.
Technical Paper

Determination of Flame-Front Equivalence Ratio During Stratified Combustion

Combustion under stratified operating conditions in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was investigated using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of the fuel distribution (via 3-pentanone doped into the fuel) and the combustion products (via OH, which occurs naturally). The simultaneous images allow direct determination of the flame front location under highly stratified conditions where the flame, or product, location is not uniquely identified by the absence of fuel. The 3-pentanone images were quantified, and an edge detection algorithm was developed and applied to the OH data to identify the flame front position. The result was the compilation of local flame-front equivalence ratio probability density functions (PDFs) for engine operating conditions at 600 and 1200 rpm and engine loads varying from equivalence ratios of 0.89 to 0.32 with an unthrottled intake. Homogeneous conditions were used to verify the integrity of the method.
Technical Paper

Effect of Equivalence Ratio on the Particulate Emissions from a Spark-Ignited, Direct-Injected Gasoline Engine

The effect of equivalence ratio on the particulate size distribution (PSD) in a spark-ignited, direct-injected (SIDI) engine was investigated. A single-cylinder, four-stroke, spark-ignited direct-injection engine fueled with certification gasoline was used for the measurements. The engine was operated with early injection during the intake stroke. Equivalence ratio was swept over the range where stable combustion was achieved. Throughout this range combustion phasing was held constant. Particle size distributions were measured as a function of equivalence ratio. The data show the sensitivity of both engine-out particle number and particle size to global equivalence ratio. As equivalence ratio was increased a larger fraction of particles were due to agglomerates with diameters ≻ 100 nm. For decreasing equivalence ratio smaller particles dominate the distribution. The total particle number and mass increased non-linearly with increasing equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on Spray SMD and D.I. Emissions

A study was performed to correlate the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), NOx and particulate emissions of a direct injection diesel engine with various injection pressures and different nozzle geometry. The spray experiments and engine emission tests were conducted in parallel using the same fuel injection system and same operating conditions. With high speed photography and digital image analysis, a light extinction technique was used to obtain the spray characteristics which included spray tip penetration length, spray angle, and overall average SMD for the entire spray. The NOx and particulate emissions were acquired by running the tests on a fully instrumented Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine. Experimental results showed that for higher injection pressures, a smaller SMD was observed, i.e. a finer spray was obtained. For this case, a higher NOx and lower particulate resulted.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing on Air-Fuel Mixing in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

Multidimensional modeling is used to study air-fuel mixing in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the start of fuel injection on gas/spray interactions, wall wetting, fuel vaporization rate and air-fuel ratio distributions in this paper. It was found that the in-cylinder gas/spray interactions vary with fuel injection timing which directly impacts spray characteristics such as tip penetration and spray/wall impingement and air-fuel mixing. It was also found that, compared with a non-spray case, the mixture temperature at the end of the compression stroke decreases substantially in spray cases due to in-cylinder fuel vaporization. The computed trapped-mass and total heat-gain from the cylinder walls during the induction and compression processes were also shown to be increased in spray cases.
Technical Paper

Effects of Mixture Preparation Characteristics on Four-Stroke Utility Engine Emissions and Performance

A laboratory-based fuel mixture system capable of delivering a range of fuel/air mixtures has been used to observe the effects of differing mixture characteristics on engine combustion through measurement and analysis of incylinder pressure and exhaust emissions. Fuel air mixtures studied can be classified into four different types: 1) Completely homogeneous fuel/air mixtures, where the fuel has been vaporized and mixed with the air prior to entrance into the normal engine induction system, 2) liquid fuel that is atomized and introduced with the air to the normal engine induction system, 3) liquid fuel that is atomized, and partially prevaporized but the air/fuel charge remains stratified up to introduction to the induction system, and 4) the standard fuel metering system. All tests reported here were conducted under wide open throttle conditions. A four-stroke, spark-ignited, single-cylinder, overhead valve-type engine was used for all tests.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Performance of a Small L-Head Utility Engine Fueled with Homogeneous Propane/Air and Propane/Air/Nitrogen Mixture

The objective of this study was to observe and attempt to understand the effects of equivalence ratio and simulated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on the exhaust emissions and performance of a L-head single cylinder utility engine. In order to isolate these effects and limit the confounding influences caused by poor fuel mixture preparation and/or vaporization produced by the carburetor/intake port combination, the engine was operated on a premixed propane/air mixture. To simulate the effects of EGR, a homogeneous mixture of propane, air, and nitrogen was used. Engine measurements were obtained at the operating conditions specified by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Raw Gas Method Test Procedure. Measurements included exhaust emissions levels of HC, CO, and NOx, and engine pressure data.
Technical Paper

Fuel Film Temperature and Thickness Measurements on the Piston Crown of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

Fuel film temperature and thickness were measured on the piston crown of a DISI engine under both motored and fired conditions using the fiber-based laser-induced fluorescence method wherein a single fiber delivers the excitation light and collects the fluorescence. The fibers were installed in the piston crown of a Bowditch-type optical engine and exited via the mirror passage. The fuel used for the fuel film temperature measurement was a 2×10-6 M solution of BTBP in isooctane. The ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 515 to that at 532 nm was found to be directly, but not linearly, related to temperature when excited at 488 nm. Effects related to the solvent, solution aging and bleaching were investigated. The measured fuel film temperature was found to closely follow the piston crown metal temperature, which was measured with a thermocouple.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamics of Droplet Impingement on a Heated Surface

The impingement of liquid fuels on surfaces in IC engines affects performance and emissions. To better understand liquid/solid interactions, the impact of single droplets on a healed surface was experimentally examined. The droplet impingement was photographed with a high speed cine camera to obtain a history of the hydrodynamics of the impingement process. Images obtained from the cine photography were inspected to determine hydrodynamic regimes: wetting, transition, and non-wetting, associated with the specific impingement conditions (droplet size, velocity, surface temperature, and ambient pressure). Images from selected impingement conditions were further analyzed to quantify the atomization resulting from the impingement.
Technical Paper

Improvements in 3-D Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow and Combustion

A three-dimensional computer code (KIVA) is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion: spray atomization, drop breakup/coalescence, multi-component fuel vaporization, spray/wall interaction, ignition and combustion, wall heat transfer, unburned HC and NOx formation, soot and radiation and the intake flow process. Improved and/or new submodels which have been completed are: wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo'vich NOx, and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops.
Journal Article

Improvements to Combustion Models for Modeling Spark-Ignition Engines Using the G-equation and Detailed Chemical Kinetics

Improvements to combustion models for modeling spark ignition engines using the G-equation flame propagation model and detailed chemical kinetics have been performed. The improvements include revision of a PRF chemistry mechanism, precise calculation of “primary heat release” based on the sub-grid scale unburned/burnt volumes of flame-containing cells, modeling flame front quenching in highly stratified mixtures, introduction of a Damkohler model for assessing the combustion regime of flame-containing cells, and a better method of modeling the effects of the local residual value on the burning velocity. The validation of the revised PRF mechanism shows that the calculated ignition delay matches shock tube data very well. The improvements to the “primary heat release” model based on the cell unburned/burnt volumes more precisely consider the chemical kinetics heat release in unburned regions, and thus are thought to be physically reasonable.