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Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

A Sequential Fluid-Mechanic Chemical-Kinetic Model of Propane HCCI Combustion

2001-03-05
2001-01-1027
We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. This methodology combines a detailed fluid mechanics code with a detailed chemical kinetics code. Instead of directly linking the two codes, which would require an extremely long computational time, the methodology consists of first running the fluid mechanics code to obtain temperature profiles as a function of time. These temperature profiles are then used as input to a multi-zone chemical kinetics code. The advantage of this procedure is that a small number of zones (10) is enough to obtain accurate results. This procedure achieves the benefits of linking the fluid mechanics and the chemical kinetics codes with a great reduction in the computational effort, to a level that can be handled with current computers.
Technical Paper

A Transient Heat Transfer System for Research Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0975
An ongoing goal of the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison has been to expand and improve the ability of the single cylinder internal combustion research engine to represent its multi-cylinder engine counterpart. To date, the PCRL single cylinder engine test system is able to replicate both the rotational dynamics (SAE #2004-01-0305) and intake manifold dynamics (SAE #2006-01-1074) of a multi cylinder engine using a single cylinder research engine. Another area of interest is the replication of multi-cylinder engine cold start emissions data with a single-cylinder engine test system. For this replication to occur, the single-cylinder engine must experience heat transfer to the engine coolant as if it were part of a multi-cylinder engine, in addition to the other multi-cylinder engine transient effects.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Model Development and Experiments

1995-04-01
951200
Progress on the development and validation of a CFD model for diesel engine combustion and flow is described. A modified version of the KIVA code is used for the computations, with improved submodels for liquid breakup, drop distortion and drag, spray/wall impingement with rebounding, sliding and breaking-up drops, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion models, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The code also considers piston-cylinder-liner crevice flows and allows computations of the intake flow process in the realistic engine geometry with two moving intake valves. Significant progress has been made using a modified RNG k-ε turbulence model, and a multicomponent fuel vaporization model and a flamelet combustion model have been implemented.
Journal Article

Divided Exhaust Period Implementation in a Light-Duty Turbocharged Dual-Fuel RCCI Engine for Improved Fuel Economy and Aftertreatment Thermal Management: A Simulation Study

2018-04-03
2018-01-0256
Although turbocharging can extend the high load limit of low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies such as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI), the low exhaust enthalpy prevalent in these strategies necessitates the use of high exhaust pressures for improving turbocharger efficiency, causing high pumping losses and poor fuel economy. To mitigate these pumping losses, the divided exhaust period (DEP) concept is proposed. In this concept, the exhaust gas is directed to two separate manifolds: the blowdown manifold which is connected to the turbocharger and the scavenging manifold that bypasses the turbocharger. By separately actuating the exhaust valves using variable valve actuation, the exhaust flow is split between two manifolds, thereby reducing the overall engine backpressure and lowering pumping losses. In this paper, results from zero-dimensional and one-dimensional simulations of a multicylinder RCCI light-duty engine equipped with DEP are presented.
Technical Paper

Emission Tests of Diesel Fuel with NOx Reduction Additives

1993-10-01
932736
In this paper results are given from single-cylinder, steady-state engine tests using the Texaco Diesel Additive (TDA) as an in-fuel emission reducing agent. The data include NOx, total unburned hydrocarbons, indicated specific fuel consumption, and heat release analysis for one engine speed (1500 RPM) with two different loads (Φ ≈ 0.3, IMEP = 0.654 MPa and Φ ≈ 0.5, IMEP = 1.006 MPa) using the baseline fuel and fuels with one percent and five percent additive by weight. The emissions were measured in the exhaust stream of a modified TACOM-LABECO single cylinder engine. This engine is a 114 mm x 114 mm (4.5″ x 4.5″) open chamber low swirl design with a 110.5 MPa (16,000 psi) peak pressure Bosch injector. The injector has 8 holes, each of 0.2 mm diameter. The intake air was slightly boosted (approximately 171 kPa (25 psia)) and slightly heated (333 K (140 °F)). In previous research on this engine the emissions, including soot, were well documented.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Measurements in a Motored Engine

1989-02-01
890319
A set of experiments has been performed on a motored four stroke engine measuring the gas phase thermal boundary layer profile adjacent to the cylinder head using speckle interferometry. Speckle interferometry is an optical technique which allows full field, line of sight averaged optical phase shift measurements. These optical phase shift measurements may be interpreted as local temperature values for planar or axisymmetric geometries with ideal gases. For this set of experiments, a small (20 mm diameter) portion of the cylinder head was raised 2 mm above the rest of the surface and used as a test surface. The experiments were performed at two engine speeds, 300 and 750 RPM and at low and high intake swirl levels. Interferograms were obtained at 10 crank angle degree intervals from 70° before top dead center of compression to 60° after top dead center of compression.
Technical Paper

Improvements in 3-D Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow and Combustion

1992-09-01
921627
A three-dimensional computer code (KIVA) is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion: spray atomization, drop breakup/coalescence, multi-component fuel vaporization, spray/wall interaction, ignition and combustion, wall heat transfer, unburned HC and NOx formation, soot and radiation and the intake flow process. Improved and/or new submodels which have been completed are: wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo'vich NOx, and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Direct Injection-Gasoline Premixed Charge Compression Ignited Engine

2002-03-04
2002-01-0419
The causes of Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from a premixed compression ignited engine were investigated for both homogeneous and stratified charge conditions. A fast response Flame Ionization Detector (fast FID) was used to provide cycle-resolved UHC exhaust emission measurements. These fast FID UHC measurements were coupled with numerical flow simulation results to provide quantitative and qualitative insight into the sources of UHC emissions. The combined results were used to evaluate the effects of engine load, local gas temperatures, fuel stratification, and crevice quenching on UHC emissions.
Technical Paper

Measurement of the Effect of Injection Rate and Split Injections on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions

1994-03-01
940668
This study was conducted to develop an understanding of how rate-shaped and split injections can affect the soot and NOx emissions of a heavy-duty diesel engine. The tests were performed on a single cylinder version of the Caterpillar 3406 production engine, modified to accept an electronically-controlled, high-pressure common-rail injection system that offers a very high degree of flexibility in injection timing, split injections, and rate shaping of the initial injection. The engine was instrumented for particulate measurements with a full dilution tunnel, and CO, CO2 and NOx emission meters. Cylinder pressure was used to study heat release rates, and the response to changes in the injection scheme. The results show that rate-shaped injection, when optimized for lowest BSFC, does not appreciably affect pressure rise or peak cylinder gas pressures.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of Soot and NOx Emission Reduction Using Multiple-injection in a Diesel Engine

1996-02-01
960633
Engine experiments have shown that with high-pressure multiple injections (two or more injection pulses per power cycle), the soot-NOx trade-off curves of a diesel engine can be shifted closer to the origin than those with the conventional single-pulse injections, reducing both soot and NOx emissions significantly. In order to understand the mechanism of emissions reduction, multidimensional computations were carried out for a heavy-duty diesel engine with multiple injections. Different injection schemes were considered, and the predicted cylinder pressure, heat release rate and soot and NOx emissions were compared with measured data. Excellent agreements between predictions and measurements were achieved after improvements in the models were made. The improvements include using a RNG k-ε turbulence model, adopting a new wall heat transfer model and introducing the nozzle discharge coefficient to account for the contraction of fuel jet at the nozzle exit.
Technical Paper

Modeling Combustion in Compression Ignition Homogeneous Charge Engines

1992-02-01
920512
The combustion mechanism in a Compression Ignition Homogeneous Charge (CIHC) engine was studied. Previous experiments done on a four-stroke CIHC engine were modeled using the KIVA-II code with modifications to the combustion, heat transfer, and crevice flow submodels. A laminar and turbulence characteristic time combustion model that has been used for spark-ignited engine studies was extended to allow predictions of ignition. The rate of conversion from one chemical species to another is modeled using a characteristic time which is the sum of a laminar (high temperature) chemistry time, an ignition (low temperature) chemistry time, and a turbulence mixing time. The ignition characteristic time was modeled using data from elementary initiation reactions and has the Arrhenius form. It was found to be possible to match all engine test cases reasonably well with one set of combustion model constants.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effect of Engine Speed on the Combustion Process and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine

1996-10-01
962056
Previous studies have shown that air motion affects the combustion process and therefore also the emissions in a DI diesel engine. Experimental studies indicate that higher engine speeds enhance the turbulence and this improves air and fuel mixing. However, there are few studies that address fundamental combustion related factors and possible limitations associated with very high speed engine operation. In this study, operation over a large range of engine speeds was simulated by using a multi-dimensional computer code to study the effect of speed on emissions, engine power, engine and exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that at higher engine speeds fuel is consumed in a much shorter time period by the enhanced air and fuel mixing. The shorter combustion duration provides much less available time for soot and NOx formations. In addition, the enhanced air/fuel mixing decreases soot and NOx by reducing the extent of the fuel rich regions.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions

1994-03-01
940523
The three-dimensional KIVA code has been used to study the effects of injection pressure and split injections on diesel engine performance and soot and NOx emissions. The code has been updated with state-of-the-art submodels including: a wave breakup atomization model, drop drag with drop distortion, spray/wall interaction with sliding, rebounding, and breaking-up drops, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The computational results are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder Caterpillar research engine equipped with a high-pressure, electronically-controlled fuel injection system, a full-dilution tunnel for soot measurements, and gaseous emissions instrumentation.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Computation of Multicomponent Spray Vaporization and Combustion

1995-02-01
950285
The three-dimensional KIVA code has been used to study the effects of multicomponent fuel droplet vaporization on diesel engine performance under both standard and cold-starting conditions. The code has also been updated with state-of-the-art submodels including: a wave breakup atomization model, drop drag with drop distortion, spray/wall interaction with sliding, rebounding, and breaking-up drops, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, and a crevice flow model. The baseline computational results are compared with experimental data from a single-cylinder Caterpillar research engine equipped with a high-pressure, electronically-controlled fuel injection system. The effect of multicomponent fuel droplet vaporization is studied, with particular attention to the effects of the injection ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of Engine Combustion Chamber Surface Temperatures

1997-05-01
971593
A two-dimensional transient Heat Conduction in Components code (HCC) was successfully set up and extensively used to calculate the temperature field existing in real engine combustion chambers. The Saul'yev method, an explicit, unconditionally stable finite difference method, was used in the code. Consideration of the gasket between the cylinder wall and head, and the air gap between the piston and liner were included in the code. The realistic piston bowl shape was modeled with a grid transformation and piston movement was considered. The HCC code was used to calculate the wall temperature of an Isuzu ceramic engine and a Caterpillar heavy-duty diesel engine. The code was combined with the KIVA-II code in an iterative loop, in which the KIVA-II code provided the instantaneous local heat flux on the combustion chamber surfaces, and the HCC code computed the time-averaged wall temperature distribution on the surfaces.
Technical Paper

Near Wall Interaction in Spray Impingement

1996-02-01
960863
The hydrodynamic details of droplet-droplet and droplet-liquid film interactions on solid surfaces are believed to have a significant role in spray impingement phenomena, yet details of this interaction have not been clearly identified. The interaction among the droplets during impact affects their residence time on the surface, spreading, and droplet and liquid film stability. After impact, droplet interactions affect droplet collisions, coalescence and liquid splashing, This interaction affects secondary atomization and the droplet dispersion characteristics of the impingement process. In this study, details of droplet-droplet and droplet-liquid film interactions in solid surface impingement have been visualized using high speed photography. The effects of these interactions on secondary atomization and droplet dispersion have been quantified.
Technical Paper

On the Calibration of Single-Shot Planar Laser Imaging Techniques in Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0748
The noise characteristics of four camera systems representative of those typically used for laser-imaging experiments (a back-illuminated slow-scan camera, a frame-straddling slow-scan camera, an intensified slow-scan camera and an intensified video-rate camera) were investigated, and the results are presented as a function of the signal level and illumination level. These results provide the maximum possible signal-to-noise ratio for laser-imaging experiments, and represent the limit of quantitative signal interpretation. A calibration strategy for engine data that limits the uncertainties associated with thermodynamic and optical correction was presented and applied to engine data acquired with two of the camera systems. When a rigorous analysis of the signal is performed it is seen that shot noise limits the quantitative interpretation of the data for most typical laser-imaging experiments, and obviates the use of single-pixel data.
Technical Paper

Piston Bowl Geometry Effects on Combustion Development in a High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0167
In this work we studied the effects of piston bowl design on combustion in a small-bore direct-injection diesel engine. Two bowl designs were compared: a conventional, omega-shaped bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Experiments were carried out in the Sandia single-cylinder optical engine facility, with a medium-load, mild-boosted operating condition featuring a pilot+main injection strategy. CFD simulations were carried out with the FRESCO platform featuring full-geometric body-fitted mesh modeling of the engine and were validated against measured in-cylinder performance as well as soot natural luminosity images. Differences in combustion development were studied using the simulation results, and sensitivities to in-cylinder flow field (swirl ratio) and injection rate parameters were also analyzed.
Technical Paper

Progress Towards Diesel Combustion Modeling

1995-10-01
952429
Progress on the development and validation of a CFD model for diesel engine combustion and flow is described. A modified version of the KIVA code is used for the computations, with improved submodels for liquid breakup, drop distortion and drag, spray/wall impingement with rebounding, sliding and breaking-up drops, wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, multistep kinetics ignition and laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion models, Zeldovich NOx formation, and soot formation with Nagle Strickland-Constable oxidation. The code also considers piston-cylinder-liner crevice flows and allows computations of the intake flow process in the realistic engine geometry with two moving intake valves. Significant progress has been made using a modified RNG k-ε turbulence model, and a multicomponent fuel vaporization model and a flamelet combustion model have been implemented.
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