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Technical Paper

A Decoupled Model of Detailed Fluid Mechanics Followed by Detailed Chemical Kinetics for Prediction of Iso-Octane HCCI Combustion

We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. The methodology judiciously uses a fluid mechanics code followed by a chemical kinetics code to achieve great reduction in the computational requirements; to a level that can be handled with current computers. In previous papers, our sequential, multi-zone methodology has been applied to HCCI combustion of short-chain hydrocarbons (natural gas and propane). Applying the same procedure to long-chain hydrocarbons (iso-octane) results in unacceptably long computational time. In this paper, we show how the computational time can be made acceptable by developing a segregated solver. This reduces the run time of a ten-zone problem by an order of magnitude and thus makes it much more practical to make combustion studies of long-chain hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study to Control Combustion Duration of Hydrogen-Fueled HCCI by Using Multi-Zone Chemical Kinetics Simulation

An engine cycle simulation code with detailed chemical kinetics has been developed to study Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with hydrogen as the fuel. In order to attain adequate combustion duration, resulting from the self-accelerating nature of the chemical reaction, fuel and temperature inhomogeneities have been brought to the calculation by considering the combustion chamber to have various temperature and fuel distributions. Calculations have been done under various conditions including both perfectly homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases, changing the degree of inhomogeneity. The results show that intake gas temperature is more dominant on ignition timing of HCCI than equivalence ratio and that there is a possibility to control HCCI by introducing appropriate temperature inhomogeneity to in-cylinder mixture.
Technical Paper

A Sequential Fluid-Mechanic Chemical-Kinetic Model of Propane HCCI Combustion

We have developed a methodology for predicting combustion and emissions in a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine. This methodology combines a detailed fluid mechanics code with a detailed chemical kinetics code. Instead of directly linking the two codes, which would require an extremely long computational time, the methodology consists of first running the fluid mechanics code to obtain temperature profiles as a function of time. These temperature profiles are then used as input to a multi-zone chemical kinetics code. The advantage of this procedure is that a small number of zones (10) is enough to obtain accurate results. This procedure achieves the benefits of linking the fluid mechanics and the chemical kinetics codes with a great reduction in the computational effort, to a level that can be handled with current computers.
Technical Paper

An Analysis on Time Scale Separation for Engine Simulations with Detailed Chemistry

The simulation of combustion chemistry in internal combustion engines is challenging due to the need to include detailed reaction mechanisms to describe the engine physics. Computational times needed for coupling full chemistry to CFD simulations are still too computationally demanding, even when distributed computer systems are exploited. For these reasons the present paper proposes a time scale separation approach for the integration of the chemistry differential equations and applies it in an engine CFD code. The time scale separation is achieved through the estimation of a characteristic time for each of the species and the introduction of a sampling timestep, wherein the chemistry is subcycled during the overall integration. This allows explicit integration of the system to be carried out, and the step size is governed by tolerance requirements.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between Air-Assisted and Single-Fluid Pressure Atomizers for Direct-Injection SI Engines Via Spatial and Temporal Mass Flux Measurements

Two distinct atomization strategies are contrasted through the measurement of time and spatially dependent mass flux. The two systems investigated include a pressure atomizer (6.9 MPa opening pressure) and an air-assist atomizer. Both systems have potential for use in direct injection spark ignition engines. The mass flux data presented were obtained using a spray patternator that was developed to allow phased sampling of the spray. The temporal mass related history of the spray was reconstructed as volume versus time plots and interpolated mass flux contour plots. Results indicate substantial differences in the distribution of both mass and mass flux in space and time for the two injection systems. For example, the pressure atomizer at high mass delivery rates produced a spray that collapsed into a dispersed cylindrical shape while at low rates, generated a hollow cone structure.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Unburned Fuel and Aldehyde Emissions from a Methanol-Fueled Stratified Charge and Homogeneous Charge Engine

This paper presents the results of an experimental program in which a Texaco L-163S engine was fueled with methanol and operated in its traditional stratified charge mode and then modified to run as a homogeneous charge spark ignited engine. The primary data taken were the aldehyde and unburned fuel emissions (UBF). These data were taken using a continuous time-averaging sampling probe at the exhaust tank and at the exhaust port and with a rotary time-resolving sampling valve located at the exhaust port. The data are for two loads, 138.1 kPa (20 psi) and 207.1 kPa (30 psi) BMEP and three speeds, 1000, 1400 and 1800 rpm. The data indicate that for both the stratified charge and the homogeneous charge modes of operation formaldehyde was the only aldehyde detected in the exhaust and it primarily originated in the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Determination of Flame-Front Equivalence Ratio During Stratified Combustion

Combustion under stratified operating conditions in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was investigated using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of the fuel distribution (via 3-pentanone doped into the fuel) and the combustion products (via OH, which occurs naturally). The simultaneous images allow direct determination of the flame front location under highly stratified conditions where the flame, or product, location is not uniquely identified by the absence of fuel. The 3-pentanone images were quantified, and an edge detection algorithm was developed and applied to the OH data to identify the flame front position. The result was the compilation of local flame-front equivalence ratio probability density functions (PDFs) for engine operating conditions at 600 and 1200 rpm and engine loads varying from equivalence ratios of 0.89 to 0.32 with an unthrottled intake. Homogeneous conditions were used to verify the integrity of the method.
Technical Paper

Effect of Equivalence Ratio on the Particulate Emissions from a Spark-Ignited, Direct-Injected Gasoline Engine

The effect of equivalence ratio on the particulate size distribution (PSD) in a spark-ignited, direct-injected (SIDI) engine was investigated. A single-cylinder, four-stroke, spark-ignited direct-injection engine fueled with certification gasoline was used for the measurements. The engine was operated with early injection during the intake stroke. Equivalence ratio was swept over the range where stable combustion was achieved. Throughout this range combustion phasing was held constant. Particle size distributions were measured as a function of equivalence ratio. The data show the sensitivity of both engine-out particle number and particle size to global equivalence ratio. As equivalence ratio was increased a larger fraction of particles were due to agglomerates with diameters ≻ 100 nm. For decreasing equivalence ratio smaller particles dominate the distribution. The total particle number and mass increased non-linearly with increasing equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing on Air-Fuel Mixing in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

Multidimensional modeling is used to study air-fuel mixing in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the start of fuel injection on gas/spray interactions, wall wetting, fuel vaporization rate and air-fuel ratio distributions in this paper. It was found that the in-cylinder gas/spray interactions vary with fuel injection timing which directly impacts spray characteristics such as tip penetration and spray/wall impingement and air-fuel mixing. It was also found that, compared with a non-spray case, the mixture temperature at the end of the compression stroke decreases substantially in spray cases due to in-cylinder fuel vaporization. The computed trapped-mass and total heat-gain from the cylinder walls during the induction and compression processes were also shown to be increased in spray cases.
Technical Paper

Effects of Mixture Preparation Characteristics on Four-Stroke Utility Engine Emissions and Performance

A laboratory-based fuel mixture system capable of delivering a range of fuel/air mixtures has been used to observe the effects of differing mixture characteristics on engine combustion through measurement and analysis of incylinder pressure and exhaust emissions. Fuel air mixtures studied can be classified into four different types: 1) Completely homogeneous fuel/air mixtures, where the fuel has been vaporized and mixed with the air prior to entrance into the normal engine induction system, 2) liquid fuel that is atomized and introduced with the air to the normal engine induction system, 3) liquid fuel that is atomized, and partially prevaporized but the air/fuel charge remains stratified up to introduction to the induction system, and 4) the standard fuel metering system. All tests reported here were conducted under wide open throttle conditions. A four-stroke, spark-ignited, single-cylinder, overhead valve-type engine was used for all tests.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Direct Injection-Gasoline for Premixed Compression Ignited Combustion Phasing Control

A direct injection-gasoline (DI-G) system was applied to a heavy-duty diesel-type engine to study the effects of charge stratification on the performance of premixed compression ignited combustion. The effects of the fuel injection parameters on combustion phasing were of primary interest. The simultaneous effects of the fuel stratification on Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC), Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), and smoke emissions were also measured. Engine tests were conducted with altered injection parameters covering the entire load range of normally aspirated Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignited (HCCI) combustion. Combustion phasing tests were also conducted at several engine speeds to evaluate its effects on a fuel stratification strategy.
Technical Paper

Experiments and CFD Modeling of Direct Injection Gasoline HCCI Engine Combustion

The present study investigated HCCI combustion in a heavy-duty diesel engine both experimentally and numerically. The engine was equipped with a hollow-cone pressure-swirl injector using gasoline direct injection. Characteristics of HCCI combustion were obtained by very early injection with a heated intake charge. Experimental results showed an increase in NOx emission and a decrease in UHC as the injection timing was retarded. It was also found that optimization can be achieved by controlling the intake temperature together with the start-of-injection timing. The experiments were modeled by using an engine CFD code with detailed chemistry. The CHEMKIN code was implemented into KIVA-3V such that the chemistry and flow solutions were coupled. The model predicted ignition timing, cylinder pressure, and heat release rates reasonably well. The NOx emissions were found to increase as the injection timing was retarded, in agreement with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Fuel Film Temperature and Thickness Measurements on the Piston Crown of a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

Fuel film temperature and thickness were measured on the piston crown of a DISI engine under both motored and fired conditions using the fiber-based laser-induced fluorescence method wherein a single fiber delivers the excitation light and collects the fluorescence. The fibers were installed in the piston crown of a Bowditch-type optical engine and exited via the mirror passage. The fuel used for the fuel film temperature measurement was a 2×10-6 M solution of BTBP in isooctane. The ratio of the fluorescence intensity at 515 to that at 532 nm was found to be directly, but not linearly, related to temperature when excited at 488 nm. Effects related to the solvent, solution aging and bleaching were investigated. The measured fuel film temperature was found to closely follow the piston crown metal temperature, which was measured with a thermocouple.
Technical Paper

Improvements in 3-D Modeling of Diesel Engine Intake Flow and Combustion

A three-dimensional computer code (KIVA) is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion: spray atomization, drop breakup/coalescence, multi-component fuel vaporization, spray/wall interaction, ignition and combustion, wall heat transfer, unburned HC and NOx formation, soot and radiation and the intake flow process. Improved and/or new submodels which have been completed are: wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo'vich NOx, and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops.
Journal Article

Improvements to Combustion Models for Modeling Spark-Ignition Engines Using the G-equation and Detailed Chemical Kinetics

Improvements to combustion models for modeling spark ignition engines using the G-equation flame propagation model and detailed chemical kinetics have been performed. The improvements include revision of a PRF chemistry mechanism, precise calculation of “primary heat release” based on the sub-grid scale unburned/burnt volumes of flame-containing cells, modeling flame front quenching in highly stratified mixtures, introduction of a Damkohler model for assessing the combustion regime of flame-containing cells, and a better method of modeling the effects of the local residual value on the burning velocity. The validation of the revised PRF mechanism shows that the calculated ignition delay matches shock tube data very well. The improvements to the “primary heat release” model based on the cell unburned/burnt volumes more precisely consider the chemical kinetics heat release in unburned regions, and thus are thought to be physically reasonable.
Technical Paper

Misfire Detection and Cylinder Pressure Reconstruction for SI Engines

Many researchers have studied and developed methods for on-board engine combustion misfire detection in production vehicles. Misfiring can damage the catalytic converter within a short time and can lead to increased emission levels. For that reason, the on-board detection of engine misfire is one requirement of the On Board Diagnosis II (OBDII) Regulation and a recent interest for many researchers. One object in this paper is to propose a misfire detection method for multi-cylinder SI engines. The detection is achieved by examining the estimated cylinder pressures and combustion heat release rates in engine cylinders. The Sliding Observer methodology is applied in these estimations. This detection method provides a reliable and low-cost way to diagnose engine misfires. The other object of the paper is to eliminate large estimation errors due to system unobservability and reconstruct cylinder pressures.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation Effects on Ignition and Combustion in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

Planar instantaneous fuel concentration measurements were made by laser-induced fluorescence of 3-pentanone in the spark gap just prior to ignition in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine operating at a light load, highly stratified condition. The distribution of the average equivalence ratio in a circle of 1.9 mm diameter centered on the spark plug showed that a large fraction of the cycles had an equivalence ratio below the lean limit, yet acceptable combustion was achieved in those cycles. Further, weak correlation was found between the local average equivalence ratio near the spark plug and the time required to achieved a 100 kPa pressure rise above the motoring pressure, as well as other parameters which characterize the early stages of combustion. The cause for this behavior is assessed to be mixture motion during the spark discharge which continually convects fresh mixture through the spark gap during breakdown.
Technical Paper

Modeling Combustion in Compression Ignition Homogeneous Charge Engines

The combustion mechanism in a Compression Ignition Homogeneous Charge (CIHC) engine was studied. Previous experiments done on a four-stroke CIHC engine were modeled using the KIVA-II code with modifications to the combustion, heat transfer, and crevice flow submodels. A laminar and turbulence characteristic time combustion model that has been used for spark-ignited engine studies was extended to allow predictions of ignition. The rate of conversion from one chemical species to another is modeled using a characteristic time which is the sum of a laminar (high temperature) chemistry time, an ignition (low temperature) chemistry time, and a turbulence mixing time. The ignition characteristic time was modeled using data from elementary initiation reactions and has the Arrhenius form. It was found to be possible to match all engine test cases reasonably well with one set of combustion model constants.
Technical Paper

Modeling Iso-octane HCCI Using CFD with Multi-Zone Detailed Chemistry; Comparison to Detailed Speciation Data Over a Range of Lean Equivalence Ratios

Multi-zone CFD simulations with detailed kinetics were used to model iso-octane HCCI experiments performed on a single-cylinder research engine. The modeling goals were to validate the method (multi-zone combustion modeling) and the reaction mechanism (LLNL 857 species iso-octane) by comparing model results to detailed exhaust speciation data, which was obtained with gas chromatography. The model is compared to experiments run at 1200 RPM and 1.35 bar boost pressure over an equivalence ratio range from 0.08 to 0.28. Fuel was introduced far upstream to ensure fuel and air homogeneity prior to entering the 13.8:1 compression ratio, shallow-bowl combustion chamber of this 4-stroke engine. The CFD grid incorporated a very detailed representation of the crevices, including the top-land ring crevice and head-gasket crevice. The ring crevice is resolved all the way into the ring pocket volume. The detailed grid was required to capture regions where emission species are formed and retained.
Technical Paper

Modeling Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines Using a G-equation Combustion Model Incorporating Detailed Chemical Kinetics

In this paper, knock in a Ford single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine was modeled and investigated using the KIVA-3V code with a G-equation combustion model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The deflagrative turbulent flame propagation was described by the G-equation combustion model. A 22-species, 42-reaction iso-octane (iC8H18) mechanism was adopted to model the auto-ignition process of the gasoline/air/residual-gas mixture ahead of the flame front. The iso-octane mechanism was originally validated by ignition delay tests in a rapid compression machine. In this study, the mechanism was tested by comparing the simulated ignition delay time in a constant volume mesh with the values measured in a shock tube under different initial temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio conditions, and acceptable agreements were obtained.