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Technical Paper

1.2GPa Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Gas Chromatography-Based Methods of Analyzing Hydrocarbon Species

Gas chromatographic methods for analyzing hydrocarbon species in vehicle exhaust emissions were compared in terms of their collection efficiency, detection limit, repeatability and number of species detected using cylinder gas and tailpipe emission samples. The main methods compared were a Tenax cold trap injection (TCT) method (C5-C12 HCs) and a cold trap injection (CTI) method (C2-C4 HCs; C5-C12 HCs). Our own direct (DIR) method was used to confirm the collection efficiencies. Both methods yielded good results, but the CTI method showed low collection efficiency for some C2-C4 HCs. Measurement of individual species is needed with this method for accurate analysis of tailpipe emissions. Both the CTI method and the TCT method combined with the DIR method for determining C2-C4 HCs yielded nearly the same ozone specific reactivity values for the NMHC species analyzed.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Test Procedure for Evaluation of Tripped Rollover Crashes

Rollover crashes have continued to be a source of extensive research into determining both vehicle performance, and occupant restraint capabilities. Prior research has utilized various test procedures, including the FMVSS 208 dolly fixture, as a basis for evaluating vehicle and restraint performance. This research, using 2001 Nissan Pathfinder sport utility vehicles (SUVs), was conducted to update the status of passenger vehicle rollover testing, and evaluate dynamic test repeatability with a new test procedure. A series of eight rollover tests was conducted using these SUV vehicles, mounted on a modified FMVSS 208 rollover dolly fixture, with instrumented dummies in both front seat positions. This test protocol involved launching the vehicles horizontally, after snubbing the dolly fixture, and having the leading-side tires contact curbing for a trip mechanism.
Technical Paper

A Lightweight, Multifunctional Plastic Reinforcement for Body Panels

A light weight,multifunctional plastic reinforcement has been developed for the outer body panels of vehicles. This new plastic reinforcement,composed mainly of polyvinylchloride resin, epoxy resin and an organic foaming agent, provides a 63% weight reduction over conventional plastic reinforcements, while adding the damping function to outer body panels. This paper introduces the process followed in developing the new plastic reinforcement and describes its characteristics. This new plastic reinforcement is already employed in the Nissan S-Cargo model, and it will be adopted in other passenger car models to be released in the near future.
Technical Paper

A Lubrication Analysis of Multi Link VCR Engine Components using a Mixed Elasto-Hydrodynamic Lubrication Theory Model

Research is under way on an engine system [1] that achieves a variable compression ratio using a multiple-link mechanism between the crankshaft and pistons for the dual purpose of improving fuel economy and power output. At present, there is no database that allows direct judgment of the feasibility of the specific sliding parts in this mechanism. In this paper, the feasibility was examined by making a comparison with the sliding characteristics and material properties of conventional engine parts, for which databases exist, and using evaluation parameters based on mixed elasto-hydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication calculations. In addition, the innovations made to the mixed EHD calculation method used in this study to facilitate calculations under various lubrication conditions are also explained, including the treatment of surface roughness, wear progress and stiffness around the bearings.
Technical Paper

A Method for Predicting Connecting Rod Bearings Reliability Based on Seizure and Wear Analysis

Maintaining reliability of the connecting rod bearing is a very important subject, and the following is a problem that needs to be overcome. Predicting reliability has generally depended on minimum oil film thickness (M.O.F.T), but recently, the engines of passenger cars which have greater power and speed potential than conventional ones are sometimes run beyond their M.O.F.T. limit (a degree of roughness around the crank shaft's axis.) In such a case, it is so difficult to predict reliability according to M.O.F.T., that we need a new index which directly shows seizure and wear. For this purpose, we found that the crank shaft pin temperature can be a key cause of seizure and wear according to an analysis of the relationship between its temperature and the seizure and wear caused intentionally. Using this method, we confirmed that the combination of bearing and crank shaft materials is very important for preventing seizure and wear.
Technical Paper

A Model Based Design Methodology for Variable Flux PMSMs to Obtain Desired Speed-Torque Characteristics

Variable flux permanent magnet synchronous machines (VFPMSMs) have been designed by using finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate speed-torque capability considering requirement for magnetization state (MS) manipulation. However, due to its unique characteristic to change the MS, numerous combinations of design parameters need to be evaluated to achieve a final design. To accelerate the design process, this paper presents a method that consists of an equivalent magnetic circuit model and a process to obtain magnet width and thickness that satisfy target maximum torque and power factor (P.F.) capability. This model includes magnet operating point analysis under given magnet width and thickness condition to achieve target MS and avoid demagnetization at full load. This analysis provides desired stator magnetomotive force, magnet and stator induced flux linkage. Therefore, expected torque and P.F. capability is calculated.
Technical Paper

A New Electrochromic Device for Automotive Glass - The Development of Adjustable Transparency Glass

A new transparent type electrochromic device (ECD) has been developed. It consists of two electrochromic thin films facing each other, one of “prussian blue” (PB) and the other of tungsten trioxide (WO3). PB exhibits a high intensity of coloration and is blue in the oxidized state and transparent in the reduced state. By electrodeposition, the PB layer can be formed on large substrates at low cost. This ECD has been applied to large, curved automotive glass. It reversibly turns from dark blue to transparent at low operating voltage and maintains the same intensity of coloration without the aid of an external power supply. Compared with photochromic glass, it achieves a greater color change in a shorter time and its light absorption can be changed at will. It shields passengers from the discomfort of glare and heat flow through glass.
Journal Article

A Novel Multiple DC-Inputs Direct Electric-Power Converter

A new multiple dc-inputs direct electric-power converter (D-EPC) has been developed. It is placed between multiple dc power sources and an ac motor, eliminating the need for a dc/dc converter generally used in conventional converter/inverter systems. The D-PEC can improve the efficiency of the motor drive system with a more compact size. Its power distribution control is carried out by allotting voltage ratios to each of two different dc power sources on a time average basis. A new pulse-width-modulation (PWM) generation technique to drive switching devices in the D-EPC has also been developed. Tests have verified that the three-phase ac motor can be operated by controlling the power distribution between the two power sources.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study to Control Combustion Duration of Hydrogen-Fueled HCCI by Using Multi-Zone Chemical Kinetics Simulation

An engine cycle simulation code with detailed chemical kinetics has been developed to study Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with hydrogen as the fuel. In order to attain adequate combustion duration, resulting from the self-accelerating nature of the chemical reaction, fuel and temperature inhomogeneities have been brought to the calculation by considering the combustion chamber to have various temperature and fuel distributions. Calculations have been done under various conditions including both perfectly homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases, changing the degree of inhomogeneity. The results show that intake gas temperature is more dominant on ignition timing of HCCI than equivalence ratio and that there is a possibility to control HCCI by introducing appropriate temperature inhomogeneity to in-cylinder mixture.
Technical Paper

A Portable Fast Response Air-Fuel Ratio Meter Using an Extended Range Oxygen Sensor

The method for measuring air-fuel ratio is generally based on analysis of the exhaust gas components and its calculations. A new instrument has been developed which uses this method, but it attaches an oxygen sensor for exhaust gas analysis to the exhaust pipe and calculates the air-fuel ratio directly from the sensor output using a microprocessor. The response time of this instrument is 100 milliseconds and because it does not require an exhaust gas sampling system its weight is only 2.5 kg. This paper describes the operation theory, construction and characteristics of this instrument, as well as the results of air-fuel ratio of measurements on engines and vehicles using this instrument in a transient state.
Technical Paper

A Robotic Driver on Roller Dynamometer with Vehicle Performance Self Learning Algorithm

A robotic driver has been designed on the basis of an analysis of a human driver's action in following a given driving schedule. The self-learning algorithm enables the robot to learn the vehicle characteristics without human intervention. Based on learned relationships, the robotic driver can determine an appropriate accelerator position and execute other operations through sophisticated calculations using the future scheduled vehicle speed and vehicle characteristics data. Compensation is also provided to minimize vehicle speed error. The robotic driver can reproduce the same types of exhaust emission and fuel economy data obtained with human drivers with good repeatability. It doesn't require long preparation time. Thereby making it possible to reduce experimentation work in the vehicle development process while providing good accuracy and reliability.
Technical Paper

A Study of Technology for Assembling Vehicle Endurance Reliability

The ways in which vehicles are used in the field are continually becoming more diverse. In order to provide the optimum solution with respect to performance and weight, it is necessary to be able to assure vehicle endurance reliability with a high degree of accuracy in relation to the manner of use in each market. This situation has increased the importance of accurately quantifying the ways in which vehicles are used in the field and of designing vehicles with sufficient endurance reliability to match the usage requirements. This report presents a “market model” by which the manner of usage in the field can be treated quantitatively using combinations of environmental factors that influence the road load, drive load and corrosion load, representing typical loads vehicles must withstand.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Practical Numerical Analysis Method for Heat Flow Distribution in the Engine Compartment

The thermal environment in the automotive engine compartment is expected to become increasingly severe in the years ahead owing to the installation of a large-size manifold catalyst to reduce exhaust emissions, among other factors. This will make it even more important to analyze the engine compartment layout in terms of heat flow considerations at the design conceptualization stage of a new vehicle. In this research, a flow analysis program called DRAG4D was applied to find the flow velocity distribution and ambient air temperature distribution in the engine compartment during driving, idling and after the engine was turned off. This original program developed at Nissan takes into account the effects of the energy balance and buoyancy, and provides a practical level of prediction accuracy. The time required to create an analytical model and perform the computations has been shortened by using an automatic grid generation function, based on a solid model, and experimental equations.
Technical Paper

A Study of an Analysis Method for Trace Substances in Vehicle Exhaust Gas

A new method for measuring unregulated substances in the exhaust gas is being investigated to clarify the influence of the vehicles' exhaust emissions into the environment. This paper explains our work on developing an analysis method for detecting and quantifying trace substances in the exhaust gas. A new analysis method was examined that uses thermal desorption to analyze trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vehicle exhaust gas. This technique is faster than conventional methods and does not require any preconditioning of the samples before analysis. While lead and chloromethane were detected in the exhaust gas samples, it was made clear that these substances did not originate in the engine system. Accordingly, the results of this study indicate that careful attention must be paid to the test environment and the presence of measurement interfering substances in exhaust samples when measuring trace constituents in the exhaust gas from low-emission vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Mechanism Causing High-Speed Brake Judder

Brake judder caused by uneven heat spots on brake disc surfaces is a major issue in improving vehicle quality. This is especially true for rumble that occurs during high-speed braking. In order to determine the excitation mechanism of brake judder, it is necessary to measure the dynamic brake disc geometry and temperature distribution during actual operation on the road. A noncontact sensor system, suitable for a high temperature environment, was used to monitor these parameters, making it possible to visualize heat spots transiently. The data obtained revealed the influence of pad and disc parameters on heat spot formation.
Technical Paper

A Study on Engine Bearing Wear and Fatigue Using EHL Analysis and Experimental Analysis

The possibility of predicting engine bearing durability by elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) calculations was investigated with the aim of being able to improve durability efficiently without conducting numerous confirmation tests. This study focused on the connecting rod big-end bearing of an automotive engine. The mechanisms of wear and fatigue, which determine bearing durability, were estimated by comparing the results of EHL analysis and experimental data. This comparison showed the possibility of predicting the wear amount and the occurrence of fatigue by calculation.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Cyclic Plastic Zone Size Method, ω*, for Digital Fatigue Life Prediction of Arc-Welded Joints

Various prediction methods have been proposed for evaluating the fatigue life of welded joints by combining finite element analysis (FEA) with an experimental database. However, to obtain more universal and accurate fatigue life predictions, it is necessary to have criteria for making integrated evaluations of the fatigue strength of welded joints. This paper presents a study that focuses on the local cyclic plastic zone size (ω*) as the criterion of fatigue strength and investigates its validity. The definition of ω* was given by the relationship between the stress state at the notch tip and the elastic strain which was defined along the strain-life fatigue curve (ε - N diagram) of a base metal. As a result of using ω*, it was found that an integrated fatigue life prediction was possible to a certain extent for notch and arc-welded joint specimens.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of Fuel Viscosity and Nozzle Geometry on High Injection Pressure Diesel Spray Characteristics

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fuel viscosity and the effects of nozzle inlet configuration on the characteristics of high injection pressure sprays. Three different viscosity fuels were used to reveal the effects of viscosity on the spray characteristics. The effects of nozzle inlet configuration on spray characteristics were studied using two mini-sac six-hole nozzles with different inlet configurations. A common rail injection system was used to introduce the spray at 90 MPa injection pressure into a constant volume chamber pressurized with argon gas. The information on high pressure transient sprays was captured by a high speed movie camera synchronized with a pulsed copper vapor laser. The images were analyzed to obtain the spray characteristics which include spray tip penetration, spray cone angle at two different regions, and overall spray Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD).