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Technical Paper

A Matrix-Based Porous Tube Water and Nutrient Delivery System

A system was developed which provides nutrients and water to plants while maintaining good aeration at the roots and preventing water from escaping in reduced gravity. The nutrient solution is circulated through porous tubes under negative pressure and moves through the tube wall via capillary forces into the rooting matrix, establishing a non-saturated condition in the root zone. Tests using prototypes of the porous tube water and nutrient delivery system indicate that plant productivity in this system is equivalent to standard soil and solution culture growing procedures. The system has functioned successfully in short-term microgravity during parabolic flight tests and will be flown on the space shuttle. Plants are one of the components of a bioregenerative life support system required for long duration space missions.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study to Control Combustion Duration of Hydrogen-Fueled HCCI by Using Multi-Zone Chemical Kinetics Simulation

An engine cycle simulation code with detailed chemical kinetics has been developed to study Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with hydrogen as the fuel. In order to attain adequate combustion duration, resulting from the self-accelerating nature of the chemical reaction, fuel and temperature inhomogeneities have been brought to the calculation by considering the combustion chamber to have various temperature and fuel distributions. Calculations have been done under various conditions including both perfectly homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases, changing the degree of inhomogeneity. The results show that intake gas temperature is more dominant on ignition timing of HCCI than equivalence ratio and that there is a possibility to control HCCI by introducing appropriate temperature inhomogeneity to in-cylinder mixture.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of Fuel Viscosity and Nozzle Geometry on High Injection Pressure Diesel Spray Characteristics

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fuel viscosity and the effects of nozzle inlet configuration on the characteristics of high injection pressure sprays. Three different viscosity fuels were used to reveal the effects of viscosity on the spray characteristics. The effects of nozzle inlet configuration on spray characteristics were studied using two mini-sac six-hole nozzles with different inlet configurations. A common rail injection system was used to introduce the spray at 90 MPa injection pressure into a constant volume chamber pressurized with argon gas. The information on high pressure transient sprays was captured by a high speed movie camera synchronized with a pulsed copper vapor laser. The images were analyzed to obtain the spray characteristics which include spray tip penetration, spray cone angle at two different regions, and overall spray Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD).
Journal Article

A Transport Equation Residual Model Incorporating Refined G-Equation and Detailed Chemical Kinetics Combustion Models

A transport equation residual model incorporating refined G-equation and detailed chemical kinetics combustion models has been developed and implemented in the ERC KIVA-3V release2 code for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine simulations for better predictions of flame propagation. In the transport equation residual model a fictitious species concept is introduced to account for the residual gases in the cylinder, which have a great effect on the laminar flame speed. The residual gases include CO2, H2O and N2 remaining from the previous engine cycle or introduced using EGR. This pseudo species is described by a transport equation. The transport equation residual model differentiates between CO2 and H2O from the previous engine cycle or EGR and that which is from the combustion products of the current engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Adapting Farm Equipment for Workers with Disabilities

Farm workers experience a very high incidence of injuries leading to physical and cognitive (strokes, TBI) disabilities. Since 1991, the AgrAbility Project 2 and its staff have provided direct assistance and education to many U.S. farmers and farm workers. If farmers, ranchers or farm workers who become disabled continue to be employed in agriculture, often their agricultural operation must be modified and/or agricultural machinery must be modified or adaptive equipment purchased to meet their new needs. Some common tractor modifications include operator lifts, hand controls, added/modified steps and handrails, automated hitches, and custom seating. Some modifications are commercially available but others are done on an individual need basis. AgrAbility staff would welcome the opportunity to work closer with farm equipment manufacturers to create modifications that would make farming and ranching easier and safer for all.
Technical Paper

Air Entrainment in a High Pressure Diesel Spray

This paper presents some experimental results of air velocity measurements near high pressure diesel sprays. The measurements were made using a moderately high pressure (90 MPa) common rail injector in a pressurized spray chamber. The chamber was operated at ambient temperature (25°C) and was pressurized with Argon to produce a chamber gas density of about 27 kg/m3, similar to densities found in a large turbocharged diesel near TDC. The gas phase was tagged using water droplets doped with Stilbene 420, with an estimated droplet size of 18 μm. The atomized water-Stilbene droplets were illuminated with the third harmonic of a pair of Nd:YAG lasers which caused the Stilbene to fluoresce at about 420 nm. To reduce the competing fluorescence from the injected fuel, the injector was fueled with Jet-A fuel. Using the two lasers, double exposures of the small droplets were recorded on film. The laser pulse lengths were about 6 ns, and typical times between pulses were 100 μs.
Technical Paper

Air Flow Characteristics Surrounding Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

Airflow characteristics surrounding evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber under temperatures around 1100 K were investigated using a 6-hole injector and a single-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The normal velocities crossing the control surface toward the spray plume for single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. The velocities tangential to the control surface toward the injector tip for the single-hole injection sprays were lower than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in tangential velocities near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas was accelerated by the spray wall impingement, both for non-evaporating and evaporating sprays.
Journal Article

An Investigation of Injury Factors Concerning Drivers in Vehicles Involved in Small-Overlap Frontal Crashes

The causes of injuries suffered by drivers in “small-overlap frontal crashes” (SOFC) were examined. These crashes were defined as ones in which vehicles are loaded outside their longitudinal side members. SOFC accident data sets stored in the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database were investigated. Percentages of cases sustaining injury to each body region of drivers were calculated, and the differences between the percentages of injury by body region were examined. To investigate the injury mechanisms, SOFC tests with two types of rigid barrier were then conducted. Injury values in each body region were analyzed to validate the reproducibility of SOFC test as a relevant test.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

Airflow characteristics surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A hydraulically actuated, electronically controlled unit injector (HEUI) system was used to supply the fuel into a pressurized constant volume chamber at room temperature. The chamber gas densities in this study were 10 kg/m3, 20 kg/m3 and 30 kg/m3. The injection pressure was 96.5 MPa. Two frequency doubled (532 nm) Nd:YAG lasers were used to create coincident laser sheets to illuminate the test section at two instances after start of injection (ASI). The double exposed images of sprays and Al2O3 seed particles were developed and velocity vectors of the gas surrounding the transient diesel sprays were obtained using a numerical autocorrelation PIV method.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Lift-Off Characteristics of n-Heptane Sprays Using Direct Numerical Simulations

Fundamental simulations using DNS type procedures were used to investigate the ignition, combustion characteristics and the lift-off trends of a spatially evolving turbulent liquid fuel jet. In particular, the spatially evolving n-Heptane spray injected in a two-dimensional rectangular domain with an engine like environment was investigated. The computational results were compared to the experimental observations from an optical engine as reported in the literature. It was found that an initial fuel rich combustion downstream of the spray tip is followed by diffusion combustion. Investigations were also made to understand the effects of injection velocity, ambient temperature and the droplet radius on the lift-off length. For each of these parameters three different values in a given range were chosen. For both injection velocity and droplet radius, an increase resulted in a near linear increase in the lift-off length.
Technical Paper

Control of Grasping Force in Teleoperation Using Model Reference Adaptive Approach

The adaptation to changes in human operator dynamics and changes in working environment dynamics can be an important issue in designing high performance telerobotic systems. This paper describes an approach to force control in telerobotic hand systems in which model reference adaptive control techniques are used to adapt to changes in human operator and working environment dynamics. The techniques have been applied to force-reflective control of a single degree-of-freedom telerobotic gripper system at Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR). This adaptive gripping system is described in the paper along with results of experiments with human subjects in which the performance of the adaptive system was analysed and compared to the performance of a conventional non-adaptive system. These experiments emphasized adaptation to changes in compliance of gripped objects and adaptation to the on-set of human operator fatigue.
Technical Paper

Design of a Hydraulic Wheel Pump/Motor for a Hydrostatic Automobile

Using a low-speed high-torque (LSHT) pump/motor to provide the speed range and torque for a hydrostatic automobile offers a number of advantages over using a high-speed low-torque pump/motor, combined with a gear reducer. However, there appear to be no LSHT units commercially available that have true variable displacement capability. Because of this void, a variable displacement pump/motor has been designed and built that could provide a direct drive for each wheel of a hydrostatic automobile. The unit uses some components such as the cylinder block, piston and modified rotating case from a commercially available radial piston pump/motor. Initial preliminary testing of the pump/motor indicates that it has good efficiency and performance characteristics, and, with further development should be very attractive for automotive use. This paper focuses on the design and kinematics of the device.
Technical Paper

Determination of Diesel Injector Nozzle Characteristics Using Two-Color Optical Pyrometry

An investigation of several diesel injector nozzles that produced different engine emissions performance was performed. The nozzle styles used were two VCO type nozzles that were manufactured using two different techniques, and two mini-sac nozzles that provided comparison. Fired experiments were conducted on a Detroit Diesel Series 50 engine. Optical access was obtained by substituting a sapphire window for one exhaust valve. Under high speed, high load, retarded injection timing conditions, it was discovered that each nozzle produced different specific soot and NOx emissions. High-speed film images were obtained. It was discovered that the temperature and KL factor results from the 2-color optical pyrometry showed significant differences between the nozzles. The authors propose the possibility that differences in air entrainment, caused by potential differences in CD due to surface finish, may contribute to the variance in emissions performance.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Study of a New Diesel Exhaust Particulate Trap System*

Diesel exhaust particulate trap system is one of the most effective means to control diesel particulate emissions from diesel vehicles. In this paper, a recently developed diesel exhaust particulate trap system was described and experimentally studied. This system employed a wall-flow ceramic foam filter, which was made of silicon carbide or chromium oxide. And this system was equipped with a microwave heater for the purpose of filter regeneration. Engine dynamometer testing, vehicle bench testing and on-road evaluation of this system were conducted. The experiments studied on the filtration efficiency of this system, the effectiveness of filter regeneration, the power penalty of the vehicle, the ability of noise suppression of this system, and the durability of this particulate trap system. The experimental results showed that this diesel particulate trap system was effective, reliable, and durable.
Journal Article

Development of High-Power and High-Efficiency Motor for a Newly Developed Electric Vehicle

This paper describes the development of the drive motor used on a newly developed electric vehicle (EV) that has been specifically designed and engineered as the world's first mass-produced EV. Producing maximum torque of 280 Nm and maximum power of 80 kW, this synchronous motor was selected as the first electrified powertrain to be named to Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2011. In developing this motor, magnetic field simulations were conducted in the process of adopting the following in-house technologies to achieve a compact motor size, high output and high efficiency. The rotor shape has the interior permanent magnets arranged in a ▽-shaped that achieves a superior balance of torque and power. The flux barriers located on the outer periphery are designed to reduce iron loss. The V-shaped flux barriers provide both excellent mechanical strength and outstanding performance during high-speed motor operation.
Technical Paper

Development of Hydrogen-Free Diamond-Like Carbon Coating for Piston Rings

The first-ever application of a hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (H free DLC) coating to a mass-production gasoline engine reduces friction between the cylinder bore and piston by 18%. It is explained the reducing friction effect of H free DLC by oil film thickness of piston ring. When H-free DLC is applied to top ring, friction is over 10% reduced. Because low friction coating is effective in a thin oil film at a large area near top dead center (TDC). It is also found that the friction reduction effect is enhanced when low viscosity engine oil is used. DLC as a low friction coating is more effective in a thinner oil film. In this study, the adhesion strength of H-free DLC coating on piston rings is improved because of providing a smooth substrate, the new washing process and the optimized coating characteristics. Adhesion strength is verified by test results using actual parts considered to contribute to piston ring load.
Journal Article

Development of Injury Probability Functions for the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor

The goal of this study was to develop injury probability functions for the leg bending moment and MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) elongation of the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (Flex-PLI) based on human response data available from the literature. Data for the leg bending moment at fracture in dynamic 3-point bending were geometrically scaled to an average male using the standard lengths obtained from the anthropometric study, based on which the dimensions of the Flex-PLI were determined. Both male and female data were included since there was no statistically significant difference in bone material property. Since the data included both right censored and uncensored data, the Weibull Survival Model was used to develop a human leg fracture probability function.
Technical Paper

Development of Interior Stain Removal Technology

Customers desire to keep the interior of their vehicles as clean as possible. A field survey was made of the types of dirt and stains found on interior trim parts as the starting point for the development of products that meet this need. The survey findings showed that soiled stains resulting from long periods of use are commonly found on seat surfaces and cloth seats also have beverage stains. Dirt stains are typically seen on plastic trim parts. An analysis of the components of soiled stains revealed the presence of higher fatty acids that tend to adhere to the urethane coating on the surface of genuine leather seat covers and to the polyester fibers of cloth seat covers. A coating technology was then developed for bringing dirt to the surface so that it can be easily removed by wiping with a wet cloth.
Journal Article

Development of Moving Object Detection Using Vision System

This paper describes a functionality and test results of moving object detection based on vision system. Moving object detection is realized by just adding image processing software to the vision system with no additional sensor. Moreover, by usage of around view monitor system as vision system, existence of moving objects surrounding the subject vehicle can be informed to support the driver in the parking maneuver.
Technical Paper

Development of Pole Side Impact Sled Test Method using Multiple Actuators for EuroNCAP

The pole side impact test has been mandatory in Euro NCAP since 2009 and it includes, in addition to the head, assessments on other critical body regions that might be affected such as the chest, abdomen and pelvis. This paper describes a new test method for predicting Anthropomorphic Test Device responses to calculate injury index in side impact tests of a rigid pole under Euro NCAP conditions. Simplified sled tests are very effective in reducing the cost and time of development of more advanced side impact safety devices. To accomplish sled tests successfully, it is necessary to reconstruct accurately the combined dynamic deformation behavior of door and seat in pole impact. That behavior varies among different dummy response regions. Conventional sled test methods, published in previous literature, can reconstruct the deformation of the entire door using a single actuator at constant intrusion velocity but actual door velocity isn't constant in full scale vehicle crash tests.