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Technical Paper

A Numerical Study to Control Combustion Duration of Hydrogen-Fueled HCCI by Using Multi-Zone Chemical Kinetics Simulation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0250
An engine cycle simulation code with detailed chemical kinetics has been developed to study Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion with hydrogen as the fuel. In order to attain adequate combustion duration, resulting from the self-accelerating nature of the chemical reaction, fuel and temperature inhomogeneities have been brought to the calculation by considering the combustion chamber to have various temperature and fuel distributions. Calculations have been done under various conditions including both perfectly homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases, changing the degree of inhomogeneity. The results show that intake gas temperature is more dominant on ignition timing of HCCI than equivalence ratio and that there is a possibility to control HCCI by introducing appropriate temperature inhomogeneity to in-cylinder mixture.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Effects of Fuel Viscosity and Nozzle Geometry on High Injection Pressure Diesel Spray Characteristics

1997-02-24
970353
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fuel viscosity and the effects of nozzle inlet configuration on the characteristics of high injection pressure sprays. Three different viscosity fuels were used to reveal the effects of viscosity on the spray characteristics. The effects of nozzle inlet configuration on spray characteristics were studied using two mini-sac six-hole nozzles with different inlet configurations. A common rail injection system was used to introduce the spray at 90 MPa injection pressure into a constant volume chamber pressurized with argon gas. The information on high pressure transient sprays was captured by a high speed movie camera synchronized with a pulsed copper vapor laser. The images were analyzed to obtain the spray characteristics which include spray tip penetration, spray cone angle at two different regions, and overall spray Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD).
Journal Article

A Transport Equation Residual Model Incorporating Refined G-Equation and Detailed Chemical Kinetics Combustion Models

2008-10-06
2008-01-2391
A transport equation residual model incorporating refined G-equation and detailed chemical kinetics combustion models has been developed and implemented in the ERC KIVA-3V release2 code for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engine simulations for better predictions of flame propagation. In the transport equation residual model a fictitious species concept is introduced to account for the residual gases in the cylinder, which have a great effect on the laminar flame speed. The residual gases include CO2, H2O and N2 remaining from the previous engine cycle or introduced using EGR. This pseudo species is described by a transport equation. The transport equation residual model differentiates between CO2 and H2O from the previous engine cycle or EGR and that which is from the combustion products of the current engine cycle.
Technical Paper

Air Entrainment in a High Pressure Diesel Spray

1997-05-01
971620
This paper presents some experimental results of air velocity measurements near high pressure diesel sprays. The measurements were made using a moderately high pressure (90 MPa) common rail injector in a pressurized spray chamber. The chamber was operated at ambient temperature (25°C) and was pressurized with Argon to produce a chamber gas density of about 27 kg/m3, similar to densities found in a large turbocharged diesel near TDC. The gas phase was tagged using water droplets doped with Stilbene 420, with an estimated droplet size of 18 μm. The atomized water-Stilbene droplets were illuminated with the third harmonic of a pair of Nd:YAG lasers which caused the Stilbene to fluoresce at about 420 nm. To reduce the competing fluorescence from the injected fuel, the injector was fueled with Jet-A fuel. Using the two lasers, double exposures of the small droplets were recorded on film. The laser pulse lengths were about 6 ns, and typical times between pulses were 100 μs.
Technical Paper

Air Flow Characteristics Surrounding Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2002-03-04
2002-01-0499
Airflow characteristics surrounding evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber under temperatures around 1100 K were investigated using a 6-hole injector and a single-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The normal velocities crossing the control surface toward the spray plume for single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. The velocities tangential to the control surface toward the injector tip for the single-hole injection sprays were lower than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in tangential velocities near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas was accelerated by the spray wall impingement, both for non-evaporating and evaporating sprays.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2000-10-16
2000-01-2789
Airflow characteristics surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A hydraulically actuated, electronically controlled unit injector (HEUI) system was used to supply the fuel into a pressurized constant volume chamber at room temperature. The chamber gas densities in this study were 10 kg/m3, 20 kg/m3 and 30 kg/m3. The injection pressure was 96.5 MPa. Two frequency doubled (532 nm) Nd:YAG lasers were used to create coincident laser sheets to illuminate the test section at two instances after start of injection (ASI). The double exposed images of sprays and Al2O3 seed particles were developed and velocity vectors of the gas surrounding the transient diesel sprays were obtained using a numerical autocorrelation PIV method.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Lift-Off Characteristics of n-Heptane Sprays Using Direct Numerical Simulations

2007-10-29
2007-01-4136
Fundamental simulations using DNS type procedures were used to investigate the ignition, combustion characteristics and the lift-off trends of a spatially evolving turbulent liquid fuel jet. In particular, the spatially evolving n-Heptane spray injected in a two-dimensional rectangular domain with an engine like environment was investigated. The computational results were compared to the experimental observations from an optical engine as reported in the literature. It was found that an initial fuel rich combustion downstream of the spray tip is followed by diffusion combustion. Investigations were also made to understand the effects of injection velocity, ambient temperature and the droplet radius on the lift-off length. For each of these parameters three different values in a given range were chosen. For both injection velocity and droplet radius, an increase resulted in a near linear increase in the lift-off length.
Technical Paper

Control of Grasping Force in Teleoperation Using Model Reference Adaptive Approach

1994-06-01
941440
The adaptation to changes in human operator dynamics and changes in working environment dynamics can be an important issue in designing high performance telerobotic systems. This paper describes an approach to force control in telerobotic hand systems in which model reference adaptive control techniques are used to adapt to changes in human operator and working environment dynamics. The techniques have been applied to force-reflective control of a single degree-of-freedom telerobotic gripper system at Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR). This adaptive gripping system is described in the paper along with results of experiments with human subjects in which the performance of the adaptive system was analysed and compared to the performance of a conventional non-adaptive system. These experiments emphasized adaptation to changes in compliance of gripped objects and adaptation to the on-set of human operator fatigue.
Technical Paper

Determination of Diesel Injector Nozzle Characteristics Using Two-Color Optical Pyrometry

2002-03-04
2002-01-0746
An investigation of several diesel injector nozzles that produced different engine emissions performance was performed. The nozzle styles used were two VCO type nozzles that were manufactured using two different techniques, and two mini-sac nozzles that provided comparison. Fired experiments were conducted on a Detroit Diesel Series 50 engine. Optical access was obtained by substituting a sapphire window for one exhaust valve. Under high speed, high load, retarded injection timing conditions, it was discovered that each nozzle produced different specific soot and NOx emissions. High-speed film images were obtained. It was discovered that the temperature and KL factor results from the 2-color optical pyrometry showed significant differences between the nozzles. The authors propose the possibility that differences in air entrainment, caused by potential differences in CD due to surface finish, may contribute to the variance in emissions performance.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Study of a New Diesel Exhaust Particulate Trap System*

2000-10-16
2000-01-2846
Diesel exhaust particulate trap system is one of the most effective means to control diesel particulate emissions from diesel vehicles. In this paper, a recently developed diesel exhaust particulate trap system was described and experimentally studied. This system employed a wall-flow ceramic foam filter, which was made of silicon carbide or chromium oxide. And this system was equipped with a microwave heater for the purpose of filter regeneration. Engine dynamometer testing, vehicle bench testing and on-road evaluation of this system were conducted. The experiments studied on the filtration efficiency of this system, the effectiveness of filter regeneration, the power penalty of the vehicle, the ability of noise suppression of this system, and the durability of this particulate trap system. The experimental results showed that this diesel particulate trap system was effective, reliable, and durable.
Journal Article

Development of High-Power and High-Efficiency Motor for a Newly Developed Electric Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-0342
This paper describes the development of the drive motor used on a newly developed electric vehicle (EV) that has been specifically designed and engineered as the world's first mass-produced EV. Producing maximum torque of 280 Nm and maximum power of 80 kW, this synchronous motor was selected as the first electrified powertrain to be named to Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2011. In developing this motor, magnetic field simulations were conducted in the process of adopting the following in-house technologies to achieve a compact motor size, high output and high efficiency. The rotor shape has the interior permanent magnets arranged in a ▽-shaped that achieves a superior balance of torque and power. The flux barriers located on the outer periphery are designed to reduce iron loss. The V-shaped flux barriers provide both excellent mechanical strength and outstanding performance during high-speed motor operation.
Technical Paper

Development of Hydrogen-Free Diamond-Like Carbon Coating for Piston Rings

2012-04-16
2012-01-1327
The first-ever application of a hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (H free DLC) coating to a mass-production gasoline engine reduces friction between the cylinder bore and piston by 18%. It is explained the reducing friction effect of H free DLC by oil film thickness of piston ring. When H-free DLC is applied to top ring, friction is over 10% reduced. Because low friction coating is effective in a thin oil film at a large area near top dead center (TDC). It is also found that the friction reduction effect is enhanced when low viscosity engine oil is used. DLC as a low friction coating is more effective in a thinner oil film. In this study, the adhesion strength of H-free DLC coating on piston rings is improved because of providing a smooth substrate, the new washing process and the optimized coating characteristics. Adhesion strength is verified by test results using actual parts considered to contribute to piston ring load.
Technical Paper

Development of Interior Stain Removal Technology

2012-04-16
2012-01-0511
Customers desire to keep the interior of their vehicles as clean as possible. A field survey was made of the types of dirt and stains found on interior trim parts as the starting point for the development of products that meet this need. The survey findings showed that soiled stains resulting from long periods of use are commonly found on seat surfaces and cloth seats also have beverage stains. Dirt stains are typically seen on plastic trim parts. An analysis of the components of soiled stains revealed the presence of higher fatty acids that tend to adhere to the urethane coating on the surface of genuine leather seat covers and to the polyester fibers of cloth seat covers. A coating technology was then developed for bringing dirt to the surface so that it can be easily removed by wiping with a wet cloth.
Technical Paper

Development of a Transparent Nanocomposite for Automobile Polymer Glazing

2012-04-16
2012-01-0749
A new transparent resin material developed by uniformly dispersing a nano-filler (boehmite particles, 5 nm in diameter and 197 nm long) in polycarbonate resin combines a flexural modulus of 5.9 GPa, a linear expansion coefficient of 35 ppm/K, and excellent mechanical toughness with excellent optical characteristics (transparency with 1.1% haze at 1 mm thick). These characteristics make this material highly suitable as a replacement for automotive glass that allows innovative design, a liberating sense of openness for automobiles.
Technical Paper

Effect of Fuel Composition on Combustion and Detailed Chemical/Physical Characteristics of Diesel Exhaust

2003-05-19
2003-01-1899
An experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of fuel composition on combustion, gaseous emissions, and detailed chemical composition and size distributions of diesel particulate matter (PM) in a modern heavy-duty diesel engine with the use of the enhanced full-dilution tunnel system of the Engine Research Center (ERC) of the UW-Madison. Detailed description of this system can be found in our previous reports [1,2]. The experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injection system. The operating conditions of the engine followed the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 8-mode test cycle. The fuels used in the current study include baseline No. 2 diesel (Fuel A: sulfur content = 352 ppm), ultra low sulfur diesel (Fuel B: sulfur content = 14 ppm), and Fisher-Tropsch (F-T) diesel (sulfur content = 0 ppm).
Technical Paper

Effect of Gas Density and the Number of Injector Holes on the Air Flow Surrounding Non-Evaporating Transient Diesel Sprays

2001-03-05
2001-01-0532
The effect of ambient gas density and the number of injector holes on the characteristics of airflow surrounding non-evaporating transient diesel sprays inside a constant volume chamber were investigated using a 6-hole injector. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the gas velocities surrounding a spray plume as a function of space and time. A conical control surface surrounding the spray plume was chosen as a representative side entrainment surface. The positive normal velocities across the control surface of single-hole injection sprays were higher than those of 6-hole injection sprays. An abrupt increase in velocities tangential to the control surface near the chamber wall suggests that the recirculation of surrounding gas is accelerated by spray wall impingement.
Technical Paper

Effect of Injection Timing on Detailed Chemical Composition and Particulate Size Distributions of Diesel Exhaust

2003-05-19
2003-01-1794
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of fuel injection timing on detailed chemical composition and size distributions of diesel particulate matter (PM) and regulated gaseous emissions in a modern heavy-duty D.I. diesel engine. These measurements were made for two different diesel fuels: No. 2 diesel (Fuel A) and ultra low sulfur diesel (Fuel B). A single-cylinder 2.3-liter D.I. diesel engine equipped with an electronically controlled unit injection system was used in the experiments. PM measurements were made with an enhanced full-dilution tunnel system at the Engine Research Center (ERC) of the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-Madison) [1, 2]. The engine was run under 2 selected modes (25% and 75% loads at 1200 rpm) of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 8-mode test cycle.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR Components Along with Temperature and Equivalence Ratio on the Combustion of n-Heptane Fuel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0951
Fundamental simulations in a quiescent cell under adiabatic conditions were made to understand the effect of temperature, equivalence ratio and the components of the recirculated exhaust gas, viz., CO2 and H2O, on the combustion of n-Heptane. Simulations were made in single phase in which evaporated n-Heptane was uniformly distributed in the domain. Computations were made for two different temperatures and four different EGR levels. CO2 or H2O or N2was used as EGR. It was found that the initiation of the main combustion process was primarily determined by two competing factors, i.e., the amount of initial OH concentration in the domain and the specific heat of the mixture. Further, initial OH concentration can be controlled by the manipulating the ambient temperature in the domain, and the specific heat capacity of the mixture via the mixture composition. In addition to these, the pre combustion and the subsequent post combustion can also be controlled via the equivalence ratio.
Technical Paper

Effects of Oxygen Enhancement on the Emissions from a DI Diesel via Manipulation of Fuels and Combustion Chamber Gas Composition

2000-03-06
2000-01-0512
Oxygen enhancement in a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was studied to investigate the potential for particulate matter and NOx emissions control. The local oxygen concentration within the fuel plume was modified by oxygen enrichment of the intake air and by oxygenating the base fuel with 20% methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The study collected overall engine performance and engine-out emissions data as well as in-cylinder two-color measurements at 25% and 75% loads over a range of injection timings. The study found oxygen enhancement, whether it be from intake air enrichment or via oxygenated fuels, reduces particulate matter, the effectiveness depending on the local concentration of oxygen in the fuel plume. Since NOx emissions depend strongly on the temperature and oxygen concentration throughout the bulk cylinder gas, the global thermal and dilution effects from oxygen enrichment were greater than that from operation on oxygenated fuel.
Technical Paper

French Door Open/Close Durability Evaluation by Multibody Dynamics Method

2012-04-16
2012-01-0758
A method including Multi-Body Dynamics (MBD) and fatigue assessment process with modal approach was developed to predict Light Commercial Van (LCV) Rear French Doors open/close durability performance during early design stage to improve test detect ability. The nonlinear properties of joints, such as those on bolted housings or spot welds sheets and hem flange areas, can substantially influence the local and global results of a dynamic simulation. The Modal approach considers joint contact, by way of Joint Interface Modes (JIMs) by using Contact Subroutine (MAMBA) to co-simulate with MBD software to improve result quality. One of the main challenges is measuring the dynamic stiffness for the weather strip. A novel test method was used to measure the weather strip dynamic stiffness by conducting an “in-situ” test. For CAE simulation results, positive feedback was received from design and test engineers.
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