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Technical Paper

A Novel Approach on Range Prediction of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Electric Truck

2019-11-21
2019-28-2514
Today’s growing commercial vehicle population creates a demand for fossil fuel surplus requirement and develops highly polluted urban cities in the world. Hence addressing both factors is very much essential. Battery electric vehicles are with limited vehicle range and higher charging time. So it is not suitable for the long-haul application. In further the hydrogen fuel cell-based electric vehicles are the future of the commercial electric vehicle to achieve long-range, zero-emission and alternate for reducing fossil fuels requirement. The hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle range, it means the total distance covered by the vehicle in a single filling of hydrogen into the onboard cylinders. And here the prediction of the vehicle range is essential based on optimal parameters; vehicle acceleration, speed, trip time etc. before the start of the trip.
Technical Paper

An analysis of the Fuel Cell Pack with Different Drive Cycles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2510
In the view of an eco-friendly environmental future, the major automotive manufacturers are making a move towards electric mobility. The electric vehicle helps to achieve Zero-emission. However, there are some limitations too. The zero-emission Battery electric vehicle (BEV) can provide a limited range only; the market penetration is getting difficult because of an energy storage capability. The addition of an electric vehicle with a fuel cell unit and a hydrogen supply unit can increase the range and the energy capacity of the system. Fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) system is faster to refill compared to plug-in Battery electric vehicle (BEV). This study deals with a behavioral analysis of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel cell; with different drive cycles. In this, a fuel cell model developed and simulated in the SIMULINK environment with different drive cycle and results were obtained. The fuel cell controls also were analyzed for the city start/stop cycle.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Engine Mounts for Commercial Vehicle Application to Avoid Failures

2017-01-10
2017-26-0287
The Mounting system of component plays a major role in determining the structural durability, compatibility and synchronization of the systems with respect to each other. The major function of Engine mounts is to isolate the engine from the chassis and to align the power-train system of vehicle according to needs. Here we exclusively deal with the failure case of a Heavy duty commercial vehicle Engine Mounts and its optimization. We do formulate a theoretical calculation for the estimation of engine loads, Center of Gravity (C.G) and characteristics of existing engine mount followed by a failure root cause analysis based on design and transmissibility parameters. This is then correlated with data from Computed Aided Engineering and Matlab for analysis of the existing model which is compared to the experimental transmissibility from Road load data Acquisition (RLDA). This is to validate the conditions and propose optimizations to reduce critical failures.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Powertrain Mounts for Vibration Isolation on Heavy Commercial Vehicle (HCV) Six Cylinder Inline Diesel Engine

2015-01-14
2015-26-0127
The main emphasis for a commercial vehicle design which was focused on fuel-economy and durability does not fulfill the increasing customer expectations anymore. Commercial vehicle designers need to focus on other vehicle aspects such as steering, ride comfort, NVH, braking, ergonomics and aesthetics in order to provide car like perception to truck, bus drivers and passengers during long distance drives. Powertrain mounting system must perform many functions. First and foremost, the mounting system must maintain & control the overall motion of the powertrain, to restrict its envelope reasonably, thereby avoiding damage to any vehicle component from the potential impact. This requires the mount to be stiff. Second the mount must provide good vibration isolation to have a comfortable ride to the vehicle occupant. This requires the mount to be soft.
Technical Paper

Design and Optimization of a Muffler Integrated with an Adaptive Quarter Wave Tube for Noise Reduction in Commercial Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-0507
With rising concerns on internal combustion engine noise levels in commercial vehicles, it is necessary to attenuate noises present in specific frequency bands. This can be achieved with the implementation of a quarter wave tube on the present exhaust system. Historically such passive attenuators have been efficient only at specific engine speeds and exhaust gas temperatures. A new folded adaptive quarter wave tube design is proposed here which can give significant noise attenuation at various engine operating conditions. The proposed design eliminates the requirement of complex electronic actuating mechanisms for the adaptive quarter wave tubes and replaces the same by perforated diaphragms and adjustable end plates, which are more robust and effective. The module can replace the turbo S-flow single chambered muffler which is installed on most of the commercial vehicles. A design is conceptualized and developed using CAD tools.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of PCM Based Technology for Cooling Applications for Improvement of Fuel Efficiency in Commercial Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-0150
In the current landscape of commercial vehicle industry, fuel economy is one of the major parameter for fleet owner’s profitability as well as greenhouse gasses emission. Less fuel efficiency results in more fuel consumption; use of conventional fuel in engines also makes environment polluted. The rapid growth in fuel prices has led to the demand for technologies that can improve the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Phase change material (PCMs) for Thermal energy storage system (TES) is one of the specific technologies that not only can conserve energy to a large extent but also can reduce emission as well as the dependency on convention fuel. There is a great variety of PCMs that can be used for the extensive range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications in automobiles.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of Variable Flow AC Compressor for Commercial Vehicles to Reduce Parasitic Losses and Improving Efficiency of HVAC System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0056
In the modern era of commercial vehicle industry, passenger and driver comfort is one of the major parameters that improves vehicle running time which leads to fleet owner’s profitability. Air conditioning system is one such system whose primary function is to provide the required cooling inside the cabin in hot weather conditions. An Air-conditioned truck cabin creates a comfortable environment for the driver which increases his efficiency and reduces fatigue. An AC compressor consumes power directly from the engine affecting fuel economy and vehicle performance. With ever increasing demand for energy efficient systems and thermal comfort in automobiles, AC systems should be able to deliver the required cooling performance with minimum power consumption. Therefore, reducing AC power consumption in vehicles is one of the key challenges faced by climate control engineers.
Technical Paper

Engine Mount Design & Failure Analysis in Commercial Vehicle and a Correlation Between Virtual & Physical Validation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0491
Vehicle life and performance is affected by many factors when in use. The most influential being the vibrations generated especially when the vehicle is in motion. These vibrations are directly experienced by the driver, whose performance goes down, if under continuous influence of these vibrations. This increases the fatigue and greatly reduces the return on investment done by the customer. There are two major sources of vibrations, the engine and the road on which the vehicle moves. To prevent such issues engine mounts are used in vehicles, which may seem simple but perform a critical role, of providing comfort to the driver. Therefore, it becomes important that thoroughly designed and examined mounts are being used in the vehicle. This paper focuses on the methodology to be followed for design and validation of an engine mount used in heavy duty vehicles.
Technical Paper

Flexible Anti-Vibration Stability Cab Mount System for Commercial Vehicles

2020-04-14
2020-01-1087
Present day truck cab suspension comprises fully floating linkage type cab suspension to facilitate ride comfort. Fully floating cab has certain limitations in terms of stability of cab in dynamic articulations during vehicle running especially in off-road terrain applications. Presence on linkages leads to more wear and tear of joints and bushes which will in turn provide detrimental effect on vibration levels of cab that affects ride comfort for occupants. There is a dire need to develop a system that provides improvement in lateral and vertical stability of cab without compromising ride comfort of occupants. Durability of the product also to be met till life of vehicle. Anti-Vibration Stability Cab Mount is an unsymmetrical mount designed by compounding of elastomeric(rubber) metal bonded outer sleeves sandwiched between multistage inner mount bonded on aluminum casing. Cabin front supports are hinged to mount along with housing providing proper alignment to cab after assembly.
Technical Paper

Fuel Efficiency Improvement of Commercial Vehicle by Investigating Drag Resistance

2015-09-29
2015-01-2893
Market driven competition in global trade and urgency for controlling the atmospheric air pollution are the twin forces, which have urged Indian automobile industries to catch up with the international emission norms. Improvement in the fuel efficiency of the vehicles is one way to bind to these stringent norms. It is experimentally proven that almost 40% of the available useful engine power is being consumed to overcome the drag resistance and around 45% to overcome the tire rolling resistance of the vehicle. This as evidence provides a huge scope to investigate the influence of aerodynamic drag and rolling resistances on the fuel consumption of a commercial vehicle. The present work is a numerical study on the influence of aerodynamic drag resistance on the fuel consumption of a commercial passenger bus. The commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool FLUENT™ is used as a virtual analysis tool to estimate the drag coefficient of the bus.
Technical Paper

Height Adjustment in School Bus Seat to Improve Comfort of Children with Different Age Group

2020-04-14
2020-01-0871
Seats are one of the critical component of school bus for children’s comfort & safety. Seat foam thickness, its shape, cushion width & seat height will play a vital role in comfort. Fatigue is the common cause due to uncomfortable seating and it is due to only one type of seat available in school buses to accommodate different height children. (here different height means; schools have children from class nursery to senior secondary). Fatigue will cause impact on children’s health & overall development. The topic was chosen because of increasing concerns in children’s comfort & safety in school buses. In existing design, standard seat with cushion height from bus floor is 450mm. In this case, it’s only suitable for children height of 4.5 feet to 5.5 feet. Ergonomically, it is very difficult to climb on the seat for range of children height from 3 feet to 4feet.
Technical Paper

Investigation and Optimization of Front Suspension and Steering Geometrical Compatibility

2015-04-14
2015-01-0492
The need to develop products faster and to have designs which are first time right have put enormous pressure on the product development timelines, thus making computer aided optimization one of the most important tool in achieving these targets. In this paper, a design of experiments (DOE) study is used, to gain an insight as to, how changes to different parameters of front suspension and steering of a passenger bus affect its kinematic properties and thus to obtain an optimized design in terms of handling parameters such as bump steer, percent ackermann error and lock to lock rotation angle of steering wheel. The conventional hit and trial method is time consuming and monotonous and still is an approximate method, whereas in design of experiments (DOE), a model is repeatedly run through simulations in a single setup, for various combinations of parameter settings.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Bearing Outer Cup Interference Loss in Wheel End Hub of Commercial Vehicle

2015-09-29
2015-01-2730
Ever-increasing operational cost, reducing profit margins & increase in competition, it is of upmost significance for fleet owners & drivers to opt for a vehicle having maximum uptime. OEM's are under immense pressure to design & develop vehicles/subsystems which are reliable enough to minimize downtime & withstand heavy overloading plus extreme operating conditions especially tippers. Vehicle systems like Wheel end (hub, bearing, and grease) which are designed & packaged according to a very stringent envelop & operate as a closed system facing all the extremities of operating conditions. This undoubtly make them prone to no. of failure modes which are resulting in vehicle unplanned stoppages, so any failure mode related to the same must be taken care with utmost importance. In commercial vehicles the bearing outer cup is in interference fit with the hub. These bearings of wheel hub have to be maintained at the wheel end play of few microns.
Technical Paper

Life Estimation of Vehicle Sub-Systems Using Vibrational Fatigue

2019-01-09
2019-26-0291
Most popular practice for analyzing the Subsystem failures in commercial vehicles is physical testing. These physical tests are carried out by three tests; Endurance testing, Accelerated Endurance Testing and Rig test simulation. All the three methods are costly and repetitive iterations of these tests is not economical. Therefore, in our organization, we established a method in virtual domain in order to reduce the repetitive iterations and also reduction in time consumed per iteration. General practice in our organization for Finite Element Analysis (FEA) calculation was inclusive of Model preparation, Transient analysis using Nastran. The results from the Transient analysis are used for performing fatigue analysis in fatigue software. In this process, Transient analysis and Model preparation are very much time consuming processes. Model preparation cannot be reduced, but to reduce the transient analysis time, we established a method in frequency domain (vibrational fatigue) [1].
Technical Paper

Model Based Design of Chassis-Frame with MATLAB

2019-11-21
2019-28-2429
In the current commercial vehicles market, ride-comfort and handling are crucial parameters for the customer and end user. There are various aspects which determine the vehicle behavior. One of aspects is the structural rigidity of the vehicle, which has its own effect on vehicle dynamics. To meet the required stiffness of the main structural component of the vehicle i.e. chassis frame, FEA analysis has to be done in current methodology. The number of iterations have to be done to build an appropriate model with low weight, which can meet the design requirements. At first, conceptual design mock-up unit is to be developed then FEA (CAE) analysis to be done on it. If any design criteria are not met, then this cycle repeats again until it fulfils the required stiffness. Today, the direct stiffness procedure is the basic principle of almost every FEA software package.
Technical Paper

New Virtual Methodology for Analysis of Vehicle Cabin Using 1-D Elements

2016-02-01
2016-28-0240
The cabin or cab is an enclosed space where the driver and co-driver are seated. Structural parameters such as modal and stiffness characteristics are of key importance for its durability study and driver’s comfort. The desired strength and stiffness value of the cabin have to be met at the development phase itself. In developing new cabin models numerical simulations are used for estimating vehicle performance to reduce the development cycle. But, the conventional method of modeling the cabin using 2-d elements and performing subsequent iteration steps to arrive at the desired stiffness and strength value will be cumbersome and time consuming. Thus, a methodology of FE modeling of the truck cabin using 1-D elements has been proposed in this paper which will reduce the analysis time of successive iterations. For this purpose an existing proven driver’s cabin is modeled using 1-D elements.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Smoke Limitation to Achieve BSIV Emission Norms Maintaining Vehicle Performance and Fuel Economy on LCV CRDe EGR Diesel Engine

2016-02-01
2016-28-0098
Nowadays technology is changing day by day and so as the expectation of the customers. Customers relate their vehicle and their reputation. Smoke coming out of vehicle affects badly on the reputation of the customer that is why today’s customer wants smoke free vehicle during transient condition. Low Air Fuel Ratio leads to smoke due to rich combustion mixture. Smoke could be generated due to turbo leg, sudden acceleration, gear changing, cold condition, altitude etc. During sudden acceleration, turbo leg leads to rich mixture which is favourable condition for smoke generation. It is difficult to reduce turbo leg in waste gate type turbocharger while maintaining EGR requirement in EGR based Engine. Smoke can be optimized by controlling fuelling in sudden acceleration or in transient condition. However it might adversely affect on vehicle pick up and could improve fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Ride-Comfort Analysis for Commercial Truck Using MATLAB Simulink

2019-11-21
2019-28-2428
Ride Comfort forms a core design aspect for suspension and is to be considered as primary requirement for vehicle performance in terms of drivability and uptime of passenger. Maintaining a balance between ride comfort and handling poses a major challenge to finalize the suspension specifications. The objective of this project it to perform ride- comfort analysis for a commercial truck using MATLAB Simulink. First, benchmarking was carried out on a 4x2 commercial truck and the physical parameters were obtained. Further, a mathematical model is developed using MATLAB Simulink R2015a and acceleration- time data is collected. An experimentation was carried out on the truck at speeds of 20 kmph, 30 kmph, 40 kmph and 50 kmph over a single hump to obtain actual acceleration time domain data. The model is then correlated with actual test over a single hump. This is followed by running the vehicle on Class A, B & C road profiles to account for random vibrations.
Technical Paper

Structural Strength Verification of Rubber Ended Leaf Spring Suspension in Commercial Vehicle via FEM

2017-03-28
2017-01-1495
At the time of invention of road coaches, the vehicle consisted only of an axle with wheels and a body attached. Smooth roads were built for a better ride comfort however they were not consistent. The road coaches were too bumpy and uncomfortable for the passenger along with the driver who was not able to control the vehicle. That's why the engineers had to shift their attention to the suspension system for a better ride comfort and handling. The technology has advanced with time so as the suspension system. Rubber ended type leaf spring is one of the suspension system types available in the industry. The main function of a suspension in order of importance is as below: 1 Acts as a cushioning device ensuring the comfort of the driver and passengers; 2 Maximizes the contact between the tires and the road surface to provide steering stability with good handling; 3 Protects the vehicle itself and any cargo or luggage from damage and wear.
Journal Article

TCV- A Unique Solution for HD Commercial BSIV Diesel Engine for Range of Altitude Operation

2017-01-10
2017-26-0053
BSIV implementation for commercial vehicle in pans India effectively from April 2017. It’s very challenging job for performance and emission engineer to meet engine performance & fuel economy with stringent emission norms for high power and torque density HD diesel engine. In Altitude, lack of air availability & combustion energy passes by mechanical waste gate, lead to lower boost at partial load in waste gate region; which in turn leads to poor engine performance & fuel efficiency and higher turbo speed. To control the turbocharger design speed limit various methodologies adopted like engine derating or optimizing the combustion parameters leads to poor vehicle performance. Combustion parameter optimsation is having limited scope for turbocharger speed control.
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