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Journal Article

A Direct Yaw Control Algorithm for On- and Off-Road Yaw Stability

Models for off-road vehicles, such as farm equipment and military vehicles, require an off-road tire model in order to properly understand their dynamic behavior on off-road driving surfaces. Extensive literature can be found for on-road tire modeling, but not much can be found for off-road tire modeling. This paper presents an off-road tire model that was developed for use in vehicle handling studies. An on-road, dry asphalt tire model was first developed by performing rolling road force and moment testing. Off-road testing was then performed on dirt and gravel driving surfaces to develop scaling factors that explain how the lateral force behavior of the tire will scale from an on-road to an off-road situation. The tire models were used in vehicle simulation software to simulate vehicle behavior on various driving surfaces. The simulated vehicle response was compared to actual maximum speed before sliding vs. turning radius data for the studied vehicle to assess the tire model.
Technical Paper

A Multiscale Study of Single Crystal Copper Plate with Octal Orientation Struck by a Nickel Projectile

A common interaction between a penetrator and a target has been the use of copper and nickel materials. However, a multiscale analysis has not been performed on such a system. Compared to steels, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys and other metallic materials, a description of the mechanical behavior of pure ductile metals such as Cu struck by a penetrator comprises nickel under the high strain rate at different multiscale still remains unknown. In this research, Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) Potential is utilized to study this system and the molecular dynamics simulation is employed in order to provide structure property evolution information for plasticity and shearing mechanisms.
Journal Article

A New Semi-Empirical Method for Estimating Tire Combined Slip Forces and Moments during Handling Maneuvers

Modeling the tire forces and moments (F&M) generation, during combined slip maneuvers, which involves cornering and braking/driving at the same time, is essential for the predictive vehicle performance analysis. In this study, a new semi-empirical method is introduced to estimate the tire combined slip F&M characteristics based on flat belt testing machine measurement data. This model is intended to be used in the virtual tire design optimization process. Therefore, it should include high accuracy, ease of parameterization, and fast computational time. Regression is used to convert measured F&M into pure slip multi-dimensional interpolant functions modified by weighting functions. Accurate combined slip F&M predictions are created by modifying pure slip F&M with empirically determined shape functions. Transient effects are reproduced using standard relaxation length equations. The model calculates F&M at the center of the contact patch.
Technical Paper

A Study in Driver Performance: Alternative Human-Vehicle Interface for Brake Actuation

This study examines the performance and subject acceptance level of a hand-operated brake actuator. Using a fixed-base vehicle simulator, data for driver reaction time, stopping time, distance, deceleration, customer acceptance and mental workload were collected. Data for three prototype hand-operated brake actuators and traditional foot-operated brake were compared. An additional test, designed to evaluate anthropometrics, sensitivity, and comfort was performed during training. A user preference survey to determine handbrake acceptance was given to subjects after completing the driving test in the simulator. In certain trials, participants were given the choice of handbrake or footbrake for an unexpected stop condition. When placed into an unexpected braking situation, subjects showed faster brake-application times for operating the hand-operated brake, indicating potential for reduced braking distance.
Journal Article

Anthropomimetic Traction Control: Quarter Car Model

Human expert drivers have the unique ability to combine correlated sensory inputs with repetitive learning to build complex perceptive models of the vehicle dynamics as well as certain key aspects of the tire-ground interface. This ability offers significant advantages for navigating a vehicle through the spatial and temporal uncertainties in a given environment. Conventional traction control algorithms utilize measurements of wheel slip to help insure that the wheels do not enter into an excessive slip condition such as burnout. This approach sacrifices peak performance to ensure that the slip limits are generic enough suck that burnout is avoided on a variety of surfaces: dry pavement, wet pavement, snow, gravel, etc. In this paper, a novel approach to traction control is developed using an anthropomimetic control synthesis strategy.
Technical Paper

Assessment of High-Temperature Encapsulants for Planar Packages

Seven encapsulants with operating temperatures up to 250°C were surveyed for use in planar packages for wide-bandgap dice. Two of the encapsulants failed processability test because they were not able to flow, and another two failed because they induced voids or cracks after curing. The dielectric results of the remaining three encapsulants showed that both dielectric strength and permittivity decreased almost 40% when the temperature was increased up to 250°C. As the three encapsulants were used to encapsulate a power module, it was proven that all of them could protect the package from early breakdown caused by the poor dielectric strength of air.
Technical Paper

Cross-Validation of an Infrared Motion Capture System and an Electromechanical Motion Capture Device

The current research conducted a cross-validation between an infrared motion capture system and an electromechanical motion capture device. No differences were found between the motion capture methods in shoulder and elbow angles. However, differences were found between the motion capture methods on distances of hand movements and actor location in space. Results of the current study indicate electromechanical motion capture devices are too inaccurate to use for validating digital human models unless the ultimate application of the model does not require millimeter accuracy or an absolute location in space. If one is primarily interested in joint angles, and distances are secondary, an electromechanical device is acceptable.
Technical Paper

Design and Prototyping of Cleaning Systems for Cylinder Head and Engine Block Conveying Lines

This paper presents the design of two cleaning systems following systems engineering design approach. An in situ cleaning system was designed for removing engine oil stains and metal swarf and shavings that adhere to rollers of conveying lines which convey cylinder head as well as other heavy engine components. The other system was to clear and collect metal debris accumulated in the grooves of an engine block internal assembly line. Prototypes were fabricated for the designed cleaning equipment for further testing and assessment. In the system engineering design process, preliminary, intermediate, and detailed design were conducted following an identification of the design problem, within that process a sequence of tasks such as synthesis, analysis, prototyping, and assessment were completed.
Technical Paper

Design of a Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle with CAVs Capability for the MaaS Market

There is significant potential for connected and autonomous vehicles to impact vehicle efficiency, fuel economy, and emissions, especially for hybrid-electric vehicles. These improvements could have large-scale impact on oil consumption and air-quality if deployed in large Mobility-as-a-Service or ride-sharing fleets. As part of the US Department of Energy's current Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVCT), EcoCAR: The Mobility Challenge, Mississippi State University’s EcoCAR Team is redesigning and doing the development work necessary to convert a conventional gasoline spark-ignited 2019 Chevy Blazer into a hybrid-electric vehicle with SAE Level 2 autonomy. The target consumer segments for this effort are the Mobility-as-a-Service fleet owners, operators and riders. To accomplish this conversion, the MSU team is implementing a P4 mild hybridization strategy that is expected to result in a 30% increase in fuel economy over the stock Blazer.
Technical Paper

Design of an All-Revolute, Linkage-Type, Constant-Velocity Coupling

This paper describes a design methodology for a three degree-of-freedom, linkage-based constant-velocity coupling. This coupling resembles the Clemens coupling patented in 1872 and has evolved from the authors' previous research in parallel mechanisms. This coupling contains only revolute joints and is therefore likely to be more durable and less prone to manufacturing errors than conventional higher-pair couplings. The kinematic configuration, based on the symmetric double octahedral Variable Geometry Truss mechanism (figure 2), has many inherent traits that make it ideal for application to industrial uses. Its parallel design of simple links and revolute joints provide it with high strength, rigidity, and light-weight characteristics. It has a link-joint construction that allows its geometry to be varied for specific applications, such as producing high angular deflection between the input and output shafts.
Technical Paper

Developing a Methodology to Synthesize Terrain Profiles and Evaluate their Statistical Properties

The accuracy of computer-based ground vehicle durability and ride quality simulations depends on accurate representation of road surface topology as vehicle excitation data since most of the excitation exerted on a vehicle as it traverses terrain is provided by the terrain topology. It is currently not efficient to obtain accurate terrain profile data of sufficient length to simulate the vehicle being driven over long distances. Hence, durability and ride quality evaluations of a vehicle depend mostly on data collected from physical tests. Such tests are both time consuming and expensive, and can only be performed near the end of a vehicle's design cycle. This paper covers the development of a methodology to synthesize terrain profile data based on the statistical analysis of physically measured terrain profile data.
Technical Paper

Development of Auditory Warning Signals for Mitigating Heavy Truck Rear-End Crashes

Rear-end crashes involving heavy trucks occur with sufficient frequency that they are a cause of concern within regulatory agencies. In 2006, there were approximately 23,500 rear-end crashes involving heavy trucks which resulted in 135 fatalities. As part of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's (FMCSA) goal of reducing the overall number of truck crashes, the Enhanced Rear Signaling (ERS) for Heavy Trucks project was developed to investigate methods to reduce or mitigate those crashes where a heavy truck has been struck from behind by another vehicle. Researchers also utilized what had been learned in the rear-end crash avoidance work with light vehicles that was conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) with Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) serving as the prime research organization. ERS crash countermeasures investigated included passive conspicuity markings, visual signals, and auditory signals.
Technical Paper

Does the Interaction between Vehicle Headlamps and Roadway Lighting Affect Visibility? A Study of Pedestrian and Object Contrast

Vehicle headlamps and roadway lighting are the major sources of illumination at night. These sources affect contrast - defined as the luminance difference of an object from its background - which drives visibility at night. However, the combined effect of vehicle headlamps and intersection lighting on object contrast has not been reported previously. In this study, the interactive effects of vehicle headlamps and overhead lighting on object contrast were explored based on earlier work that examined drivers’ visibility under three intersection lighting designs (illuminated approach, illuminated box, and illuminated approach + box). The goals of this study were to: 1) quantify object luminance and contrast as a function of a vehicle’s headlamps and its distance to an intersection using the three lighting designs; and, 2) to assess whether contrast influences visual performance and perceived visibility in a highly dynamic intersection environment.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Vehicle Tire-Road Contact Forces: A Comparison between Artificial Neural Network and Observed Theory Approaches

One of the principal goals of modern vehicle control systems is to ensure passenger safety during dangerous maneuvers. Their effectiveness relies on providing appropriate parameter inputs. Tire-road contact forces are among the most important because they provide helpful information that could be used to mitigate vehicle instabilities. Unfortunately, measuring these forces requires expensive instrumentation and is not suitable for commercial vehicles. Thus, accurately estimating them is a crucial task. In this work, two estimation approaches are compared, an observer method and a neural network learning technique. Both predict the lateral and longitudinal tire-road contact forces. The observer approach takes into account system nonlinearities and estimates the stochastic states by using an extended Kalman filter technique to perform data fusion based on the popular bicycle model.
Journal Article

Finite Element Modeling of Tire Transient Characteristics in Dynamic Maneuvers

Studying the kinetic and kinematics of the rim-tire combination is very important in full vehicle simulations, as well as for the tire design process. Tire maneuvers are either quasi-static, such as steady-state rolling, or dynamic, such as traction and braking. The rolling of the tire over obstacles and potholes and, more generally, over uneven roads are other examples of tire dynamic maneuvers. In the latter case, tire dynamic models are used for durability assessment of the vehicle chassis, and should be studied using high fidelity simulation models. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) has been developed using the commercial software package ABAQUS. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tire dynamic behavior in multiple case studies in which the transient characteristics are highly involved.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Stall Deterrent System Utilizing an Acoustic Stall Sensor

A simple rugged acoustic stall sensor which has an output proportional to angle of attack near wing stall has been evaluated on a Cessna 319 aircraft. A sensor position has been found on the wing where the sensor output is only slightly affected by engine power level, yaw angle, flap position and wing roughness. The NASA LRC General Aviation Simulator has been used to evaluate the acoustic sensor output as a control signal for active stall deterrent systems. It has been found that a simple control algorithm is sufficient for stall deterrence.
Technical Paper

Key Outcomes of Year One of EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future

EcoCAR 2: Plugging In to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 28 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
Journal Article

LiDAR Data Segmentation in Off-Road Environment Using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN)

Recent developments in the area of autonomous vehicle navigation have emphasized algorithm development for the characterization of LiDAR 3D point-cloud data. The LiDAR sensor data provides a detailed understanding of the environment surrounding the vehicle for safe navigation. However, LiDAR point cloud datasets need point-level labels which require a significant amount of annotation effort. We present a framework which generates simulated labeled point cloud data. The simulated LiDAR data was generated by a physics-based platform, the Mississippi State University Autonomous Vehicle Simulator (MAVS). In this work, we use the simulation framework and labeled LiDAR data to develop and test algorithms for autonomous ground vehicle off-road navigation. The MAVS framework generates 3D point clouds for off-road environments that include trails and trees.
Journal Article

Mechanical Design, Prototyping, and Validation of A Martian Robot Mining System

A robot mining system was developed by the State Space Robotic undergraduate student design team from Mississippi State University (MSU) for the 2016 NASA Robotic Mining Competition. The mining robot was designed to traverse the Martian chaotic terrain, excavate a minimum of 10 kg of Martian regolith and deposit the regolith into a collector bin within 10 minutes as part of the competition. A Systems Engineering approach was followed in proceeding with this design project. The designed mining robot consisted of two major components: (1) mechanical system and (2) control system. This paper mainly focuses on the design and assessment process of the mechanical system but will also briefly mention the control system so as to evaluate the designed robotic system in its entirety. The final designed robot consisted of an aluminum frame driven by four motors and wheels. It utilized a scoop and lifting arm subsystem for collecting and depositing Martian regolith.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Design Optimization Using a Damage Material Model Applied to Light Weighting a Formula SAE Car Suspension Component

The Mississippi State University Formula SAE race car upright was optimized using radial basis function metamodels and an internal state variable (ISV) plasticity damage material model. The weight reduction of the upright was part of a goal to reduce the weight of the vehicle by 25 percent. Using an optimization routine provided an upright design that is lighter that helps to improve vehicle fuel economy, acceleration, and handling. Finite element (FE) models of the upright were produced using quadratic tetrahedral elements. Using tetrahedral elements provided a quick way to produce the multiple FE models of the upright required for the multi-objective optimization. A design of experiments was used to determine how many simulations were required for the optimization. The loads for the simulations included braking, acceleration, and corning loads seen by the car under track conditions.