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Technical Paper

3-D CFD Analysis of the Combustion Process in a DI Diesel Engine using a Flamelet Model

A 3-dimensional numerical study has been conducted investigating the combustion process in a VW 1.9l TDI Diesel engine. Simulations were performed modeling the spray injection of a 5-hole Diesel injector in a pressure chamber. A graphical methodology was utilized to match the spray resulting from the widely used Discrete Droplet Spray model to pressure chamber spray images. Satisfactory agreement has been obtained regarding the simulated and experimental spray penetration and cone angles. Thereafter, the combustion process in the engine was simulated. Using engine measurements to initialize the combustion chamber conditions, the compression stroke, the spray injection and the combustion simulation was performed. The novel RTZF two-zone flamelet combustion model was used for the combustion simulation and was tested for partial load operating conditions. An objective analysis of the model is presented including the results of a numerical parameter study.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of New Magnesium Alloys Developed for Elevated Temperature Applications in Automotive Industry

Recently several new magnesium alloys for high temperature applications have been developed with the aim to obtain an optimal combination of die castability, creep resistance, mechanical properties, corrosion performance and affordable cost. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to achieve an adequate combination of properties and in fact, most of the new alloys can only partially meet the required performance and cost. This paper aims at evaluating the current status of the newly developed alloys for powertrain applications. The paper also addresses the complexity of magnesium alloy development and illustrates the effect of alloying elements on properties and cost. In addition, the paper presents an attempt to set the position of each alloy in the integrated space of combined properties and cost
Journal Article

A Heuristic Approach for Offboard-Diagnostics in Advanced Automotive Systems

As the complexity of current automobiles increases, new and innovative diagnostic methods for car maintenance and diagnostic inspection are greatly needed. This paper introduces a new diagnostic approach, which learns from previous repair cases with the help of neural networks in order to assist future diagnostic inspections. Practical experiments have shown that this approach is able to provide promising results even with the data that is already available today.
Technical Paper

A New Generation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

An overview is given on the state of the art of a new catalytic exhaust gas aftertreatment device for diesel engines. The function of a precious metal based, flow-through type diesel oxidation catalyst is explained. Much attention is paid to the durability of the diesel oxidation catalyst and especially to the influence of poisoning elements on the catalytic activity. Detailed data on the interaction of poisoning elements such as sulfur, zinc and phosphorus with the catalytic active sites are given. Finally it is demonstrated that it is possible to meet the stringent emission standards for diesel passenger cars in Europe with a new catalyst generation over 80.000 km AMA aging.
Technical Paper

A New Method to Assess the Summer Suitability of Car Seats

A new method has been designed to examine car seats by technical means only, whether they fit summer conditions or not. Test procedures start with the application of a carefully wetted cloth onto the seat to be examined. The test area is then covered by a temperature controlled, electrically heated solid body bloc. This simulates the body temperature and the seat pressure of a real seat user. During test periods of standard three hours, temperature and humidity is measured beneath the test device and in the surrounding air. As an effect of the water impulse the humidity increases under the body bloc. It has been proved that good summer suitability of a car seat is characterised by moderate amount and moderate duration of increased humidity readings. Poor suitability results in higher amount and longer duration of raised humidity. The method is shown to be useful to examine full scale car seats, child safety seats and single design characteristics of car seats as well.
Technical Paper

A PDF-Based Model for Full Cycle Simulation of Direct Injected Engines

In one-dimensional engine simulation programs the simulation of engine performance is mostly done by parameter fitting in order to match simulations with experimental data. The extensive fitting procedure is especially needed for emissions formation - CO, HC, NO, soot - simulations. An alternative to this approach is, to calculate the emissions based on detailed kinetic models. This however demands that the in-cylinder combustion-flow interaction can be modeled accurately, and that the CPU time needed for the model is still acceptable. PDF based stochastic reactor models offer one possible solution. They usually introduce only one (time dependent) parameter - the mixing time - to model the influence of flow on the chemistry. They offer the prediction of the heat release, together with all emission formation, if the optimum mixing time is given.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Thermochemical Conditions in the Exhaust Manifold Using Secondary Air in a 2.0 L Engine

The California LEV1 II program will be introduced in the year 2003 and requires a further reduction of the exhaust emissions of passenger cars. The cold start emissions represent the main part of the total emissions of the FTP2-Cycle. Cold start emissions can be efficiently reduced by injecting secondary air (SA) in the exhaust port making compliance with the most stringent standards possible. The thermochemical conditions (mixing rate and temperature of secondary air and exhaust gas, exhaust gas composition, etc) prevailing in the exhaust system are described in this paper. This provides knowledge of the conditions for auto ignition of the mixture within the exhaust manifold. The thus established exothermal reaction (exhaust gas post-combustion) results in a shorter time to light-off temperature of the catalyst. The mechanisms of this combustion are studied at different engine idle conditions.
Technical Paper

Accident Analysis and Measures to Establish Compatibility

The vehicle fleet differs in mass, geometry, stiffness and many other parameters. These differences are consequences of different design objectives for these vehicles and result from consumer demand, environmental and safety considerations etc. Accident research shows that the injury outcome differs in some cases, when two vehicles collide. Scientists often discuss a list of features that are assumed to be relevant for compatibility of vehicles. The relevance of these potentially important compatibility features and expected compatibility measures is examined from the perspective of accident analysis. An overview of this accident research is given and crash tests and measures are discussed that correspond with these findings.
Technical Paper

Active Noise Cancellation at Powertrain Oil Pan

Under city driving conditions, the powertrain represents one of the major vehicle exterior noise sources. Especially at idle and during full load acceleration, the oil pan contributes significantly to the overall powertrain sound emission. The engine oilpan can be a significant contributor to the powertrain radiated sound levels. Passive optimization measures, such as structural optimization and acoustic shielding, can be limited by e.g. light-weight design, package and thermal constraints. Therefore, the potential of the Active Structure Acoustic Control (ASAC) method for noise reduction was investigated within the EU-sponsored project InMAR. The method has proven to have significant noise reduction potential with respect to oil pan vibration induced noise. The paper reports on activities within the InMAR project with regard to a passenger car oil pan application of an ASAC system based on piezo-ceramic foil technology.
Journal Article

Analysis of Cycle-to-Cycle Variations of the Mixing Process in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine Using Scale-Resolving Simulations

Since the mechanisms leading to cyclic combustion variabilities in direct injection gasoline engines are still poorly understood, advanced computational studies are necessary to be able to predict, analyze and optimize the complete engine process from aerodynamics to mixing, ignition, combustion and heat transfer. In this work the Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS) turbulence model is used in combination with a parameterized lagrangian spray model for the purpose of predicting transient in-cylinder cold flow, injection and mixture formation in a gasoline engine. An existing CFD model based on FLUENT v15.0 [1] has been extended with a spray description using the FLUENT Discrete Phase Model (DPM). This article will first discuss the validation of the in-cylinder cold flow model using experimental data measured within an optically accessible engine by High Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV).
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Power Supply Systems Using System Simulation

Due to the introduction of new safety and comfort systems in modern automobiles, stability of the vehicle electrical system is increasingly important. The increasing number of electrical components demands that additional electrical energy be provided from robust, reliable supply sources in vehicles. When designing such systems, simulation is the development tool that is used to quickly obtain information regarding electrical system stability, battery charge level, and the distribution of power to the consumer systems. This paper describes how the Saber simulation environment from Synopsys Corporation helps develop increasingly demanding and complex vehicle power systems. A Volkswagen vehicle power net serves as an illustration.
Technical Paper

Application of Detached-Eddy Simulation for Automotive Aerodynamics Development

This paper presents a complete methodology for performing finite-volume-based detached-eddy simulation for the prediction of aerodynamic forces and detailed flow structures of passenger vehicles developed using the open-source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM®. The main components of the methodology consist of an automatic mesh generator, a setup and initialisation utility, a DES flow solver and analysis and post-processing routines. Validation of the predictions is done on the basis of detailed comparisons to experimental wind-tunnel data. Results for lift and drag are found to compare favourably to the experiments, with some moderate discrepancies in predicted rear lift. Point surface-pressure measurements, oil-streak images and maps of total pressure in the flow field demonstrate the approach's capabilities to predict the fine detail of complex flow regimes found in automotive aerodynamics.
Technical Paper

Application of Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) for NVH Analysis of a Passenger Car

The overall perception of a vehicle's quality is significantly influenced by its interior noise characteristics. Therefore, it is important to strike a balance between “pleasant” and “dynamic” sound that fits the customer requirements with respect to vehicle brand and class [1]. Typically, a significant share of the interior vehicle noise is transferred through structure-borne paths. Hence, the powertrain mounting system plays an important role in designing the interior noise. This paper describes an application of the method of vehicle interior noise simulation (VINS) to achieve a characteristic interior sound. This approach is based on separate measurements (or calculations) of excitations and transfer functions and subsequent calculation of the interior noise in the time domain.
Technical Paper

Application of a Method for the Estimation of Transmissivity of Transparent Surfaces to Exterior Lighting Applications

The paper derives a practical method for analysing transmission rates for light passing through transparent media like outer lenses of head lamps and tail lamps. It is shown that only two geometric parameters are needed to do the analysis, as are the angle of incidence measured to the surface normal and the surface normal itself. The surface is needed to be described mathematically - whether analytical (CAD) or discretised (FE or CFD), but no thickness is necessary. Two fields of application will be shown. The first one is the estimation of light performance or module position of head lamps in the early design process. A second one addresses the optimal time to doing outdoor weathering tests with respect to maximal impact of solar irradiation
Technical Paper

Application of the Adjoint Method for Vehicle Aerodynamic Optimization

The aerodynamic optimization of an AUDI Q5 vehicle is presented using the continuous adjoint approach within the OpenFOAM framework. All calculations are performed on an unstructured automatically generated mesh. The primal flow, which serves as input for the adjoint method, is calculated using the standard CFD process at AUDI. It is based on DES calculations using a Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The transient results of the primal solution are time averaged and fed to a stationary adjoint solver using a frozen turbulence assumption. From the adjoint model, drag sensitivity maps are computed and measures for drag reduction are derived. The predicted measures are compared to CFD simulations and to wind tunnel experiments at 1:4 model scale. In this context, general challenges, such as convergence and accuracy of the adjoint method are discussed and best practice guidelines are demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Architectural Leadership in the Automotive Industry

In the new century the automotive industry is transforming itself from an entirely mechanical industry to an industry that is driven by electronics and services. The companies who will be most successful are those who are able to control, drive and renew the architectural concepts enabling the introduction of state-of-the-art information technology to the car and its supporting infrastructure. This paper will first define the term architecture and will elaborate about the increasing relevance of architectural thinking in the automotive domain. Architectural leadership will be defined to mean control (proprietary ownership of components and/or interfaces), creation of a de-facto or legal standard as well as renewal (creation of new products and markets utilizing new linkages of existing architectures). In the second part examples of successful and less successful approaches for establishing architectural leadership in the automotive industry are discussed.
Technical Paper

Benefits of GTL Fuel in Vehicles Equipped with Diesel Particulate Filters

Synthetic fuels are expected to play an important role for future mobility, because they can be introduced seamlessly alongside conventional fuels without the need for new infrastructure. Thus, understanding the interaction of GTL fuels with modern engines, and aftertreatment systems, is important. The current study investigates potential benefits of GTL fuel in respect of diesel particulate filters (DPF). Experiments were conducted on a Euro 4 TDI engine, comparing the DPF response to two different fuels, normal diesel and GTL fuel. The investigation focused on the accumulation and regeneration behavior of the DPF. Results indicated that GTL fuel reduced particulate formation to such an extent that the regeneration cycle was significantly elongated, by ∼70% compared with conventional diesel. Thus, the engine could operate for this increased time before the DPF reached maximum load and regeneration was needed.
Technical Paper

Brake Judder - Analysis of the Excitation and Transmission Mechanism within the Coupled System Brake, Chassis and Steering System

The prevention of any brake noise or brake-induced body vibrations is a key development target firmly integrated in the car development process. Emphasis is placed here on disc brake judder that is attributable to thickness variations in the disc. These deviations from the ideal plane surface can be caused either by wear and corrosion or by thermal stresses (changes within the microstructure of the disc material). They are termed “cold judder” and “thermal judder” respectively. During braking, possible vibration excitation passes through a wide frequency band due to the coupling between the judder frequency and the wheel rotational speed, and thus, resonant frequencies of many vehicle components can be excited. This includes wheel suspension components and the steering column. In this paper, it is reported on extensive investigations into the topic of “cold judder”.
Technical Paper

Catalytic NOx Reduction in Net Oxidizing Exhaust Gas

Several different possibilities will be described and discussed on the processes of reducing NOx in lean-burn gasoline and diesel engines. In-company studies were conducted on zeolitic catalysts. With lean-burn spark-ignition engines, hydrocarbons in the exhaust gas act as a reducing agent. In stationary conditions at λ = 1.2, NOx conversion rates of approx. 45 % were achieved. With diesel engines, the only promising variant is SCR technology using urea as a reducing agent. The remaining problems are still the low space velocity and the narrow temperature window of the catalyst. The production of reaction products and secondary reactions of urea with other components in the diesel exhaust gas are still unclarified.
Technical Paper

Code Coupling, a New Approach to Enhance CFD Analysis of Engines

A new method for the analysis of the gas flow in an internal combustion engine has been developed. It is based on the interactive coupling between commercially available three (STAR-CD) and one dimensional (PROMO) fluid dynamics codes. With this method the detailed transient flow distribution for any engine component of interest can be calculated taking into account the overall gas dynamic interaction with other engine components. The underlying physics and numerics are outlined. A description of the coupling procedure ensuring proper communication between the two computer codes is given. Also addressed is the averaging procedure adopted at the 3D boundaries, including the influence of the 1D/3D interface placement. A first application of this new method is presented, in which the gas flow in a turbo-charged DI-diesel-engine is simulated.