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Technical Paper

A High Resolution 3D Complete Engine Heat Balance Model

The focus on engine thermal management is rapidly increasing due to the significant effect of heat losses on fuel consumption, engine performance and emissions. This work presents a time resolved, high resolution 3D engine heat balance model, including all relevant components. Notably, the model calculates the conjugated heat transfer between the solid engine components, the coolant and the oil. Both coolant and oil circuits are simultaneously resolved with a CFD solver in the same finite volume model as the entire engine solid parts. The model includes external convection and radiation. The necessary boundary conditions of the thermodynamic cycle (gas side) are mapped from a calibrated 1D gas exchange model of the same engine. The boundary conditions for the coolant and at the oil circuits are estimated with 1D models of the systems. The model is calibrated and verified with measurement data from the same engine as modeled.
Technical Paper

A Mild Hybrid SIDI Turbo Passenger Car Engine with Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery

While striving for more fuel-efficient vehicles, all possible measures are considered to increase the efficiency of the combustion engine powertrain. 48V mild hybrid technology is one such measure, SIDI (Spark Ignited Direct Injection) engines with Miller technology are another, while recovering energy from the engine’s waste heat (WHR) is yet another option. In this paper, results will be published from an advanced engineering project at Volvo Cars including all of these components. An ethanol based Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) WHR-system was successfully built around a 4-cylinder, 2.0 litre SIDI-engine, including 48V mild hybrid technology, with vehicle packaging considered. A dedicated control system was also developed for the ORC system including communication between it and the engine. The ORC system uses the engine exhaust as the heat source, for which a purpose-built evaporator was designed and built to fit in the vehicle tunnel.
Technical Paper

A Reference Architecture for Infotainment Systems

Volvo Car Corporation has developed a Reference Architecture for PAG1 Infotainment Systems. A Reference Architecture is an architecture scoping over more than a single system, i.e. an architecture aimed for a family of systems. The Infotainment Reference Architecture has since 2001 been successfully applied for the PAG family which so far covers the infotainment systems of Volvo XC90, Volvo S40/V50, Jaguar XK, Aston Martin DB9 and the brand new Volvo S80. In 1999, the system design departments started up with the clear objective to develop a system solution aiming for the PAG infotainment system family. The work was carried out according to the established development process at Volvo Cars. A year later a discouraging design review was performed. The number of involved functions, the level of function interaction and the distribution of functionalities between ECUs resulted in a non-manageable system solution.
Technical Paper

A Structure and Calibration Method for Data-Driven Modeling of NOX and Soot Emissions from a Diesel Engine

The development and implementation of a new structure for data-driven models for NOX and soot emissions is described. The model structure is a linear regression model, where physically relevant input signals are used as regressors, and all the regression parameters are defined as grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain. The method of using grid-maps in the engine speed/injected fuel domain for all the regression parameters enables the models to be valid for changes in physical parameters that affect the emissions, without having to include these parameters as input signals to the models. This is possible for parameters that are dependent only on the engine speed and the amount of injected fuel. This means that models can handle changes for different parameters in the complete working range of the engine, without having to include all signals that actually effect the emissions into the models.
Journal Article

A Study on Acoustical Time-Domain Two-Ports Based on Digital Filters with Application to Automotive Air Intake Systems

Analysis of pressure pulsations in ducts is an active research field within the automotive industry. The fluid dynamics and the wave transmission properties of internal combustion (IC) engine intake and exhaust systems contribute to the energy efficiency of the engines and are hence important for the final amount of CO₂ that is emitted from the vehicles. Sound waves, originating from the pressure pulses caused by the in- and outflow at the engine valves, are transmitted through the intake and exhaust system and are an important cause of noise pollution from road traffic at low speeds. Reliable prediction methods are of major importance to enable effective optimization of gas exchange systems. The use of nonlinear one-dimensional (1D) gas dynamics simulation software packages is widespread within the automotive industry. These time-domain codes are mainly used to predict engine performance parameters such as output torque and power but can also give estimates of radiated orifice noise.
Technical Paper

Acoustic One-Dimensional Compressor Model for Integration in a Gas-Dynamic Code

An acoustic one-dimensional compressor model has been developed. This model is based on compressor map information and it is able to predict how the pressure waves are transmitted and reflected by the compressor. This is later on necessary to predict radiated noise at the intake orifice. The fluid-dynamic behavior of the compressor has been reproduced by simplifying the real geometry in zero-dimensional and one-dimensional elements with acoustic purposes. These elements are responsible for attenuating or reflecting the pressure pulses generated by the engine. In order to compensate the effect of these elements in the mean flow variables, the model uses a corrected compressor map. Despite of the fact that the compressor model was developed originally as a part of the OpenWAM™ software, it can be exported to other commercial wave action models. An example is provided of exporting the described model to GT-Power™.
Journal Article

An Evaluation of Different Combustion Strategies for SI Engines in a Multi-Mode Combustion Engine

Future pressures to reduce the fuel consumption of passenger cars may require the exploitation of alternative combustion strategies for gasoline engines to replace, or use in combination with the conventional stoichiometric spark ignition (SSI) strategy. Possible options include homogeneous lean charge spark ignition (HLCSI), stratified charge spark ignition (SCSI) and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), all of which are intended to reduce pumping and thermal losses. In the work presented here four different combustion strategies were evaluated using the same engine: SSI, HLCSI, SCSI and HCCI. HLCSI was achieved by early injection and operating the engine lean, close to its stability limits. SCSI was achieved using the spray-guided technique with a centrally placed multi-hole injector and spark-plug. HCCI was achieved using a negative valve overlap to trap hot residuals and thus generate auto-ignition temperatures at the end of the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

CFD-Analysis of Cycle Averaged Heat Flux and Engine Cooling in an IC-Engine

It is demonstrated that the cycle averaged heat flux on the hot gas side of the cylinders can be obtained using in-cylinder CFD-analysis. Together with the heat transfer coefficient obtained from the coolant jacket CFD-analysis, a complete set of boundary conditions are made available exclusively based on simulations. The engine metal temperatures could then be predicted using FEA and the results are compared to an extensive set of measured data. Also 1-D codes are used to provide cooling circuit boundary conditions and gas exchange boundary condition for the CFD-models. The predicted temperature distribution in the engine is desirable for accurate and reliable prediction of knock, durability problems, bore distortion and valve seat distortion.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities for the Transition to Highly Energy-Efficient Passenger Cars

Maintaining the current ratio between certified and the customer-observed fuel consumption even with future required levels poses a considerable challenge. Increasing the efficiency of the driveline enables certified fuel consumption down to a feasible level in the order of 80 g CO₂/km using fossil fuels. Mainly affecting off-cycle fuel consumption, energy amounts used to create good interior climate as well as energy-consuming options and features threaten to further increase. Progressing urbanization will lead to decreasing average vehicle speeds and driving distances. Highly efficient powertrains come with decreased amounts of waste energy traditionally used for interior climate conditioning, thus making necessary a change of auxiliary systems.
Technical Paper

Complete Engine Modeling Using CFD

When developing gas exchange and combustion systems at Volvo Car Corporation, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is today a key tool. Three dimensional CFD is by tradition used to study one single component (e.g. manifolds and ports) at a time. Our experience is that this approach suffers from two main limitations; first that the boundary conditions (both upstream and downstream) are uncertain; and secondly that validation against experimental data is extremely difficult since any measured parameter will depend on the complete engine. Distribution of secondary gases and AFR (Air to Fuel ratio) are typical examples where traditional CFD methods fail. One proposed way to overcome these problems is to use 1D gas exchange models coupled with 3D CFD. The main problem with this approach is however the positioning and treatment of the boundaries between the models. Furthermore, the boundaries themselves will unconditionally cause disturbances in the pressure fields.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of Distributed by-Wire Systems

A design method for ultra-dependable control-by-wire systems is presented here. With a top-down approach, exploiting the system's intrinsic redundancy combined with a scalable software redundancy, it is possible to meet dependability requirements cost-effectively. The method starts with the system's functions, which are broken down to the basic elements; task, sensor or actuator. A task graph shows the basic elements interrelationships. Sensor and actuator nodes form a non-redundant hardware architecture. The functional task-graph gives input when allocating software on the node architecture. Tasks are allocated to achieve low inter-node communication and transient fault tolerance using scalable software redundancy. Hardware is added to meet the dependability requirements. Finally, the method describes fault handling and bus scheduling. The proposed method has been used in two cases; a fly-by-wire aircraft and a drive-by-wire car.
Technical Paper

Cycle to Cycle Variations: Their Influence on Cycle Resolved Gas Temperature and Unburned Hydrocarbons from a Camless Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

A single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four-stroke and camless gasoline engine was operated in gasoline compression ignition mode or otherwise known as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode. The valve timing could be adjusted during engine operation, which made it possible to operate the engine on HCCI combustion in the part-load regime of a 5-cylinder 2.4 liter engine. Cycle to cycle variation in cylinder pressure is caused by the shifts in the auto-ignition timing of the air-fuel mixture. These variations during HCCI combustion were found to, be predictable to some extent, in the sense that an early phased combustion follows a later phased one and vice versa. When the engine was operated in spark ignition mode, a late combustion was correlated with a high gas temperature. No such correlation was found when the engine was operated in HCCI mode.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-to-Cylinder and Cycle-to-Cycle Variations at HCCI Operation With Trapped Residuals

A naturally aspirated in-line six-cylinder 2.9-litre Volvo engine is operated in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode, using camshafts with low lift and short duration generating negative valve overlap. Standard port fuel injection is used and pistons and cylinder head are unchanged from the automotive application. HCCI through negative valve overlap is recognized as one of the possible implementation strategies of HCCI closest to production. It is important to gain knowledge of the constraints and limits on the possible operating region. In this work, the emphasis is on investigating how cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder deviations limit the operating region, how these effects change in different parts of the operating region and how they can be controlled. At low load the cycle-to-cycle phenomena cause periodic behavior in combustion timing; together with cylinder deviations this is found responsible for decreasing the operating regime.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating a SI-HCCI-SI Mode Change on a Volvo 5-Cylinder Electronic Valve Control Engine

Operating an engine in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) mode requires the air fuel mixture to be very lean or highly diluted with residuals. This is in order to slow the kinetics down and to avoid too rapid heat release. Consequently, the operational window for the engine in HCCI mode is not the same as for the engine operating in spark ignited (SI) mode. Homogeneous charge compression ignition engine mode, in this study, is accomplished by trapping residual mass using variable valve timing. With the residual trapping method, the engine cannot be started in HCCI mode and due to the dilution, the engine in HCCI mode can only be operated in the part - load regime. Hence, a mode change between spark ignited and HCCI modes, and vice versa is required. This study reports the development of a mode change strategy for a single cylinder camless engine, and its successful implementation in a camless multi cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of Two-Dimensional Temperature Characterization of Valves and Transparent Piston in a GDI Optical Engine

Thermographic phosphors thermometry was used to measure engine valves and transparent piston temperatures in two dimensions as well point wise of a running, optically accessible, gasoline direct injection engine. The engine, fueled with isooctane, was operated in continuous and skip-fire mode at 1200 and 2000 rpm. A calibration of the phosphorescence lifetime and spectral properties against temperature allowed temperature measurements between 25 and 600°C. Results from the measurements show the potential of the technique for two-dimensional mapping of engine walls, valves and piston temperatures inside the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Detailed Heat Release Analyses with Regard to Combustion of RME and Oxygenated Fuels in an HSDI Diesel Engine

Experiments on a modern DI Diesel engine were carried out: The engine was fuelled with standard Diesel fuel, RME and a mixture of 85% standard Diesel fuel, 5% RME and 10% higher alcohols under low load conditions (4 bar IMEP). During these experiments, different external EGR levels were applied while the injection timing was chosen in a way to keep the location of 50% heat release constant. Emission analysis results were in accordance with widely known correlations: Increasing EGR rates lowered NOx emissions. This is explained by a decrease of global air-fuel ratio entailing longer ignition delay. Local gas-fuel ratio increases during ignition delay and local combustion temperature is lowered. Exhaust gas analysis indicated further a strong increase of CO, PM and unburned HC emissions at high EGR levels. This resulted in lower combustion efficiency. PM emissions however, decreased above 50% EGR which was also in accordance with previously reported results.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of Coolant Temperature and Cooling Air Flow CFD Simulations at Volvo Cars

This paper describes the development of a robust and accurate method to model one-phase heat exchangers in complete vehicle air flow simulations along with a comprehensive comparison of EFD and CFD results. The comparison shows that the inlet radiator coolant temperatures obtained with CFD were within ±4°C of the experimental data with a trend in the differences being dependent on the car speed. The relative differences in cooling air mass flow rates increase with increasing car speed, with CFD values generally higher than EFD. From the investigation, the conclusion is that the methodology and modeling technique presented offer an accurate tool for concept and system solutions on the front end design, cooling package and fan. Care must be taken in order to provide the best possible boundary conditions paying particular attention to the heat losses in the engine, performance data for the radiator and fan characteristics.
Technical Paper

Development of Acoustic Models for High Frequency Resonators for Turbocharged IC-Engines

Automotive turbo compressors generate high frequency noise in the air intake system. This sound generation is of importance for the perceived sound quality of luxury cars and may need to be controlled by the use of silencers. The silencers usually contain resonators with slits, perforates and cavities. The purpose of the present work is to develop acoustic models for these resonators where relevant effects such as the effect of a realistic mean flow on losses and 3D effects are considered. An experimental campaign has been performed where the two-port matrices and transmission loss of sample resonators have been measured without flow and for two different mean flow speeds. Models for two resonators have been developed using 1D linear acoustic theory and a FEM code (COMSOL Multi-physics). For some resonators a separate linear 1D Matlab code has also been developed.
Technical Paper

Development of the Combustion System for Volvo Cars Euro6d VEA Diesel Engine

The demands for a future diesel engine in terms of emission compliance, CO2 emissions, performance and cost effectiveness set new requirements for the development process of the combustion system. This paper focuses on the development of the next generation Volvo Cars diesel combustion system, which should comply with Euro 6d including Real Driving Emissions (RDE), with emphasis on the novel methods applied throughout the process. The foundation of a high performing combustion system is formed by first determining the requirements for the system, after which the key factors that affect system performance are selected, such as the charge motion, combustion chamber geometry and injector nozzle geometry. Based on the requirements, a robust charge motion with desired flow characteristics is defined. A new automated CFD optimization process for combustion chamber geometry and spray target is developed.
Technical Paper

Development of the Euro 5 Combustion System for Volvo Cars' 2.4.I Diesel Engine

The development of a new combustion system for a light-duty diesel engine is presented. The soot-NOx trade-off is significantly improved with maintained or improved efficiency. This is accomplished only by altering the combustion chamber geometry, and thereby the in-cylinder flow. The bowl geometry is developed in CFD and validated in single cylinder tests. Tests and simulations align remarkably well. Under identical conditions in the engine the new combustion chamber decreases smoke by 11-27%, NOx by 2-11%, and maintains efficiency as compared to the baseline geometry. The injector nozzle is matched to the new bowl using design of experiments (DoE). By this method transfer functions are obtained that can be used to optimize the system using analytical tools. The emissions show a complex dependence on the nozzle geometry. The emission dependence on nozzle geometry varies greatly over the engine operating range.