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Journal Article

A Compact Silencer for the Control of Compressor Noise

2014-06-30
2014-01-2060
Current trends for IC-engines are driving the development of more efficient engines with higher specific power. This is true for both light and heavy duty vehicles and has led to an increased use of super-charging. The super-charging can be both in the form of a single or multi-stage turbo-charger driven by exhaust gases, or via a directly driven compressor. In both cases a possible noise problem can be a strong Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) typically in the kHz range and above the plane wave range. In this paper a novel type of compact dissipative silencer developed especially to handle this type of problem is described and optimized. The silencer is based on a combination of a micro-perforated (MPP) tube backed by a locally reacting cavity. The combined impedance of micro-perforate and cavity is chosen to match the theoretical optimum known as the Cremer impedance at the mid-frequency in the frequency range of interest.
Technical Paper

A Mild Hybrid SIDI Turbo Passenger Car Engine with Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery

2019-09-09
2019-24-0194
While striving for more fuel-efficient vehicles, all possible measures are considered to increase the efficiency of the combustion engine powertrain. 48V mild hybrid technology is one such measure, SIDI (Spark Ignited Direct Injection) engines with Miller technology are another, while recovering energy from the engine’s waste heat (WHR) is yet another option. In this paper, results will be published from an advanced engineering project at Volvo Cars including all of these components. An ethanol based Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) WHR-system was successfully built around a 4-cylinder, 2.0 litre SIDI-engine, including 48V mild hybrid technology, with vehicle packaging considered. A dedicated control system was also developed for the ORC system including communication between it and the engine. The ORC system uses the engine exhaust as the heat source, for which a purpose-built evaporator was designed and built to fit in the vehicle tunnel.
Technical Paper

A Reference Architecture for Infotainment Systems

2006-10-16
2006-21-0013
Volvo Car Corporation has developed a Reference Architecture for PAG1 Infotainment Systems. A Reference Architecture is an architecture scoping over more than a single system, i.e. an architecture aimed for a family of systems. The Infotainment Reference Architecture has since 2001 been successfully applied for the PAG family which so far covers the infotainment systems of Volvo XC90, Volvo S40/V50, Jaguar XK, Aston Martin DB9 and the brand new Volvo S80. In 1999, the system design departments started up with the clear objective to develop a system solution aiming for the PAG infotainment system family. The work was carried out according to the established development process at Volvo Cars. A year later a discouraging design review was performed. The number of involved functions, the level of function interaction and the distribution of functionalities between ECUs resulted in a non-manageable system solution.
Technical Paper

A Semiconductor Gas Sensor Array for the Detection of Gas Emissions from Interior Trim Materials in Automobiles

1998-02-23
980995
The principles of an electronic nose are described briefly. It is shown how a sensor array in combination with pattern recognition software can be used for quality control and classification of car interior trim materials. Anomalies such as bad smelling leather and carpet are shown as outliers. The results are consistent with GC-MS TVOC measurements as well as with data from a human sensory panel. More needs to be done, however, regarding the sensor stability in particular before the sensor array can be used for routine classification of the trim materials.
Journal Article

A Study on Acoustical Time-Domain Two-Ports Based on Digital Filters with Application to Automotive Air Intake Systems

2011-05-17
2011-01-1522
Analysis of pressure pulsations in ducts is an active research field within the automotive industry. The fluid dynamics and the wave transmission properties of internal combustion (IC) engine intake and exhaust systems contribute to the energy efficiency of the engines and are hence important for the final amount of CO₂ that is emitted from the vehicles. Sound waves, originating from the pressure pulses caused by the in- and outflow at the engine valves, are transmitted through the intake and exhaust system and are an important cause of noise pollution from road traffic at low speeds. Reliable prediction methods are of major importance to enable effective optimization of gas exchange systems. The use of nonlinear one-dimensional (1D) gas dynamics simulation software packages is widespread within the automotive industry. These time-domain codes are mainly used to predict engine performance parameters such as output torque and power but can also give estimates of radiated orifice noise.
Technical Paper

Accuracy in Flow Simulations of Climate Control-Part 1: The Air Distribution System

1999-03-01
1999-01-1200
Flow simulations of an air distribution system have been carried out using the CFD code FLUENT/UNS [1]. The purpose of this study is to validate this complex flow problem versus experimental data. Two modes of the climate system are investigated; the Ventilation mode and the Floor/Defroster mode. The complete geometrical model contains all ducts, central unit, heat exchangers, defroster and nozzles of the air distribution system. A high level of geometrical detailing in the mesh, consisting of 2.1 - 3.3 million cells, is used. The study shows that CFD has a potential to give reliable results, even for complex systems, like air distribution systems, if used in a controlled manner.
Technical Paper

Acoustic One-Dimensional Compressor Model for Integration in a Gas-Dynamic Code

2012-04-16
2012-01-0834
An acoustic one-dimensional compressor model has been developed. This model is based on compressor map information and it is able to predict how the pressure waves are transmitted and reflected by the compressor. This is later on necessary to predict radiated noise at the intake orifice. The fluid-dynamic behavior of the compressor has been reproduced by simplifying the real geometry in zero-dimensional and one-dimensional elements with acoustic purposes. These elements are responsible for attenuating or reflecting the pressure pulses generated by the engine. In order to compensate the effect of these elements in the mean flow variables, the model uses a corrected compressor map. Despite of the fact that the compressor model was developed originally as a part of the OpenWAM™ software, it can be exported to other commercial wave action models. An example is provided of exporting the described model to GT-Power™.
Technical Paper

Analytical Methods for Durability in the Automotive Industry - The Engineering Process, Past, Present and Future

2001-03-05
2001-01-4075
In the early days of the automotive industry, durability and reliability were hit or miss affairs, with end-users often being the first to know about any durability problems - and in many cases forming an essential part of the development process. More recently, automotive companies have developed proving ground and laboratory test procedures that aim to simulate typical or severe customer usage. These test procedures have been used to develop the products through a series of prototypes and to prove the durability of the product prior to release in the marketplace. Now, commercial pressures and legal requirements have led to increasing reliance on CAE methods, with fatigue life prediction having a central role in the durability engineering process.
Technical Paper

Balancing Thermodynamic and Aerodynamic Attributes Through the Use of a Common CFD Model

2005-05-10
2005-01-2052
This paper describes how simultaneous numerical simulation of cooling performance and aerodynamic drag can be used to achieve attribute-balanced solutions. Traditionally at Volvo, evaluation of cooling performance and aerodynamics are done by separate teams using separate models and software. However, using this approach, any project changes can be evaluated in terms of their effect on cooling performance and drag from one single model. This enables the project to make decisions that are optimal in a more global perspective. If several proposals have similar levels of cooling performance, the proposal that yields the lowest overall drag can be chosen, thus reducing the fuel consumption of the vehicle. The first part of the paper discusses the prerequisites for the method in terms of boundary conditions, mesh and solution strategy. For the cooling performance part, the importance of high quality boundary conditions is reviewed.
Technical Paper

Battery Parameter Estimation from Recorded Fleet Data

2016-10-17
2016-01-2360
Existing battery parameter model structures are evaluated by estimating model parameters on real driving data applying standard system identification methods. Models are then evaluated on the test data in terms of goodness of fit and RMSE in voltage predictions. This is different from previous battery model evaluations where a common approach is to train parameters using standardized tests, e.g. hybrid pulse-power capability (HPPC), with predetermined charge and discharge sequences. Equivalent linear circuit models of different complexity were tested and evaluated in order to identify parameter dependencies at different state of charge levels and temperatures. Models are then used to create voltage output given a current, state of charge and temperature. The average accuracy of modelling the DC bus voltage provides a model goodness of fit average higher than 90% for a single RC circuit model.
Technical Paper

Body and Component Accuracy in Assembly Systems

1998-09-29
982269
To give the customer an immediate impression of quality several of criteria must be fulfilled such as styling, paint finish and fitting of outer panels/closures. Therefore, higher demands on geometrical quality e.g. stability for both exterior and interior are needed. The structural part of the car body is the key element for success. Beside the visual impression, lack of noise and vibrations during driving can convince a potential buyer to become an actual customer. To achieve this, car manufacturers have to draw up an overall strategy in combination with proper working methods to be able to guarantee a stable geometrical output throughout the entire development process and during series production over the lifetime of the vehicle. On a simultaneous engineering basis, the OEM, the system/component- and the process suppliers (for the industrial system from press shop to final assembly) have to adopt a common measurement strategy.
Technical Paper

CFD-Analysis of Cycle Averaged Heat Flux and Engine Cooling in an IC-Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0200
It is demonstrated that the cycle averaged heat flux on the hot gas side of the cylinders can be obtained using in-cylinder CFD-analysis. Together with the heat transfer coefficient obtained from the coolant jacket CFD-analysis, a complete set of boundary conditions are made available exclusively based on simulations. The engine metal temperatures could then be predicted using FEA and the results are compared to an extensive set of measured data. Also 1-D codes are used to provide cooling circuit boundary conditions and gas exchange boundary condition for the CFD-models. The predicted temperature distribution in the engine is desirable for accurate and reliable prediction of knock, durability problems, bore distortion and valve seat distortion.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities for the Transition to Highly Energy-Efficient Passenger Cars

2011-06-09
2011-37-0013
Maintaining the current ratio between certified and the customer-observed fuel consumption even with future required levels poses a considerable challenge. Increasing the efficiency of the driveline enables certified fuel consumption down to a feasible level in the order of 80 g CO₂/km using fossil fuels. Mainly affecting off-cycle fuel consumption, energy amounts used to create good interior climate as well as energy-consuming options and features threaten to further increase. Progressing urbanization will lead to decreasing average vehicle speeds and driving distances. Highly efficient powertrains come with decreased amounts of waste energy traditionally used for interior climate conditioning, thus making necessary a change of auxiliary systems.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between CFD and PIV Measurements in a Passenger Compartment

2000-03-06
2000-01-0977
Numerical simulations of the flow inside a passenger compartment are compared with experimental data obtained from velocity field measurements using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Comparisons are made in the front part of the passenger compartment with the air-distribution system operated in a ventilation mode. The sensitivty of the CFD-model to the boundary conditions was investigated and two different turbulence models were tested. Computations and experiments resulted in similar results for the overall flow field, however, rather large differences were found in the vertical spreading of the jet from the dashboard nozzle. The width of the jet was lower in the measurements than in the simulations. This difference is believed to be caused by the high diffusivity obtained when using a k-epsilon model in combination with an unstructured grid.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of Distributed by-Wire Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0271
A design method for ultra-dependable control-by-wire systems is presented here. With a top-down approach, exploiting the system's intrinsic redundancy combined with a scalable software redundancy, it is possible to meet dependability requirements cost-effectively. The method starts with the system's functions, which are broken down to the basic elements; task, sensor or actuator. A task graph shows the basic elements interrelationships. Sensor and actuator nodes form a non-redundant hardware architecture. The functional task-graph gives input when allocating software on the node architecture. Tasks are allocated to achieve low inter-node communication and transient fault tolerance using scalable software redundancy. Hardware is added to meet the dependability requirements. Finally, the method describes fault handling and bus scheduling. The proposed method has been used in two cases; a fly-by-wire aircraft and a drive-by-wire car.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of Two-Dimensional Temperature Characterization of Valves and Transparent Piston in a GDI Optical Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0609
Thermographic phosphors thermometry was used to measure engine valves and transparent piston temperatures in two dimensions as well point wise of a running, optically accessible, gasoline direct injection engine. The engine, fueled with isooctane, was operated in continuous and skip-fire mode at 1200 and 2000 rpm. A calibration of the phosphorescence lifetime and spectral properties against temperature allowed temperature measurements between 25 and 600°C. Results from the measurements show the potential of the technique for two-dimensional mapping of engine walls, valves and piston temperatures inside the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Designing Based on Thermal Loads

2005-05-10
2005-01-2051
When designing components, systems and fluid characteristics, thermal loads gathered over the life cycle of an automobile are of great interest. Ageing and deterioration based on the temperature/time distribution that a component or fluid is exposed to, affects the functionality and/or durability of electronics, polymers and lubricants. Optimal design in terms of quality and cost are two of the most governing parameters at Volvo Cars at present. To meet this need, designing terms of life cycles from a thermal perspective has been developed during recent years. This paper presents a methodology for designing components and choosing system solutions from life span thermal loads in Volvo Car's vehicles. The fundamental ideas behind the method, design criteria and examples of usage are discussed from a holistic point of view.
Technical Paper

Development of Acoustic Models for High Frequency Resonators for Turbocharged IC-Engines

2012-06-13
2012-01-1559
Automotive turbo compressors generate high frequency noise in the air intake system. This sound generation is of importance for the perceived sound quality of luxury cars and may need to be controlled by the use of silencers. The silencers usually contain resonators with slits, perforates and cavities. The purpose of the present work is to develop acoustic models for these resonators where relevant effects such as the effect of a realistic mean flow on losses and 3D effects are considered. An experimental campaign has been performed where the two-port matrices and transmission loss of sample resonators have been measured without flow and for two different mean flow speeds. Models for two resonators have been developed using 1D linear acoustic theory and a FEM code (COMSOL Multi-physics). For some resonators a separate linear 1D Matlab code has also been developed.
Technical Paper

Development of the Euro 5 Combustion System for Volvo Cars' 2.4.I Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1450
The development of a new combustion system for a light-duty diesel engine is presented. The soot-NOx trade-off is significantly improved with maintained or improved efficiency. This is accomplished only by altering the combustion chamber geometry, and thereby the in-cylinder flow. The bowl geometry is developed in CFD and validated in single cylinder tests. Tests and simulations align remarkably well. Under identical conditions in the engine the new combustion chamber decreases smoke by 11-27%, NOx by 2-11%, and maintains efficiency as compared to the baseline geometry. The injector nozzle is matched to the new bowl using design of experiments (DoE). By this method transfer functions are obtained that can be used to optimize the system using analytical tools. The emissions show a complex dependence on the nozzle geometry. The emission dependence on nozzle geometry varies greatly over the engine operating range.
Technical Paper

Digital Human Models' Appearance Impact on Observers' Ergonomic Assessment

2005-06-14
2005-01-2722
The objective of this paper is to investigate whether different appearance modes of the digital human models (DHM or manikins) affect the observers when judging a working posture. A case where the manikin is manually assembling a battery in the boot with help of a lifting device is used in the experiment. 16 different pictures were created and presented for the subjects. All pictures have the same background, but include a unique posture and manikin appearance combination. Four postures and four manikin appearances were used. The subjects were asked to rank the pictures after ergonomic assessment based on posture of the manikin. Subjects taking part in the study were either manufacturing engineering managers, simulation engineers or ergonomists. Results show that the different appearance modes affect the ergonomic judgment. A more realistic looking manikin is rated higher than the very same posture visualized with a less natural appearance.
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