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Journal Article

A Compact Silencer for the Control of Compressor Noise

Current trends for IC-engines are driving the development of more efficient engines with higher specific power. This is true for both light and heavy duty vehicles and has led to an increased use of super-charging. The super-charging can be both in the form of a single or multi-stage turbo-charger driven by exhaust gases, or via a directly driven compressor. In both cases a possible noise problem can be a strong Blade Passing Frequency (BPF) typically in the kHz range and above the plane wave range. In this paper a novel type of compact dissipative silencer developed especially to handle this type of problem is described and optimized. The silencer is based on a combination of a micro-perforated (MPP) tube backed by a locally reacting cavity. The combined impedance of micro-perforate and cavity is chosen to match the theoretical optimum known as the Cremer impedance at the mid-frequency in the frequency range of interest.
Technical Paper

A Reference Architecture for Infotainment Systems

Volvo Car Corporation has developed a Reference Architecture for PAG1 Infotainment Systems. A Reference Architecture is an architecture scoping over more than a single system, i.e. an architecture aimed for a family of systems. The Infotainment Reference Architecture has since 2001 been successfully applied for the PAG family which so far covers the infotainment systems of Volvo XC90, Volvo S40/V50, Jaguar XK, Aston Martin DB9 and the brand new Volvo S80. In 1999, the system design departments started up with the clear objective to develop a system solution aiming for the PAG infotainment system family. The work was carried out according to the established development process at Volvo Cars. A year later a discouraging design review was performed. The number of involved functions, the level of function interaction and the distribution of functionalities between ECUs resulted in a non-manageable system solution.
Technical Paper

Acoustic One-Dimensional Compressor Model for Integration in a Gas-Dynamic Code

An acoustic one-dimensional compressor model has been developed. This model is based on compressor map information and it is able to predict how the pressure waves are transmitted and reflected by the compressor. This is later on necessary to predict radiated noise at the intake orifice. The fluid-dynamic behavior of the compressor has been reproduced by simplifying the real geometry in zero-dimensional and one-dimensional elements with acoustic purposes. These elements are responsible for attenuating or reflecting the pressure pulses generated by the engine. In order to compensate the effect of these elements in the mean flow variables, the model uses a corrected compressor map. Despite of the fact that the compressor model was developed originally as a part of the OpenWAM™ software, it can be exported to other commercial wave action models. An example is provided of exporting the described model to GT-Power™.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Coupling Between the Passenger Compartment and the Trunk in a Sedan

The low frequency acoustic response of the passenger compartment (cavity) in sedans is considered with respect to the coupling between the cavity and the trunk. Both acoustic (via holes in the parcel shelf or behind the backrest of the rear seat), and structural (via the parcel shelf itself, or the panel of the backrest) mechanisms are investigated by both test and CAE. It is found that the peaks in acoustic response of the cavity at low frequencies are due to both acoustic and structural phenomena. However, the acoustic ones can be effectively blocked by proper design of the trim. Recommendations concerning modeling of acoustic effects in sedans are formulated.
Technical Paper

Body and Component Accuracy in Assembly Systems

To give the customer an immediate impression of quality several of criteria must be fulfilled such as styling, paint finish and fitting of outer panels/closures. Therefore, higher demands on geometrical quality e.g. stability for both exterior and interior are needed. The structural part of the car body is the key element for success. Beside the visual impression, lack of noise and vibrations during driving can convince a potential buyer to become an actual customer. To achieve this, car manufacturers have to draw up an overall strategy in combination with proper working methods to be able to guarantee a stable geometrical output throughout the entire development process and during series production over the lifetime of the vehicle. On a simultaneous engineering basis, the OEM, the system/component- and the process suppliers (for the industrial system from press shop to final assembly) have to adopt a common measurement strategy.
Technical Paper

CAE Support to Vehicle Audio Installation Issues

Audio CAE is an emerging area of interest for vehicle OEMs. Questions regarding early stages of the vehicle design, like choosing the possible positions for speakers, deciding the installation details that can influence the visual design, and integration of the low frequency speakers with the body & closures structure, are of interest. Therefore, at VCC, the development of the CAE methodology for audio applications has been undertaken. The key to all CAE applications is the loudspeaker model made available in the vibro-acoustic software used within the company. Such a model has been developed, implemented and verified in different frequency ranges and different applications. The applications can be divided into the low frequency ones (concerning the installation of woofers and subwoofers), and the middle/high frequency ones (concerning the installation of midrange and tweeter speakers). In the case of the woofer, it is the interaction with the body vibration that is of interest.
Journal Article

Car Ride Before Entering the Lab Increases Precision in Listening Tests

Subjects who are well aware of what to judge commonly yield more consistent results in laboratory listening tests. This awareness may be raised by explicit instructions and training. However, too explicit instructions or use of only trained subjects may direct experiment results in an undesired way. An alternative is to give fairly open instructions to untrained subjects, but give the subjects a chance to get familiar with the product and context by, for example, riding a representative car under representative driving conditions before entering the laboratory. In this study, sound quality assessments of interior sounds of cars made by two groups were compared. In one group subjects were exposed to the same driving conditions that were later assessed in a laboratory listening test by taking them on a ride in one of the cars to be assessed, just before entering the laboratory. In the other group subjects made the laboratory assessments without prior car riding.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities for the Transition to Highly Energy-Efficient Passenger Cars

Maintaining the current ratio between certified and the customer-observed fuel consumption even with future required levels poses a considerable challenge. Increasing the efficiency of the driveline enables certified fuel consumption down to a feasible level in the order of 80 g CO₂/km using fossil fuels. Mainly affecting off-cycle fuel consumption, energy amounts used to create good interior climate as well as energy-consuming options and features threaten to further increase. Progressing urbanization will lead to decreasing average vehicle speeds and driving distances. Highly efficient powertrains come with decreased amounts of waste energy traditionally used for interior climate conditioning, thus making necessary a change of auxiliary systems.
Technical Paper

Development of Acoustic Models for High Frequency Resonators for Turbocharged IC-Engines

Automotive turbo compressors generate high frequency noise in the air intake system. This sound generation is of importance for the perceived sound quality of luxury cars and may need to be controlled by the use of silencers. The silencers usually contain resonators with slits, perforates and cavities. The purpose of the present work is to develop acoustic models for these resonators where relevant effects such as the effect of a realistic mean flow on losses and 3D effects are considered. An experimental campaign has been performed where the two-port matrices and transmission loss of sample resonators have been measured without flow and for two different mean flow speeds. Models for two resonators have been developed using 1D linear acoustic theory and a FEM code (COMSOL Multi-physics). For some resonators a separate linear 1D Matlab code has also been developed.
Technical Paper

Dispersion of Test-Based NVH Characteristics at Various Trim Levels

A broad measurement campaign was run at Volvo aiming at the evaluation of dispersion in test-based NVH characteristics of a car body and at the derivation of reference data for judging the accuracy of CAE predictions. Within this work 6, nominally identical, vehicles were tested. Tests included operational noise on Complete Vehicle (CV) level (road noise, engine noise and idling noise), NTF, VTF & Acoustic FRF measurements in CV, Trimmed Body (TB) & TB-Stripped (TBS) configurations. Additionally, modal analysis and NTF, VTF, AFRF tests were carried out on 4 BIPs of the same vehicle type. Further, limited tests were carried out on 28 vehicles of the same type. The aim of the work was to study the development of dispersion with increasing complexity of the test object, from the BIP to TB and CV.
Technical Paper

Engine Presence in Diesel Engine Passenger Cars

Highly refined NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) is a key attribute for premium segment passenger cars. All noise sources such as powertrain, tires, wind, climate unit and etc. must be well balanced and at such a low level that the customer expectations are met or exceeded. However, not only are the NVH levels of importance but the character of the noise must also meet the high demands from premium car customers. This is especially true for diesel engines which historically have been more prone to have a less refined engine noise character than petrol engines. This paper will describe an investigation of what is defined as “engine presence” in four-cylinder diesel engine cars. The scope is to define a method for consistent subjective assessment of engine presence and to find the relationship and investigate the correlation between the “perceived loudness”, “perceived harshness” and the overall engine presence interior of the car.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Model Reduction Applied to Nonlinear Impact Simulation for Squeak and Rattle Prediction

Increasing demand for simulation accuracy often leads to increased finite element model complexity, which in turn, results in higher computational costs. As a provision, component mode synthesis approaches are employed to approximate the system response by using dynamic substructuring and model reduction techniques in linear systems. However, the use of available model reduction techniques in nonlinear problems containing the contact type of nonlinearities remains an interesting topic. In this paper, the application of a component mode synthesis method in squeak and rattle nonlinear simulation has been investigated. Critical regions for squeak and rattle of the side door model of a passenger car were modelled by nonlinear contact definition in finite element simulation. Craig-Bampton model reduction method was employed to substructure the finite element model while keeping the nonlinear contacts in the model.
Technical Paper

Interior Sound of Today's Electric Cars: Tonal Content, Levels and Frequency Distribution

When it comes to the acoustic properties of electric cars, the powertrain noise differs dramatically compared to traditional vehicles with internal combustion engines. The low frequency firing orders, mechanical and combustion noise are exchanged with a more high frequency whining signature due to electromagnetic forces and gear meshing, lower in level but subject to annoyance. Previous studies have highlighted these differences and also investigated relevant perception criteria in terms of psycho-acoustic metrics. However, investigations of differences between different kinds of electric and hybrid electric cars are still rare. The purpose of this paper was to present the distribution of tonal components in today's hybrid/electric vehicles. More specifically, the number of prominent orders, their maximum levels and frequency separation were analyzed for the most critical driving conditions. The study is based upon measurements made on 13 electrified cars on the market.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO (Ilmenau-Volvo) model and a neural-network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrized to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

Organic Evolution of Development Organizations - An Experience Report

In areas such as Active Safety, new technologies, designs (e.g. AUTOSAR) and methods are introduced at a rapid pace. To address the new demands, and also requirements on Functional Safety imposed by ISO 26262, the support for engineering methods, including tools and data management, needs to evolve as well. Generic and file-based data management tools, like spreadsheet tools, are popular in the industry due to their flexibility and legacy in the industry but provide poor control and traceability, while rigid and special-purpose tools provide structure and control of data but with limited evolvability. As organizations become agile, the need for flexible data management increases. Since products become more complex and developed in larger and distributed teams, the need for more unified, controlled, and consistent data increases.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Airborne Sound Transmission into the Passenger Compartment

Several of the exterior noise sources existing around a vehicle can cause airborne noise issues at relatively low frequencies. SEA, traditionally used for airborne sound issues is not suitable for the frequency range of interest. Finite Element analysis has been used. Handling of the non-reflecting condition on the outer boundary of the exterior cavity is an issue. Recently, advances have been made in several commercially available codes, which made the analysis practical. Including the poro-elastic material model for foam-based carpets is also becoming practically possible. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the practical applications of those new developments against test data, and to estimate the feasibility of using these procedures in the vehicle development projects. Measurements were carried out in a new semi-anechoic chamber at Volvo Cars. These measurements involved 3 body objects - a Body-in-Blue (BIB) sedan, a Complete Vehicle (CV) sedan and a CV wagon.