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Technical Paper

A Method for Estimating the Benefit of Autonomous Braking Systems Using Traffic Accident Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-0473
One way of avoiding crashes or mitigating the consequences of a crash is to apply an autonomous braking system. Quantifying the benefit of such a system in terms of injury reduction is a challenge. At the same time it is a fundamental input into the vehicle development process. This paper describes a method to estimate the effectiveness of reducing speed prior to impact. A holistic view of quantifying the benefit is presented, based on existing real life crash data and basic dynamic theories. It involves a systematic and new way of examining accident data in order to extract information concerning pre-crash situations. One problem area when implementing collision mitigation systems is being able to achieve sufficient target discrimination. The results from the case study highlight frontal impact situations from real world accident data that have the greatest potential in terms of improving accident outcome.
Technical Paper

A Reference Architecture for Infotainment Systems

2006-10-16
2006-21-0013
Volvo Car Corporation has developed a Reference Architecture for PAG1 Infotainment Systems. A Reference Architecture is an architecture scoping over more than a single system, i.e. an architecture aimed for a family of systems. The Infotainment Reference Architecture has since 2001 been successfully applied for the PAG family which so far covers the infotainment systems of Volvo XC90, Volvo S40/V50, Jaguar XK, Aston Martin DB9 and the brand new Volvo S80. In 1999, the system design departments started up with the clear objective to develop a system solution aiming for the PAG infotainment system family. The work was carried out according to the established development process at Volvo Cars. A year later a discouraging design review was performed. The number of involved functions, the level of function interaction and the distribution of functionalities between ECUs resulted in a non-manageable system solution.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Effects of Different Tire Models on a Sedan Type Passenger Car

2012-04-16
2012-01-0169
Targets for reducing emissions and improving energy efficiency present the automotive industry with many challenges. Passenger cars are by far the most common means of personal transport in the developed part of the world, and energy consumption related to personal transportation is predicted to increase significantly in the coming decades. Improved aerodynamic performance of passenger cars will be one of many important areas which will occupy engineers and researchers for the foreseeable future. The significance of wheels and wheel housings is well known today, but the relative importance of the different components has still not been fully investigated. A number of investigations highlighting the importance of proper ground simulation have been published, and recently a number of studies on improved aerodynamic design of the wheel have been presented as well. This study is an investigation of aerodynamic influences of different tires.
Technical Paper

Challenges and Opportunities for the Transition to Highly Energy-Efficient Passenger Cars

2011-06-09
2011-37-0013
Maintaining the current ratio between certified and the customer-observed fuel consumption even with future required levels poses a considerable challenge. Increasing the efficiency of the driveline enables certified fuel consumption down to a feasible level in the order of 80 g CO₂/km using fossil fuels. Mainly affecting off-cycle fuel consumption, energy amounts used to create good interior climate as well as energy-consuming options and features threaten to further increase. Progressing urbanization will lead to decreasing average vehicle speeds and driving distances. Highly efficient powertrains come with decreased amounts of waste energy traditionally used for interior climate conditioning, thus making necessary a change of auxiliary systems.
Technical Paper

Development of Acoustic Models for High Frequency Resonators for Turbocharged IC-Engines

2012-06-13
2012-01-1559
Automotive turbo compressors generate high frequency noise in the air intake system. This sound generation is of importance for the perceived sound quality of luxury cars and may need to be controlled by the use of silencers. The silencers usually contain resonators with slits, perforates and cavities. The purpose of the present work is to develop acoustic models for these resonators where relevant effects such as the effect of a realistic mean flow on losses and 3D effects are considered. An experimental campaign has been performed where the two-port matrices and transmission loss of sample resonators have been measured without flow and for two different mean flow speeds. Models for two resonators have been developed using 1D linear acoustic theory and a FEM code (COMSOL Multi-physics). For some resonators a separate linear 1D Matlab code has also been developed.
Technical Paper

Electric Power Assist Steering System Parameterization and Optimisation Employing Computer-Aided Engineering

2015-04-14
2015-01-1500
The automotive industry strives to develop high quality vehicles in a short period of time that satisfy the consumer needs and stand out in the competition. Full exploitation of simulation and Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools can enable quick evaluation of different vehicle concepts and setups without the need of building physical prototypes. Addressing the aforementioned statements this paper presents a method for optimising the Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS) ECU parameters employing solely CAE. The objective of the optimisation is to achieve a desired steering response. The developed process is tested on three specific steering metrics (friction feel, torque build-up and torque deadband) for two function parameters (basic steering torque and active return) of the EPAS. The optimisation method enabled all metrics to fall successfully within the target range.
Technical Paper

Influences of Different Front and Rear Wheel Designs on Aerodynamic Drag of a Sedan Type Passenger Car

2011-04-12
2011-01-0165
Efforts towards ever more energy efficient passenger cars have become one of the largest challenges of the automotive industry. This involves numerous different fields of engineering, and every finished model is always a compromise between different requirements. Passenger car aerodynamics is no exception; the shape of the exterior is often dictated by styling, engine bay region by packaging issues etcetera. Wheel design is also a compromise between different requirements such as aerodynamic drag and brake cooling, but as the wheels and wheel housings are responsible for up to a quarter of the overall aerodynamic drag on a modern passenger car, it is not surprising that efforts are put towards improving the wheel aerodynamics.
Journal Article

Investigation of Wheel Ventilation-Drag using a Modular Wheel Design Concept

2013-04-08
2013-01-0953
Passenger car fuel consumption is a constant concern for automotive companies and the contribution to fuel consumption from aerodynamics is well known. Several studies have been published on the aerodynamics of wheels. One area of wheel aerodynamics discussed in some of these earlier works is the so-called ventilation resistance. This study investigates ventilation resistance on a number of 17 inch rims, in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel. The ventilation resistance was measured using a custom-built suspension with a tractive force measurement system installed in the Wheel Drive Units (WDUs). The study aims at identifying wheel design factors that have significant effect on the ventilation resistance for the investigated wheel size. The results show that it was possible to measure similar power requirements to rotate the wheels as was found in previous works.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Peak Load Events Using Adams - Driving Over a Curb and Skid Against a Curb

2011-04-12
2011-01-0733
The durability peak load events Driving over a curb and Skid against a curb have been simulated in Adams for a Volvo S80. Simulated responses in the front wheel suspension have been validated by comparison with measurements. Due to the extreme nature of the peak load events, the component modeling is absolutely critical for the accuracy of the simulations. All components have to be described within their full range of excitation. Key components and behaviors to model have been identified as tire with wheel strike-through, contacts between curb and tire and between curb and rim, flexibility of structural components, bump stops, bushings, shock absorbers, and camber stiffness of the suspension. Highly non-linear component responses are captured in Adams. However, since Adams only allows linear material response for flexible bodies, the proposed methods to simulate impact loads are only valid up to small, plastic strains.
Technical Paper

Novel Modelling Techniques of the Evolution of the Brake Friction in Disc Brakes for Automotive Applications

2020-10-05
2020-01-1621
The aim of the presented research is to propose and benchmark two brake models, namely the novel dynamic ILVO (Ilmenau-Volvo) model and a neural-network based regression. These can estimate the evolution of the brake friction between pad and disc under different load conditions, which are typically experienced in vehicle applications. The research also aims improving the knowledge of the underlying mechanism related to the evolution of the BLFC (boundary layer friction coefficient), the reliability of virtual environment simulations to speed up the product development time and reducing the amount of vehicle test in later phases and finally improving brake control functions. With the support of extensive brake dynamometer testing, the proposed models are benchmarked against State-of-the-Art. Both approaches are parametrized to render the friction coefficient dynamics with respect to the same input parameters.
Technical Paper

On the Underbody Flow of a Simplified Estate

2000-03-06
2000-01-0485
The demand for more energy efficient vehicles is driven by environmental considerations and alternative engine technology. In order to reduce fuel consumption on future vehicles the power needed to propel the car has to be lowered. Hence, considerable efforts are needed to improve the aerodynamics. For a modern vehicle the potential for further improvements on drag is mainly to be found in the underbody region, Howell (1991). This requires more knowledge of the underbody flow and the flow around the wheels. In the present work the flow in the underbody region has been studied using a combination of experiments and calculations to obtain a more comprehensive database. The model chosen for this work was the so called ASMO model from Daimler Benz, which is a well known geometry that is available for the public on the internet. A simple model was preferred since the goal was to study the basic mechanisms behind drag generated by the underbody flow.
Technical Paper

Open-Interface Definitions for Automotive Systems1 Application to a Brake by Wire System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0267
Today automotive system suppliers develop more-or-less independent systems, such as brake, power steering and suspension systems. In the future, car manufacturers like Volvo will build up vehicle control systems combining their own algorithms with algorithms provided by automotive system suppliers. Standardization of interfaces to actuators, sensors and functions is an important enabler for this vision and will have major consequences for functionality, prices and lead times, and thus affects both vehicle manufacturers and automotive suppliers. The investigation of the level of appropriate interfaces, as part of the European BRAKE project, is described here. Potential problems and consequences are discussed from both a technical and a business perspective. This paper provides a background on BRAKE and on the functional decomposition upon which the interface definitions are based. Finally, the interface definitions for brake system functionality are given.
Technical Paper

Organic Evolution of Development Organizations - An Experience Report

2016-04-05
2016-01-0028
In areas such as Active Safety, new technologies, designs (e.g. AUTOSAR) and methods are introduced at a rapid pace. To address the new demands, and also requirements on Functional Safety imposed by ISO 26262, the support for engineering methods, including tools and data management, needs to evolve as well. Generic and file-based data management tools, like spreadsheet tools, are popular in the industry due to their flexibility and legacy in the industry but provide poor control and traceability, while rigid and special-purpose tools provide structure and control of data but with limited evolvability. As organizations become agile, the need for flexible data management increases. Since products become more complex and developed in larger and distributed teams, the need for more unified, controlled, and consistent data increases.
Journal Article

The Effects of Wheel Design on the Aerodynamic Drag of Passenger Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0662
Approximately 25 % of a passenger vehicle’s aerodynamic drag comes directly or indirectly from its wheels, indicating that the rim geometry is highly relevant for increasing the vehicle’s overall energy efficiency. An extensive experimental study is presented where a parametric model of the rim design was developed, and statistical methods were employed to isolate the aerodynamic effects of certain geometric rim parameters. In addition to wind tunnel force measurements, this study employed the flowfield measurement techniques of wake surveys, wheelhouse pressure measurements, and base pressure measurements to investigate and explain the most important parameters’ effects on the flowfield. In addition, a numerical model of the vehicle with various rim geometries was developed and used to further elucidate the effects of certain geometric parameters on the flow field.
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