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Technical Paper

A Method for Estimating the Benefit of Autonomous Braking Systems Using Traffic Accident Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-0473
One way of avoiding crashes or mitigating the consequences of a crash is to apply an autonomous braking system. Quantifying the benefit of such a system in terms of injury reduction is a challenge. At the same time it is a fundamental input into the vehicle development process. This paper describes a method to estimate the effectiveness of reducing speed prior to impact. A holistic view of quantifying the benefit is presented, based on existing real life crash data and basic dynamic theories. It involves a systematic and new way of examining accident data in order to extract information concerning pre-crash situations. One problem area when implementing collision mitigation systems is being able to achieve sufficient target discrimination. The results from the case study highlight frontal impact situations from real world accident data that have the greatest potential in terms of improving accident outcome.
Technical Paper

A Semiconductor Gas Sensor Array for the Detection of Gas Emissions from Interior Trim Materials in Automobiles

1998-02-23
980995
The principles of an electronic nose are described briefly. It is shown how a sensor array in combination with pattern recognition software can be used for quality control and classification of car interior trim materials. Anomalies such as bad smelling leather and carpet are shown as outliers. The results are consistent with GC-MS TVOC measurements as well as with data from a human sensory panel. More needs to be done, however, regarding the sensor stability in particular before the sensor array can be used for routine classification of the trim materials.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Effects of Different Tire Models on a Sedan Type Passenger Car

2012-04-16
2012-01-0169
Targets for reducing emissions and improving energy efficiency present the automotive industry with many challenges. Passenger cars are by far the most common means of personal transport in the developed part of the world, and energy consumption related to personal transportation is predicted to increase significantly in the coming decades. Improved aerodynamic performance of passenger cars will be one of many important areas which will occupy engineers and researchers for the foreseeable future. The significance of wheels and wheel housings is well known today, but the relative importance of the different components has still not been fully investigated. A number of investigations highlighting the importance of proper ground simulation have been published, and recently a number of studies on improved aerodynamic design of the wheel have been presented as well. This study is an investigation of aerodynamic influences of different tires.
Technical Paper

Analytical Methods for Durability in the Automotive Industry - The Engineering Process, Past, Present and Future

2001-03-05
2001-01-4075
In the early days of the automotive industry, durability and reliability were hit or miss affairs, with end-users often being the first to know about any durability problems - and in many cases forming an essential part of the development process. More recently, automotive companies have developed proving ground and laboratory test procedures that aim to simulate typical or severe customer usage. These test procedures have been used to develop the products through a series of prototypes and to prove the durability of the product prior to release in the marketplace. Now, commercial pressures and legal requirements have led to increasing reliance on CAE methods, with fatigue life prediction having a central role in the durability engineering process.
Technical Paper

Applying Design for Six Sigma to the Concept Development of an Automotive HMI

2008-04-14
2008-01-0353
Six Sigma is a development methodology which emphasizes objective evaluations based on facts and measurements. However, for some problems the information is inherently subjective, with large individual variations. Also, in the early development phases, it may be difficult to define measurable metrics that correctly capture the important qualities. The vehicle HMI is a good example of such an application. In this paper, we present experiences of applying Design for Six Sigma methods to the early development phases of an automotive HMI. The focus of the paper is on how to handle uncertainties and vague subjective information.
Technical Paper

Electric Power Assist Steering System Parameterization and Optimisation Employing Computer-Aided Engineering

2015-04-14
2015-01-1500
The automotive industry strives to develop high quality vehicles in a short period of time that satisfy the consumer needs and stand out in the competition. Full exploitation of simulation and Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools can enable quick evaluation of different vehicle concepts and setups without the need of building physical prototypes. Addressing the aforementioned statements this paper presents a method for optimising the Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS) ECU parameters employing solely CAE. The objective of the optimisation is to achieve a desired steering response. The developed process is tested on three specific steering metrics (friction feel, torque build-up and torque deadband) for two function parameters (basic steering torque and active return) of the EPAS. The optimisation method enabled all metrics to fall successfully within the target range.
Technical Paper

Influences of Different Front and Rear Wheel Designs on Aerodynamic Drag of a Sedan Type Passenger Car

2011-04-12
2011-01-0165
Efforts towards ever more energy efficient passenger cars have become one of the largest challenges of the automotive industry. This involves numerous different fields of engineering, and every finished model is always a compromise between different requirements. Passenger car aerodynamics is no exception; the shape of the exterior is often dictated by styling, engine bay region by packaging issues etcetera. Wheel design is also a compromise between different requirements such as aerodynamic drag and brake cooling, but as the wheels and wheel housings are responsible for up to a quarter of the overall aerodynamic drag on a modern passenger car, it is not surprising that efforts are put towards improving the wheel aerodynamics.
Journal Article

Investigation of Wheel Ventilation-Drag using a Modular Wheel Design Concept

2013-04-08
2013-01-0953
Passenger car fuel consumption is a constant concern for automotive companies and the contribution to fuel consumption from aerodynamics is well known. Several studies have been published on the aerodynamics of wheels. One area of wheel aerodynamics discussed in some of these earlier works is the so-called ventilation resistance. This study investigates ventilation resistance on a number of 17 inch rims, in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel. The ventilation resistance was measured using a custom-built suspension with a tractive force measurement system installed in the Wheel Drive Units (WDUs). The study aims at identifying wheel design factors that have significant effect on the ventilation resistance for the investigated wheel size. The results show that it was possible to measure similar power requirements to rotate the wheels as was found in previous works.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Peak Load Events Using Adams - Driving Over a Curb and Skid Against a Curb

2011-04-12
2011-01-0733
The durability peak load events Driving over a curb and Skid against a curb have been simulated in Adams for a Volvo S80. Simulated responses in the front wheel suspension have been validated by comparison with measurements. Due to the extreme nature of the peak load events, the component modeling is absolutely critical for the accuracy of the simulations. All components have to be described within their full range of excitation. Key components and behaviors to model have been identified as tire with wheel strike-through, contacts between curb and tire and between curb and rim, flexibility of structural components, bump stops, bushings, shock absorbers, and camber stiffness of the suspension. Highly non-linear component responses are captured in Adams. However, since Adams only allows linear material response for flexible bodies, the proposed methods to simulate impact loads are only valid up to small, plastic strains.
Technical Paper

On the Underbody Flow of a Simplified Estate

2000-03-06
2000-01-0485
The demand for more energy efficient vehicles is driven by environmental considerations and alternative engine technology. In order to reduce fuel consumption on future vehicles the power needed to propel the car has to be lowered. Hence, considerable efforts are needed to improve the aerodynamics. For a modern vehicle the potential for further improvements on drag is mainly to be found in the underbody region, Howell (1991). This requires more knowledge of the underbody flow and the flow around the wheels. In the present work the flow in the underbody region has been studied using a combination of experiments and calculations to obtain a more comprehensive database. The model chosen for this work was the so called ASMO model from Daimler Benz, which is a well known geometry that is available for the public on the internet. A simple model was preferred since the goal was to study the basic mechanisms behind drag generated by the underbody flow.
Technical Paper

Open-Interface Definitions for Automotive Systems1 Application to a Brake by Wire System

2002-03-04
2002-01-0267
Today automotive system suppliers develop more-or-less independent systems, such as brake, power steering and suspension systems. In the future, car manufacturers like Volvo will build up vehicle control systems combining their own algorithms with algorithms provided by automotive system suppliers. Standardization of interfaces to actuators, sensors and functions is an important enabler for this vision and will have major consequences for functionality, prices and lead times, and thus affects both vehicle manufacturers and automotive suppliers. The investigation of the level of appropriate interfaces, as part of the European BRAKE project, is described here. Potential problems and consequences are discussed from both a technical and a business perspective. This paper provides a background on BRAKE and on the functional decomposition upon which the interface definitions are based. Finally, the interface definitions for brake system functionality are given.
Technical Paper

SULEV Emission Technologies for a Five Cylinder N/A Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0894
The new SULEV legislation for passenger cars with gasoline powered engines, which will be introduced with the California LEV II program in the year 2003, requires a further development of the exhaust aftertreatment system. Three fundamentally different system approaches, each with very high efficiency in reducing cold start hydrocarbons, will be discussed in this paper. Vehicle test results will be presented to illustrate the potential of the respective systems towards the SULEV requirements. Durability aspects are also considered since an increased durability of 120 000 and even 150 000 miles is imposed by the legislation.
Technical Paper

Supporting an Automotive Safety Case through Systematic Model Based Development - the EAST-ADL2 Approach

2008-04-14
2008-01-0127
Automotive electronic systems are becoming safety related causing a need for more systematic and stringent approaches for demonstrating the functional safety. The safety case consists of an argumentation, supported by evidence, of why the system is safe to operate in a given context. It is dependent on referencing and aggregating information which is part of the EAST-ADL2, an architecture description language for automotive embedded systems. This paper explores the possibilities of integrating the safety case metamodel with the EAST-ADL2, enabling safety case development in close connection to the system model. This is done by including a safety case object in EAST-ADL2, and defining the external and internal relations.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Wheel Design on the Aerodynamic Drag of Passenger Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0662
Approximately 25 % of a passenger vehicle’s aerodynamic drag comes directly or indirectly from its wheels, indicating that the rim geometry is highly relevant for increasing the vehicle’s overall energy efficiency. An extensive experimental study is presented where a parametric model of the rim design was developed, and statistical methods were employed to isolate the aerodynamic effects of certain geometric rim parameters. In addition to wind tunnel force measurements, this study employed the flowfield measurement techniques of wake surveys, wheelhouse pressure measurements, and base pressure measurements to investigate and explain the most important parameters’ effects on the flowfield. In addition, a numerical model of the vehicle with various rim geometries was developed and used to further elucidate the effects of certain geometric parameters on the flow field.
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