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Journal Article

Detailed Kinetic Analysis of HCCI Combustion Using a New Multi-Zone Model and CFD Simulations

A new multi-zone model for the simulation of HCCI engine is here presented. The model includes laminar and turbulent diffusion and conduction exchange between the zones and the last improvements on the numerical aspects. Furthermore, a new strategy for the zone discretization is presented, which allows a better description of the near-wall zones. The aim of the work is to provide a fast and reliable model for carrying out chemical analysis with detailed kinetic schemes. A preliminary sensitivity analysis allows to verify that 10 zones are a convenient number for a good compromise between the computational effort and the description accuracy. The multi-zone predictions are then compared with the CFD ones to find the effective turbulence parameters, with the aim to describe the near-wall phenomena, both in a reactive and non-reactive cases.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Model Predictive Control for IPMSM Using High-Fidelity Electro-Thermal Model of Inverter for Electric Vehicle Applications

This paper presents a high-fidelity electro-thermal model of a half-bridge that consists of IGBTs and anti-parallel diodes. The model calculates and estimates the half-bridge voltages, currents, switching and conduction losses considering the operating temperature and current conditions. Moreover, this model is suitable for varying switching frequency operation. The electro-thermal model can be used as an evaluation tool to analyze the performance of control strategies for traction inverter from efficiency, temperature and component stress point of view. In this paper performance of Direct Torque Model Predictive Control (DTMPC) of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (IPMSM) is evaluated in comparison with Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC) with sinusoidal pulse width modulation (PWM). The inverter model and the MPC are both implemented in C-Mex for rapid execution.
Technical Paper

Experimental Identification of the Detachment Point on the ACHEON Thrust-Vectoring Nozzle

Thrust vectoring is an interesting propulsion solution in aeronautic applications due to its fast response, improving aircraft's performance for take-off, landing and flight, and enabling Short/Vertical Take-Off and Landing (S/VTOL). In this context, an attempt to design a radically new concept of thrust vectoring nozzle is in current development. This novel nozzle, called ACHEON, bases the jet deviation control on the interaction of two primary jets of different velocities, where the one with higher velocity entrains the one with lower velocity. Two cylindrical walls are positioned after the two air jets mixing. If the inlet conditions are not symmetric, the Coanda effect on the walls forces the resulting air jet to divert from the symmetry axis. This paper shows the experimental pressure distribution along the Coanda wall for different inlet.
Technical Paper

Fast Road Area Detection Using Planefitting

The paper presents an integrated software tool for the hydroplaning simulation based on a weak coupled fluid-structure interaction model. The integrated modules are a flow solver FINE™/Hexa designed to solve the complex two-phase flow surrounding the tire numerically, based on unstructured hexahedral grids, the FEM solver MSC.Marc/MSC.Mentat which predicts the transients of the tire's structure, a coupling module for efficient and accurate transfer of the essential variables between the flow and FEM solvers and a deformation module which handles the CFD unstructured mesh to match the external surface of the tire. The accuracy of each module and the robustness of the integrated software are validated by the computational results obtained for rigid and deformable tires over a large range of speeds.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modeling of Coanda Effect

This paper presents a theoretical model of Coanda attachment mechanisms and laws of the Coanda effect. In this paper, it has been considered a very conventional setup in order to define by a theoretical analysis a mathematical model of the Coanda adhesion. It has been produced a complete mathematical model which could allow simple engineering calculations through an effective solutions of the differential equations of the system. A parametric model has defined as a function of main cinematic and geometric parameters. The final model relates to three fundamental parameters: outlet section, Coanda surfaces radius and inlet velocities. Turbulent and laminar models have defined. Validation through a large CDF campaign has produced in a regime of stream velocities from 5 to 40 m/s with good results.
Journal Article

Structural Analysis of an Engine Chassis for a Disc-Shaped Airship with Thrust Vector Control

This paper presents a structural analysis of an engine chassis for a disc-shaped airship demonstrator. The objective was to verify such design solutions for application in the European Union's MAAT (Multibody Advanced Airship for Transport) project. In many airship designs, the engines are attached to the airship frame, located inside the balloon, in order to allow for thrust vector control. These airships have aerodynamic control surfaces to improve maneuverability. For the demonstrator, three engines are considered, with a non-rigid internal structure for their attachment. The engines are located on a horizontal plane (the symmetry plane of the balloon), with two lateral engines and one in front of the balloon. The chassis installation allows the engines to be attached either directly to the exterior envelope by using Kevlar connections, or to the central structural pipe. This chassis design has a simple construction, compared to typical structures addressed in the literature.
Technical Paper

Structural Modelling of Car Panels Using Holographic Modal Analysis

In order to optimise the vibro-acoustic behaviour of panel-like structures in a more systematic way, accurate structural models are needed. However, at the frequencies of relevance to the vibro-acoustic problem, the mode shapes are very complex, requiring a high spatial resolution in the measurement procedure. The large number of required transducers and their mass loading effects limit the applicability of accelerometer testing. In recent years, optical measuring methods have been proposed. Direct electronic (ESPI) imaging, using strobed continuous laser illumination, or more recently, pulsed laser illumination, have lately created the possibility to bring the holographic testing approach to the level of industrial applicability for modal analysis procedures. The present paper discusses the various critical elements of a holographic ESPI modal testing system.
Journal Article

Towards the Use of Eulerian Field PDF Methods for Combustion Modeling in IC Engines

Detailed chemistry and turbulence-chemistry interaction need to be properly taken into account for a realistic combustion simulation of IC engines where advanced combustion modes, multiple injections and stratified combustion involve a wide range of combustion regimes and require a proper description of several phenomena such as auto-ignition, flame stabilization, diffusive combustion and lean premixed flame propagation. To this end, different approaches are applied and the most used ones rely on the well-stirred reactor or flamelet assumption. However, well-mixed models do not describe correctly flame structure, while unsteady flamelet models cannot easily predict premixed flame propagation and triple flames. A possible alternative for them is represented by transported probability density functions (PDF) methods, which have been applied widely and effectively for modeling turbulent reacting flows under a wide range of combustion regimes.