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Technical Paper

A Comparison of Mode-Acceleration and Ritz Vector Reduced Basis Procedures in Transient Analysis

Reduced basis techniques and the method of mode-acceleration are applied to transient analysis of simple beam and truss structures. It is noted that the method of mode-acceleration effectively recovers the first Ritz vector used in Ritz procedures. The theoretical basis for Lanczos algorithms that generate Ritz vectors is explained. Both mode-acceleration and Ritz procedures are found, generally, to be more accurate than mode-displacement in calculation of transient shear stresses, moments and normal stresses. Reanalysis using Ritz vectors is discussed following Kitis and Pilkey [9] and Noor and Lowder [10].
Technical Paper

A Faster Algorithm for the Calculation of the IMEP

The Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) is a very important engine parameter, giving significant information about the quality of the cycle that transforms heat into mechanical work. For this reason, modern data acquisition systems display, on line, the cylinder pressure variation together with the corresponding IMEP. The paper presents a very simple algorithm for the calculation of IMEP, based on the correlation between IMEP and the gas pressure torque. It was found that that the IMEP may be calculated by a very simple formula involving only two harmonic components of the cylinder pressure variation. The computation of the two harmonic components is very easily performed because it does not involve the calculation of an average pressure and the cylinder volume variation. The method was experimentally validated showing differences less than 0.2% with respect to the IMEP calculated by the traditional method.
Technical Paper

A Flow Network Approach to Vehicle Underhood Heat Transfer Problem

A flow network method was developed to predict the underhood temperature distribution of an automobile. The method involves the solution of simplified energy and momentum equations of the air flow in control volumes defined by subdividing the air space between the surfaces of the underhood components and the front-end geometry. The control volumes are interconnected by ducts with branches and bends to form a flow network. Conservation of mass and momentum with appropriate pressure-loss coefficients leads to a system of algebraic equations to be solved for the flow rates through each volume. The computed flow rates are transferred to a thermal model to calculate the temperatures of the air and the major vehicle components that affect the underhood environment. The method was applied to a 1986 3.0L Taurus and compared with vehicle experiments conducted in a windtunnel.
Technical Paper

A Momentum and Energy Approach to Modeling Crash Behavior, Quantifying Crash Severity, and Identifying Crash Configurations

This paper focuses on the role and significance of linear momentum and kinetic energy in controlling air bags aboard vehicles. Among the results of the study are analytic and geometric models that characterize crash behavior and control algorithms that quantify crash severity and identify crash configurations. These results constitute an effective basis for crash-data design and air-bag control.
Technical Paper

A New Model Comparing Impact Responses of the Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Human Brain

A new three-dimensional human head finite element model, consisting of the scalp, skull, dura, falx, tentorium, pia, CSF, venous sinuses, ventricles, cerebrum (gray and white matter), cerebellum, brain stem and parasagittal bridging veins has been developed and partially validated against experimental data of Nahum et al (1977). A frontal impact and a sagittal plane rotational impact were simulated and impact responses from a homogeneous brain were compared with those of an inhomogeneous brain. Previous two-dimensional simulation results showed that differentiation between the gray and white matter and the inclusion of the ventricles are necessary in brain modeling to match regions of high shear stress to locations of diffuse axonal injury (DAI). The three-dimensional simulation results presented here also showed the necessity of including these anatomical features in brain modeling.
Technical Paper

A New Model of Traumatic Axonal Injury to Determine the Effects of Strain and Displacement Rates

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) continues to be a major health problem, with over 500,000 cases per year with a societal cost of approximately $85 billion in the US. Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of such injuries. In many cases of TBI widespread disruption of the axons occurs through a process known as diffuse axonal injury (DAI) or traumatic axonal injury (TAI). In the current study, an in vivo TAI model was developed using spinal nerve roots of adult rats. This model was used to determine functional and structural responses of axons to various strains and displacement rates. Fifty-six L5 dorsal nerve roots were each subjected to a predetermined strain range (<10%, 10-20% and >20%) at a specified displacement rate (0.01 mm/sec and 15 mm/sec) only once. Image analysis was used to determine actual strains on the roots during the pull.
Journal Article

A New Technique to Determine the Burning Velocity in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Many approaches have been taken to determine the burning velocity in internal combustion engines. Experimentally, the burning velocity has been determined in optically accessible gasoline engines by tracking the propagation of the flame front from the spark plug to the end of the combustion chamber. These experiments are costly as they require special imaging techniques and major modifications in the engine structure. Another approach to determine the burning velocity is from 3D CFD simulation models. These models require basic information about the mechanisms of combustion which are not available for distillate fuels in addition to many assumptions that have to be made to determine the burning velocity. Such models take long periods of computational time for execution and have to be calibrated and validated through experimentation.
Technical Paper

A Novel Concept of Power Transmission Gear Design

Conventional gear designs are characterized by the meshing teeth which have to accommodate bending loads with a high dynamic load content, together with high contact stresses under a reciprocal sliding. Accordingly, special materials with sophisticated heat treatments, and high fabrication accuracy are required for heavy-duty gears, such as being used in off-road vehicle transmissions The paper describes a novel concept for designing power transmission gears, which eliminates physical sliding between meshing profiles and separates bending and contact loading of the teeth. Geometrical sliding is accommodated by internal shear deformation in specially designed rubber-metal laminates, thus allowing materials with high bulk strength but poor contact properties (aluminum, titanium, fiber-reinforced composites, etc.) to be used for heavy-duty gears.
Technical Paper

A Practical Time-Domain Approach to Controller Design and Calibration for Applications in Automotive Industry

This paper summarizes a systematic approach to control of nonlinear automotive systems exposed to fast transients. This approach is based on a combined application of hardware characterization, which inverts nonlinearities, and conventional Proportional-plus-Integral-plus-Derivative (PID) control. The approach renders the closed-loop system dynamics more transparent and simplifies the controller design and calibration for applications in automotive industry. The authors have found this approach effective in presenting and teaching PID controller design and calibration guidelines to automotive engineering audience, who at times may not have formal training in controls but need to understand the development and calibration process of simple controllers.
Technical Paper

A tibial mid-shaft injury mechanism in frontal automotive crashes

Lower extremity injuries in frontal automotive crashes usually occur with footwell intrusion where both the knee and foot are constrained. In order to identify factors associated with tibial shaft injury, a series of numerical simulations were conducted using a finite element model of the whole human body. These simulations demonstrated that tibial mid-shaft injuries in frontal crashes could be caused by an abrupt change in velocity and a high rate of footwell intrusion.
Technical Paper

Abdominal Injury and Response in Side Impact

The purpose of this paper is to address abdominal injury and response in cadaver whole body side impacts and abdominal injury risk functions in SID and BIOSID in whole body impacts. Side impact sled tests were performed at Wayne State University using cadavers, SID and BIOSID, with response measured at the shoulder, thorax, abdominal and pelvic levels. The data at the abdominal level are presented here. These data provide further understanding of abdominal tolerance and response in lateral impact and the ability of side impact dummies to predict abdominal injury. In addition, the padding data provide insight into tolerable armrest loads.
Technical Paper

Active Control of Vibration and Noise in Automotive Timing Chain Drives

Vibration and noise are generally considered to be the major problems in power transmission chains. This paper presents an adaptive, active control strategy for the reduction of vibration in automotive timing chain drives and examines the effects of the active control on noise reduction. Experimental results show that the average vibration amplitude is diminished by as much as 90% under low to moderate tension conditions, and the chain noise is reduced by about 3 dB. The experimental apparatus has low cost and is readily applicable to an industrial environment.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of TTI and ASA in SID Side Impact Sled Tests

Thirty-seven SID side impact sled tests were performed using a rigid wall and a padded wall with fourteen different padding configurations. The Thoracic Trauma Index (TTI) and Average Spine Acceleration (ASA) were measured in each test. TTI and ASA were evaluated in terms of their ability to predict injury in identical cadaver tests and in terms of their ability to predict the harm or benefit of padding of different crush strengths. SID ASA predicted the injury seen in WSU-CDC cadaver tests better than SID TTI. SID ASA predicted that padding of greater than 20 psi crush strength is harmful (ASA > 40 g's). SID TTI predicted that padding of greater than 20 psi crush strength is beneficial (TTI < 85 g's). SID TTI predicts the benefit of lower impact velocity. However, SID ASA appears more useful in assessing the harm or benefit of door padding or air bags.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of the Flow Structure Inside the Catalytic Converter of a Gasoline Engine

The flow structure inside the catalytic converter of gasoline engines is very important for consideration of the catalyst light-off condition, converter durability and conversion efficiency. However, the available experimental data under actual engine exhaust conditions are quite limited due to its complicated configuration, critical operating conditions and difficult optical access. Therefore, an experimental study was performed, using laser Doppler velocimetry technique, to measure the velocity distributions inside two production dual-monolith catalytic converters fitted on a firing gasoline engine over several engine operating conditions. This paper reports the normal velocity characteristics measured in a plane 1 mm away from the front surface of first monolith. A small fraction of titanium (IV) isopropoxide was dissolved in gasoline for generating titanium dioxide seeding particles during the engine combustion.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Analytical Investigation of the Spray Structure from Automotive Port Injectors

Port fuel injection system in gasoline engines is receiving an increasing attention for its potential advantages in meeting the constrains of simultaneous reduction in fuel consumption and exhaust emission, and maintaining a good engine performance. The structure of port injector spray dominates the mixture preparation process and strongly affect the subsequent engine combustion characteristics over a wide range of operating conditions in port-injection gasoline engines. In this paper, an experimental and analytical study is made to characterize the breakup mechanism and atomization process of the non-air-assisted port injector sprays in gasoline engines. The liquid sprays resulted from various types of current and development-type automotive fuel injectors were visualized using planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging technique. A comparison was made on the spray structure of the single hole and multi-hole injectors.
Technical Paper

An Ultrasonic Proximity System for Automobile Collision Avoidance

The Ultrasonic Collision Avoidance System is designed to eliminate collisions when cars, trucks, and other vehicles are backing up. Many backup collisions result when objects are not in view or when a driver underestimates the distance to the object. The Ultrasonic Proximity System warns the driver of objects in the path and displays the distance to the object. The distance to an object is represented by a 10 segment light emitting diode (LED) bar graph. If all LED's are off, the object is more than 10 feet away. The first LED will illuminate at approximately 10 feet, and as the vehicle moves closer to the obstruction more LED's illuminate, about 1 LED per foot. If the object is closer than 1′-6″, the last LED will illuminate and an audible alarm will sound.
Journal Article

An Unbiased Estimate of the Relative Crash Risk of Cell Phone Conversation while Driving an Automobile

A key aim of research into cell phone tasks is to obtain an unbiased estimate of their relative risk (RR) for crashes. This paper re-examines five RR estimates of cell phone conversation in automobiles. The Toronto and Australian studies estimated an RR near 4, but used subjective estimates of driving and crash times. The OnStar, 100-Car, and a recent naturalistic study used objective measures of driving and crash times and estimated an RR near 1, not 4 - a major discrepancy. Analysis of data from GPS trip studies shows that people were in the car only 20% of the time on any given prior day at the same clock time they were in the car on a later day. Hence, the Toronto estimate of driving time during control windows must be reduced from 10 to 2 min.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Reduction of Rattling in Power Transmission Systems

Rattling in the inevitable clearances between engaging teeth of mechanical power transmission components, such as gears, gear couplings and clutches, etc., is becoming a more and more important issue, especially for automotive applications. An extensive research effort in this area is mostly dedicated to modeling of complex nonlinear processes that develop after the tooth separation occurs, or to experimental studies of these processes. The available abatement techniques for the rattling noise are expensive while not providing desirable noise reduction results. The paper presents a criterial condition for opening of clearances derived for a simplified model and clearly showing importance of various design parameters on possibility of commencement of the rattling process. Also, a novel rattling noise abatement technique is described, based on incorporating simple means for prolongation of the impact interactions between the co-impacting engaging teeth.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Head and Neck Response During Side Impact

Numerical analyses of head and neck response during side impact are presented in this paper. A mathematical human model for side impact simulation was developed based on previous studies of other researchers. The effects of muscular activities during severe side impact were analyzed with the use of this model. This study shows that the effect of muscular activities is significant especially if the occupant is prepared to resist the impact. This result suggests that the modeling of muscles is important for the simulation of real accident situation.
Technical Paper

Aortic Mechanics in High-Speed Racing Crashes

Auto racing has been in vogue from the time automobiles were first built. With the dawn of modern cars came higher engine capacities; the speeds involved in these races and crashes increased as well. However, the advent of passive restraint systems such as the helmet, HANS (Head and Neck Support device), multi-point harness system, roll cage, side and frontal crush zones, racing seats, fire retardant suits, and soft-wall technology, have greatly improved the survivability of the drivers in high-speed racing crashes. Three left lateral crashes from Begeman and Melvin (2002), Case #LAS12, #IND14 and #99TX were used as inputs to the Wayne State Human Body Model (WSHBM) in a simulated racing buck. Twelve simulations with delta-v, six-point harness and shoulder pad as design variables were analyzed for the average maximum principal strain (AMPS) in the aorta. The average AMPS for the high-speed crashes were 0.1551±0.0172 while the average maximum pressure was 110.50±4.25 kPa.