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Automotive Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

This book covers the latest global technical initiatives in the rapidly progressing area of gasoline direct injection (GDI), spark-ignited gasoline engines and examines the contribution of each process and sub-system to the efficiency of the overall system. Including discussions, data, and figures from many technical papers and proceedings that are not available in the English language, Automotive Gasoline Direct Injection Systems will prove to be an invaluable desk reference for any GDI subject or direct-injection subsystem that is being developed worldwide.
Technical Paper

Diesel Cold-Starting Study Using Optically Accessible Engines

An experimental and numerical study was carried out to simulate the diesel spray behavior during cold starting conditions inside two single-cylinder optically accessible engines. One is an AVL single-cylinder research diesel engine converted for optical access; the other is a TACOM/LABECO engine retrofitted with mirror-coupled endoscope access. The first engine is suitable for sophisticated optical diagnostics but is constrained to limited consecutive fuel injections or firings. The second one is located inside a micro-processor controlled cold room; therefore it can be operated under a wide range of practical engine conditions and is ideal for cycle-to-cycle variation study. The intake and blow-by flow rates are carefully measured in order to clearly define the operation condition. In addition to cylinder pressure measurement, the experiment used 16-mm high-speed movie photography to directly visualize the global structures of the sprays and ignition process.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Understanding of a Multi-Sensing Piezo Fuel Injector Signal and Its Applications in Diagnosis

Electronic controls in internal combustion engines require an in-cylinder combustion sensor to produce a feedback signal to the ECU (Engine Control Unit). Recent research indicated that the ion current sensor has many advantages over the pressure transducer, related mainly to lower cost. Modified glow plugs in diesel engines, and fuel injectors in both gasoline and diesel engines can be utilized as ion current sensors without the addition any part or drilling holes in the cylinder head needed for the pressure transducer. Multi sensing fuel injector (MSFI) system is a new technique which instruments the fuel injector with an electric circuit to perform multiple sensing tasks including functioning as an ion sensor in addition to its primary task of delivering the fuel into the cylinder. It is necessary to fundamentally understand MSFI system.
Technical Paper

Near-Nozzle Structure of Diesel Sprays Affected by Internal Geometry of Injector Nozzle: Visualized by Single-Shot X-ray Imaging

By taking advantage of high-intensity and high-brilliance x-ray beams available at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), ultrafast (150 ps) propagation-based phase-enhanced imaging was developed to visualize high-pressure high-speed diesel sprays in the optically dense near-nozzle region. The sub-ns temporal and μm spatial resolution allows us to capture the morphology of the high-speed fuel sprays traveling at 500 m/s with a negligible motion blur. Both quality and quantitative information about the spray feature can be readily obtained. In the experiment, two types of single-hole nozzles have been used, one with a hydroground orifice inlet and the other with a sharp one. Within 3 mm from the nozzle, the sprays from these nozzles behave differently, ranging from laminar flow with surface instability waves to turbulent flow. The sprays are correlated with the nozzle internal geometry, which provides practical information for both nozzle design and supporting numerical simulation models.
Technical Paper

Numerical Prediction and Validation of Fuel Spray Behavior in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

Analysis of flow field and charge distribution in a gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engine is performed by a modified version of the KIVA code. A particle-based spray model is proposed to simulate a swirl-type hollow-cone spray in a GDI engine. Spray droplets are assumed to be fully atomized and introduced at the sheet breakup locations as determined by experimental correlations and energy conservation. The effects of the fuel injection parameters such as spray cone angle and ambient pressure are examined for different injectors and injection conditions. Results show reasonable agreement with the measurements for penetration, dispersion, global shape, droplet velocity and size distribution by Phase Doppler Particle Anemometry(PDPA) in a constant-volume chamber. The test engine is a 4-stroke 4-valve optically accessible single-cylinder engine with a pent-roof head and tumble ports.
Technical Paper

Performance, Durability, and Stability of a Power Generator Fueled with ULSD, S-8, JP-8, and Biodiesel

The feasibility of using ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), synthetic paraffinic kerosene (S-8), military grade jet fuel (JP-8) and commercial B20 blend (20% v biodiesel in ULSD) in a power generator equipped with a compression ignition (CI) engine was investigated according to the MIL-STD-705C military specifications for engine-driven generator sets. Several properties of these fuels such as cetane number, lubricity, viscosity, cold flow properties, heat of combustion, distillation temperatures, and flash point, were evaluated. All fuels were tested for 240 hours at a stationary load of 30 kW (60% of full load) with no alteration to the engine calibrations. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), frequency, and power of the generator using S-8, JP-8 and B20 were compared with the baseline fuel ULSD.
Technical Paper

Starting of Diesel Engines: Uncontrolled Fuel Injection Problems

Many problems can develop from the uncontrolled fuel injection during cranking and starting of diesel engines. Some of the problems are related to excessive wear as a result of the high peak pressures reached upon combustion after misfiring, the relatively low rotating speeds and the lack of formation of a lubricating oil film between the interacting surfaces. Another problem is the emission of high amounts of unburned hydrocarbons and white smoke. Experimental results are given for a single cylinder and a multicylinder diesel engine, for the instantaneous angular velocity and cylinder pressures from the starter-on point until the engine fires. The causes of misfiring during cranking are investigated. The role of the increased blow-by gases on the autoignition process at the low cranking speeds is analyzed both analytically and experimentally. The contribution of the instantaneous angular velocity at the time of injection, on the autoignition process is investigated.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effect on Performance of a Commercial Fuel Filter for Biodiesel Blends with ULSD

Biodiesel offers a potentially viable alternative fuel source for diesel automotive applications. However, biodiesel may present problems at colder temperatures due to the crystallization of fatty acid methyl esters and precipitation of other components, such as unreacted triglycerides and sterol glycosides in biodiesel. At lower temperatures, the fuel gels until it solidifies in the fuel lines, clogging the fuel filter, and shutting down the engine. A laboratory-based continuous loop fuel system was utilized to determine the flow properties at low temperatures of biodiesel in B100, B20, and B10 blends for soybean and choice white grease (pig fat) biodiesel fuel. The continuous loop fuel delivery system was designed to be similar to those that can be found in engines and vehicles currently in use, and provided a mechanical pump or an electric pump as a means to simulate systems found in the different types of vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel-Line Pressure Perturbation on the Spray Atomization Characteristics of Automotive Port Fuel Injectors

An experimental study was carried out to characterize the spray atomization process of automotive port fuel injectors retrofitted to a novel pressure modulation piezoelectric driver, which generates a pressure perturbation inside the fuel line. Unlike many other piezoelectric atomizers, this unit does not drive the nozzle directly. It has a small size and can be installed easily between regular port injector and fuel lines. There is no extra control difficulty with this system since the fuel injection rate and injection timing are controlled by the original fuel-metering valve. The global spray structures were characterized using the planar laser Mie scattering (PLMS) technique and the spray atomization processes were quantified using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) technique.
Technical Paper

The Spray Characteristics of Automotive Port Fuel Injection-A Critical Reviews

The requirement of meeting the emission standards for low emission vehicles (LEV) and ultra low emission vehicles (ULEV) has resulted in a more stringent examination of all elements of the automotive internal combustion engine that contribute to emission formation. The fuel system, as one of the key elements, is the subject of renewed and expanded research in an effort to understand and optimize the important parameters. Only through such enhanced understanding of the basic processes of fuel injection, metering, atomization, targeting, pulse-to-pulse variability and induction of fuel under cold, normal and elevated temperature conditions can the very low emissions of today's vehicles be further reduced to ULEV values.
Technical Paper

Ultrafast X-Ray Phase-Enhanced Microimaging for Visualizing Fuel Injection Process

Propagation-based and phase-enhanced x-ray imaging was developed as a unique metrology technique to visualize the internal structure of high-pressure fuel injection nozzles. We have visualized the microstructures inside 200-μm fuel injection nozzles in a 3-mm-thick steel housing using this novel technique. Furthermore, this new x-ray-based metrology technique has been used to directly study the highly transient needle motion in the nozzles in situ and in real-time, which is virtually impossible by any other means. The needle motion has been shown to have the most direct effect on the fuel jet structure and spray formation immediately outside of the nozzle. In addition, the spray cone-angle has been perfectly correlated with the numerically simulated fuel flow inside the nozzle due to the transient nature of the needle during the injection.