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Technical Paper

A Hybrid System Solution of the Interrupt Latency Compatibility Problem

Microprocessors and microcontrollers are now widely used in automobiles. Microprocessor systems contain sources of interrupt and interrupt service routines, which are software components executed in response to the assertion of an interrupt in hardware. A major problem in designing the software of microprocessor systems is the analytical treatment of interrupt latency. Because multiple interrupt service routines are executed on the same CPU, they compete for the CPU and interfere with each other's latency requirements. Here, interrupt latency is defined as the delay between the assertion of the interrupt in hardware and the start of execution of the associated interrupt service routine. It is estimated that 80% of intermittent bugs in small microprocessor software loads are due to improper treatment of interrupts. Until this work, there is no analytic method for analyzing a particular system to determine if it may violate interrupt latency requirements.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Technique for Friction Simulation in Automotive Piston Ring and Cylinder Liners

A new friction testing system has been designed and built to simulate the actual engine conditions in friction and wear test of piston-ring and cylinder liner assembly. Experimental data has been developed as Friction Coefficient / Crank Angle Degree diagrams including the effects of running speed (500 and 700 rpm) and ring normal load. Surface roughness profilocorder traces were obtained for tested samples. Mixed lubrication regime observed in the most part of the test range. New cylinder bore materials and lubricants can be screened easily and more reliable simulated engine friction data can be collected using this technique.
Technical Paper

A Severe Ankle and Foot Injury in Frontal Crashes and Its Mechanism

In a frontal automotive crash, the driver's foot is usually stepping on the brake pedal as an instinctive response to avoid a collision. The tensile force generated in the Achilles tendon produces a compressive preload on the tibia. If there is intrusion of the toe board after the crash, an additional external force is applied to the driver's foot. A series of dynamic impact tests using human cadaveric specimens was conducted to investigate the combined effect of muscle preloading and external force. A constant tendon force was applied to the calcaneus while an external impact force was applied to the forefoot by a rigid pendulum. Preloading the tibia significantly increased the tibial axial force and the combination of these forces resulted in five tibial pylon fractures out of sixteen specimens.
Technical Paper

A Warpage Measurement System with Large Dynamic Range for Boards with Components

A new algorithm for carrier removal, a key step in the Fourier transform method of fringe pattern analysis, is presented in this paper. The accuracy of frequency estimations is critical to carrier removal to avoid potential significant errors in the recovered phase. A new algorithm on Fourier transform and curve fitting technique is developed. To avoid an ill-conditioned result in solving the least-square problem, an orthogonal polynomial curve fitting algorithm is developed. A new system that combines projected grating moiré (PM) with shadow moiré (SM), recently designed and built with large dynamic range for both component level and board level warpage measurement for the reliability study of electronic packaging materials and structures, is presented and demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Response of the Bovine Pia-Arachnoid Complex to Normal Traction Loading at Varying Strain Rates

The pia-arachnoid complex (PAC) covering the brain plays an important role in the mechanical response of the brain due to impact or inertial loading. The mechanical properties of the bovine PAC under tensile loading have been characterized previously. However, the transverse properties of this structure, such as shear and normal traction which are equally important to understanding the skull/brain interaction under traumatic loading, have not been investigated. These material properties are essential information needed to adequately define the material model of the PAC in a finite element (FE) model of human brain. The purpose of this study was to determine, experimentally, the material properties of the PAC under normal traction loading. PAC specimens were obtained from freshly slaughtered bovine subjects from various locations.
Technical Paper

Design for Lean Six Sigma (DFLSS): Philosophy, Tools, Potential and Deployment Challenges in Automotive Product Development

Lean Six Sigma is an approach that is gaining momentum both in manufacturing and service industries. Design for Lean Six Sigma (DFLSS) is an outgrowth of the DFSS and Lean Six Sigma approaches. The essence of DFLSS is to ensure design quality and predictability during the early design phases and the approach employs a structured integrated product development methodology and a comprehensive set of robust tools to drive product quality, innovation, faster time to market, and lower product costs. When it comes to automotive Product Development, applying lean principles and DFSS together becomes more of a challenge within the existing PD system. While the benefits of DFLSS present an attractive proposition in a fiercely competitive market it brings its own challenges as to how to deploy it for maximum benefits. This paper examines the challenges, potential and opportunities for DFLSS in the automotive industry and presents a vision for integrating it in to the Product Development System.
Technical Paper

Driver Demand: Eye Glance Measures

This study investigated driver glances while engaging in infotainment tasks in a stationary vehicle while surrogate driving: watching a driving video recorded from a driver’s viewpoint and projected on a large screen, performing a lane-tracking task, and performing the Tactile Detection Response Task (TDRT) to measure attentional effects of secondary tasks on event detection and response. Twenty-four participants were seated in a 2014 Toyota Corolla production vehicle with the navigation system option. They performed the lane-tracking task using the vehicle’s steering wheel, fitted with a laser pointer to indicate wheel movement on the driving video. Participants simultaneously performed the TDRT and a variety of infotainment tasks, including Manual and Mixed-Mode versions of Destination Entry and Cancel, Contact Dialing, Radio Tuning, Radio Preset selection, and other Manual tasks. Participants also completed the 0-and 1-Back pure auditory-vocal tasks.
Technical Paper

Effect of Imposed Faults on a Distributor Injection System

The effects of several faults on different parameters in a distributor injection system are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The faults imposed on a healthy system are: fuel leaks between the pump and injector, improper adjustment of the injector opening pressure, a broken or missing injector spring, plugged nozzle holes, and a stuck-closed needle. The injector parameters examined include maximum fuel pressures reached at different locations in the system, needle lift, injection lag, and injection rate.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Resistance of Short Fiber-Reinforced TiNi/Al6061-SiC Composite

The short NiTi fiber-reinforced NiTi/Al6061-SiC composite was recently developed through the U.S. Army SBIR Phase-II program [1]. The objectives of this project are to use short NiTi fiber reinforcement to induce compressive stress through shape memory effect, to use silicon carbide (SiC) particulate reinforcement to enhance the mechanical properties of the aluminum matrix, to gain fundamental knowledge of short NiTi fiber-reinforced aluminum matrix composite, and eventually to improve fatigue resistance, impact damage tolerance and fracture toughness of the composite. The fatigue life, damage and fracture behavior of TiNi/Al6061-SiC, TiNi/Al6061, Al6061-SiC composites as well as monolithic Al6061 alloy were investigated under fully reversed cyclic loading. It was found that fatigue life of NiTi/Al6061-SiC composite, in term of the cycles, increased by two orders of magnitude, compared to monolithic Al6061 alloy
Technical Paper

Institute for Manufacturing Research, Wayne State University

The purpose of the Institute for Manufacturing Research (IMR) is to enhance Wayne State University's existing technological strength in the areas of manufacturing research which have demonstrated potential benefits for the State's economy. IMR's faculty conduct basic and applied research in selected areas of manufacturing science. The research programs within the Institute are broadly interdisciplinary and industrially interactive, and are organized around the following areas: materials development, modification, and nondestructive evaluation; software technology for manufacturing and engineering; and product reliability and machine tool research. Faculty from eight departments within the Colleges of Science and Engineering participate in IMR.
Technical Paper

Latency Analysis for Inter-Vehicle Communications

The study done by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) shows that developing automotive collision warning and avoidance systems will be very effective in order to significantly reduce fatalities, injuries and associated costs. In order to develop an automotive collision warning and avoidance system, it will be necessary that the vehicles should be able to exchange (in real-time) their dynamic information such as speed, acceleration, direction, relative position, status of some devices like brake, steering wheel, gas pedal, etc. The only feasible way to exchange the vehicles’ dynamic information will be through the use of wireless communication technology. However, the wireless link setup time and communication latencies should be under certain bounds so that the vehicles can appropriately react on time to avoid collisions. This paper will present results from an experimental setup that simulates inter-vehicle communications.
Technical Paper

Lattice Brake Disc Instability Analysis Using Transient Complex Eigenvalue Method in Terms of Excitation Applied to the Pad

This paper describes an integrated approach to the analysis of brake squeal with newly lattice brake disc design. The procedure adopted to define the lattice properties by considering the periodicity cell of lattice plates, present equations of motion and modes response of a periodic lattice disc in principal coordinates on the rotating disc which excited by distributed axial load. The non-linear contact problem is carried out based on a typical passenger car brake for vanned and lattice brake disc types as it undergoes a partial simulation of the SAE J2521 drag braking noise test. The experimental modal analysis (EMA) with impact hammer test is used to obtain the brake rotor modal properties and validated finite element Free- Free State and stability analysis. The fugitive nature of brake squeal is analyzed through the complex eigenvalue extraction technique to define dynamic instability.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Analysis of Rotor In-plane Mode Induced Disc Brake Squeal and Beyond

This paper provides measurement and analysis on rotor in-plane mode induced squeal. Methodology is presented to simultaneously acquire both temporal and spatial squeal operational deflection shapes (ODS). Rotor accelerations both in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions were measured during squeal along with rotor's normal ODS using a laser vibrometer. Modal measurement and analysis of the rotor and pad in the in-plane and out-of-plane directions were conducted as installed in system condition. The test results indicating rotor modal coupling in the in-plane are provided, and out-of-plane directions, and conclusions on in-plane mode induced squeal are proposed. In addition, the countermeasure for squeal reduction is discussed.
Technical Paper

Modeling Considerations in Use of Boundary Element Methods With Substructures

The boundary integral equation method (BIEM) of analysis was applied to problems involving beams, thick plates and stress concentration regions. Beam and plate problems were considered to provide guidelines for use of the three-dimensional BIEM to analyze brackets and other components which have “solid like” regions as well as regions which are “beam or plate like”. In unsubstructured form the BIEM produced results in excellent agreement with exact solutions from elasticity theory for plates with length/thickness ratios as large as 40. Loading cases included bending by terminal couples and flexure by terminal loads. Using substructuring, CP times were reduced. CP times for both the IBM 3084 and the CDC CYBER 205 were obtained, the influence of varying integration orders discussed, and techniques to assess the accuracy of computed results were described.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Dynamic Responses of Injectors for an Automotive Fuel Rail System

This paper presents a computer model for simulating dynamic responses inside an injector of an automotive fuel rail system. The injector contains a filter at the top, a coil spring in the middle, and a needle and orifices at the bottom. The equations of motion for unsteady one-dimensional flow are derived for the fluid flowing through the injector. The needle motion is described by a second order ordinary differential equation. The forces exerted on the needle include the magnetic force that controls the opening and closing of the injector and the coil spring force. To account for the loss of kinetic energy, we define two loss factors Ka and Kb. The former describes the loss of kinetic energy as fluid enters the injector through the filter at the top, and the latter depicts that as fluid is ejected into a large chamber through the passage between the needle and the needle seat and across four orifices at the bottom of the injector.
Technical Paper

Occupant Compartment Updates for Side to Side Vibration in a Fuel Funny Car

Nitro Fuel Funny cars have 7-8,000 hp and travel 330 mph in a quarter mile. These cars experience extreme forces in normal operation. One phenomenon familiar to drag racers is tire shake. Mild cases can cause loss of traction and vision. Extreme cases can cause injury or death. In March of 2007, a study and subsequent revision of the passenger compartment in a Fuel Funny car was performed after a fatal accident due to extreme tire shake. Tire shake on a drag race car normally occurs when the force on the rear tire causes the tire to roll over itself causing a loss of traction and side-to-side vibration. In other cases, if the tire fails at high speed, the tire may partially separate, causing an extreme vibration in the cockpit of the car. The vibration may set up a harmonic in the chassis, which is transferred to the driver since the rear end is bolted directly to the chassis with no suspension to absorb the energy.
Technical Paper

Parallel-Through-The-Road Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Design Development Process

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR 2 Team designed the conversion of a GM donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu to a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) Plug-In Hybrid vehicle within a 9 month timeframe. This fast prototyping project used the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (EVDP). Various tradeoffs were made to meet all competition requirements and to make the vehicle as competitive as possible within budget, time and experience limitations. The chosen PTTR architecture, nicknamed by the team as “E2D2” (Ethanol-Electric Dual-Drivetrain), provides up to 35.7 electric only miles and a fuel economy of 60 miles per gallons gasoline equivalent (mpgge) or 3.96 liters gasoline equivalent (lge) per one hundred km. This is accomplished using an E85 engine-driven front traction system and a battery-electric-motors-driven rear traction system. The team developed the control system and designed the packaging and integration of all required components including the Energy Storage System (ESS).
Technical Paper

Product Development Process: Views and Analysis

Dr. Edwards Deming spirited organizations “If you can't define what you do as a process, you don't know what your job is” (Weinstein, 1999). Significant effort has been conducted to engineer, deploy and control a process to product development. This coverage reflects impact of product development process on developing and producing consumer products effectively and successfully for the future. Reflecting on the past and observing mistakes and lessons learned would be key to help our companies to engineer future or modify existing product development processes. This paper examines views, types and needs of product development process from a six sigma perspective to enable deliver of competitive products with cost and time in mind. Learning from the past enlightens us to identify opportunities that would drive evolution and trend of product development process into the future. A recommended view is presented that changes the way product development process is designed and implemented.
Technical Paper

Pulse Power Testing of Batteries and Supercapacitors for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications: A Comparison of Constant Current, Constant Power, and Ramped Power Transients

The central performance requirement for electrochemical energy storage systems for the full power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is pulse power capability, typically 25-40 kW pulse power capability for 10 seconds duration. Standard test procedures utilize constant current pulses. However, in the HEV application, the power transient for acceleration is a ramped power transient and the power transient for regenerative braking power is a descending power ramp. This paper compares the usable power capability of batteries and supercapacitors under constant current, constant power, and ramped power transients. Although the usable battery discharge power is relatively insensitive to the transient type applied, 10-40% higher regenerative braking charge capability is observed with ramped power transients. With supercapacitors, the discharge and charge capability is much more strongly dependent on the type of power transient.
Journal Article

Shell Elements Based Parametric Modeling Method in Frame Robust Design and Optimization

Shell Elements based Parametric Frame Modeling is a powerful CAE tool, which can generate robust frame design concept optimized for NVH and durability quickly when combined with Taguchi Design of Experiments. The scalability of this modeling method includes cross members length/location/section/shape, frame rail segments length/section and kick in/out/up/down angle, and access hole location & size. In the example of the D. O. E. study, more than fifteen parameters were identified and analyzed for frequency and weight. The upper and lower bounds were set for each design parameter based on package and manufacturing constraints. Sixteen Finite Element frame were generated by parametrically updating the base model, which shows this modeling method is comparatively convenient. Sensitivity of these sixteen parameters to the frequency and weight was summarized through statics, so the favorable design alternative can be achieved with the major parameters' combination.