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Technical Paper

Characterization of Particulate Morphology, Nanostructures, and Sizes in Low-Temperature Combustion with Biofuels

Detailed characteristics of morphology, nanostructures, and sizes were analyzed for particulate matter (PM) emissions from low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes of a single-cylinder, light-duty diesel engine. The LTC engines have been widely studied in an effort to achieve high combustion efficiency and low exhaust emissions. Recent reports indicate that the number of nucleation mode particles increased in a broad engine operating range, which implies a negative impact on future PM emissions regulations in terms of the nanoparticle number. However, the size measurement of solid carbon particles by commercial instruments is indeed controversial due to the contribution of volatile organics to small nanoparticles. In this work, an LTC engine was operated with various biofuel blends, such as blends (B20) of soy bean oil (soy methyl ester, SME20) and palm oil (palm methyl ester, PME20), as well as an ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Detailed Investigation of Soot Deposition and Oxidation Characteristics in a Diesel Particulate Filter Using Optical Visualization

Detailed soot deposition and oxidation characteristics in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) have been experimentally examined on a unique bench-scale DPF test system that has a visualization window. The filtration and regeneration processes were visualized to examine soot deposition and oxidation behaviors on the filter channel surfaces, along with measurements of pressure drop across the filter. The pressure drop caused by trapped soot was separated from the measured total pressure drop by subtracting the pressure drop caused by the clean filter itself. Then, the soot-derived pressure-drop data, normalized (non-dimensionalized) by the volumetric flow rate, exhaust gas viscosity, and DPF volume, were used to compare filtration and regeneration characteristics at different experimental conditions, independently of flow conditions.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) GT-Power Model of the CFR F1/F2 Engine for Estimating Cylinder Conditions

The CFR engine is the widely accepted platform to test standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motored Octane Number (MON) for determining anti-knock characteristics of motor fuels. With increasing interest in engine downsizing, up-torquing, and alternative fuels for modern spark ignition (SI) engines, there is a need to better understand the conditions that fuels are subjected to in the CFR engine during octane rating. To take into account fuel properties, such as fuel heat of vaporization, laminar flame speed and auto-ignition chemistry; and understand their impacts on combustion knock, it is essential to estimate accurate cylinder conditions. In this study, the CFR F1/F2 engine was modeled using GT-Power with the Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) and the model was validated for different fuels and engine conditions.
Journal Article

Development of a Virtual CFR Engine Model for Knocking Combustion Analysis

Knock is a major bottleneck to achieving higher thermal efficiency in spark ignition (SI) engines. The overall tendency to knock is highly dependent on fuel anti-knock quality as well as engine operating conditions. It is, therefore, critical to gain a better understanding of fuel-engine interactions in order to develop robust knock mitigation strategies. In the present work, a numerical model based on three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was developed to capture knock in a Cooperative Fuel Research (CFR) engine. For combustion modeling, a hybrid approach incorporating the G-equation model to track turbulent flame propagation, and a homogeneous reactor multi-zone model to predict end-gas auto-ignition ahead of the flame front and post-flame oxidation in the burned zone, was employed.
Journal Article

Effect of Lubricant Oil Properties on the Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filter (GPF)

Mobile source emissions standards are becoming more stringent and particulate emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines represent a particular challenge. Gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is deemed as one possible technical solution for particulate emissions reduction. In this work, a study was conducted on eight formulations of lubricants to determine their effect on GDI engine particulate emissions and GPF performance. Accelerated ash loading tests were conducted on a 2.4L GDI engine with engine oil injection in gasoline fuel by 2%. The matrix of eight formulations was designed with changing levels of sulfated ash (SASH) level, Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP) level and detergent type. Comprehensive evaluations of particulates included mass, number, size distribution, composition, morphology and soot oxidation properties. GPF performance was assessed through filtration efficiency, back pressure and morphology.
Technical Paper

Effects of Engine Operating Parameters on Morphology of Particulates from a Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engine

Detailed characteristics of particulate matter (PM) from a gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) engine were analyzed in terms of primary and aggregate particle sizes, morphology, and nanostructures. For the work, PM was collected from exhaust streams of the engine on transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids by using a thermophoretic sampler. To evaluate the effects of engine load and speed on the properties of PM, the engine was operated at loads of 25, 50, and 75% at 1500 and 3000 rpm. In addition, the effects of fuel injection timing on the PM were examined for samples subjected to injection timings of 190, 230, 260, 300 and 330° bTDC at the constant engine load (50% load) and speed (1500 rpm). The results showed that with advancing injection timing, average primary and aggregate particle sizes gradually increased, which implies that fuel-air mixing is a crucial factor influencing particle size.